Aeschylus was an ancient Greek tragedian. He is described as the father of tragedy. Academics' knowledge of the genre begins with his work, understanding of earlier tragedies is based on inferences from his surviving plays. According to Aristotle, he expanded the number of characters in the theatre and allowed conflict among them. Only seven of his estimated seventy to ninety plays have survived, there is a long-standing debate regarding his authorship of one of these plays, Prometheus Bound, which some believe his son Euphorion wrote. Fragments of some other plays have survived in quotations and more continue to be discovered on Egyptian papyrus giving further insights into his work, he was the first dramatist to present plays as a trilogy. At least one of his plays was influenced by the Persians' second invasion of Greece; this work, The Persians, is one of few classical Greek tragedies concerned with contemporary events and the only one to survive to the present, as well as a useful source of information about its period.
The significance of the war against Persia was so great to Aeschylus and the Greeks that Aeschylus' epitaph commemorates his participation in the Greek victory at Marathon while making no mention of his success as a playwright. Despite this, Aeschylus's work – the Oresteia – is acclaimed by modern critics and scholars. Aeschylus was born in c. 525 BC in Eleusis, a small town about 27 kilometers northwest of Athens, nestled in the fertile valleys of western Attica, though the date is most based on counting back forty years from his first victory in the Great Dionysia. His family was well established; as a youth, he worked at a vineyard until, according to the 2nd-century AD geographer Pausanias, the god Dionysus visited him in his sleep and commanded him to turn his attention to the nascent art of tragedy. As soon as he woke from the dream, the young Aeschylus began to write a tragedy, his first performance took place in 499 BC, when he was only 26 years old, he won his first victory at the City Dionysia in 484 BC.
In 510 BC, when Aeschylus was 15 years old, Cleomenes I expelled the sons of Peisistratus from Athens, Cleisthenes came to power. Cleisthenes' reforms included a system of registration that emphasized the importance of the deme over family tradition. In the last decade of the 6th century and his family were living in the deme of Eleusis; the Persian Wars played a large role in the playwright's career. In 490 BC, Aeschylus and his brother Cynegeirus fought to defend Athens against the invading army of Darius I of Persia at the Battle of Marathon; the Athenians emerged triumphant, a victory celebrated across the city-states of Greece. Cynegeirus, died in the battle, receiving a mortal wound while trying to prevent a Persian ship retreating from the shore, for which his countrymen extolled him as a hero. In 480 BC, Aeschylus was called into military service again, this time against Xerxes I's invading forces at the Battle of Salamis together with his younger brother Ameinias. Ion of Chios was his contribution in Salamis.
Salamis holds a prominent place in The Persians, his oldest surviving play, performed in 472 BC and won first prize at the Dionysia. Aeschylus was one of many Greeks who were initiated into the Eleusinian Mysteries, an ancient cult of Demeter based in his home town of Eleusis. Initiates gained secret knowledge through these rites concerning the afterlife. Firm details of specific rites are sparse, as members were sworn under the penalty of death not to reveal anything about the Mysteries to non-initiates. According to Aristotle, Aeschylus was accused of revealing some of the cult's secrets on stage. Other sources claim that an angry mob tried to kill Aeschylus on the spot. Heracleides of Pontus asserts, he took refuge at the altar in the orchestra of the Theater of Dionysus. At his trial, he pleaded ignorance, he was acquitted, with the jury sympathetic to the military service of Aeschylus and his brothers during the Persian Wars. According to the 2nd-century AD author Aelian, Aeschylus's younger brother Ameinias helped to acquit Aeschylus by showing the jury the stump of the hand that he lost at Salamis, where he was voted bravest warrior.
The truth is that the award for bravery at Salamis went not to Aeschylus' brother but to Ameinias of Pallene. Aeschylus travelled to Sicily once or twice in the 470s BC, having been invited by Hiero I of Syracuse, a major Greek city on the eastern side of the island. By 473 BC, after the death of Phrynichus, one of his chief rivals, Aeschylus was the yearly favorite in the Dionysia, winning first prize in nearly every competition. In 472 BC, Aeschylus staged the production that included the Persians, with Pericles serving as choregos. In 458 BC, he returned to Sicily for the last time, visiting the city of Gela where he died in 456 or 455 BC. Valerius Maximus wrote that he was killed outside the city by a tortoise dropped by an eagle
Richard John Priestman is a British archer, a member of the British squad that won the team bronze medals at the 1988 and 1992 Summer Olympics His ex-wife Vladlena Priestman competed in archery for Great Britain at the 2000 Summer Olympics. Priestman has competed in archery at three Olympic Games, his first appearance came in 1984 in Los Angeles where he shot a score of 2339 and finished in 48th position in the individual event. At the Seoul Olympics in 1988 a new elimination format was introduced for the individual event. Priestman scored 1202, earning him 57th place in the preliminary round and did not advance to the stages. For the first time in Olympic competition a team event was held. Priestman was part of the British team that included Steven Hallard and Leroy Watson. Ranked eighth after scores from the individual preliminary round were carried over Britain advanced to the semi final where they improved four places to qualify for the final in fourth place. A final round team score of 968 meant Britain won the bronze medal behind hosts Korea and the United States.
This was the first Olympic archery medal won for Britain since the 1908 Games where five medals, including two gold, were won by British archers. In 1992 Priestman and Hallard were joined in the team event by teenager Simon Terry; the competition now took the form of a ranking round followed by a knock-out tournament. The British trio lay 6th after the ranking round. Victories over Germany in the round of 16 and Australia in the quarter final earned them a semi final against host nation Spain. Britain were defeated 236-234 but defeated France in a playoff to win the bronze medal. In the individual event Priestman finished 41st in the ranking round and did not advance to the knock-out stages. Richard led Brazil as coach at the South American Games in Chile 2014. Richard led Colombia as coach at the Central American Games in Mexico 2014 and the Pan-American Games 2015 in Canada. Richard was Senior Olympic Coach for ArcheryGB at the Olympic Games RIO2016. Great Britain at the 1984 Summer Olympics Great Britain at the 1988 Summer Olympics Great Britain at the 1992 Summer Olympics
Broad Chalke, sometimes spelled Broadchalke, Broad Chalk or Broadchalk, is a village and civil parish in Wiltshire, about 8 miles west of the city of Salisbury. The civil parish includes the hamlets of Mount Sorrel and Stoke Farthing. Broad Chalke is in the Cranborne Chase and West Wiltshire Downs Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and is halfway along the 13 miles Chalke Valley; the parish has two chalk streams, as the River Chalke flows into the River Ebble at Mount Sorrell in the parish, the main settlement stands on the banks of the Ebble. The valley road runs from Salisbury in the east to Shaftesbury in the west between chalk downs on either side; the village sits at a crossroads where a road from Hampshire in the south runs down Knowle Hill and another route from Fovant and Tisbury in the north runs down Compton Down via Fifield Bavant and all roads meet near the public house in North Street. There is a spur road along the River Chalke valley from Bowerchalke and Sixpenny Handley; the parish church of All Saints is a Grade I listed building.
It is with a 15th-century porch. Restoration in 1846-7 was by Brandon. Churches at Alvediston and Bowerchalke were considered to be chapels of the Broad Chalke church, until they became separate parishes in 1861 and 1880 respectively. Broad Chalke and Bowerchalke were united in 1952 and became part of the Chalke Valley team ministry in 1972. There are eight bells including one from the 14th century. By 1553 there were four bells, with a fifth added in 1616 and a sixth in 1660. Two more were added to mark the end of the 20th century, as part of a renovation funded by the Millennium Commission. A Congregational chapel was built in or before 1801, replaced by a new church in 1864, which joined the United Reformed Church at its formation in 1972. In 2006 the church was refurbished and divided to provide a community room in 2013 the village shop and post office moved into the church; as of 2016, services continue to be held in the church. Primitive Methodists built a chapel in 1843; the chapel closed c. 1965 and was demolished in 1970.
The village has a C of a doctors' surgery. There has been a village hall since 1914 and a Reading Room on the same site before the village hall was built. J E Fry & Son, the village shop and Post Office was in South Street and traded as family butchers under the Fry family for 100 years. Since the closure of the old village shop and Post Office around Christmas 1992 the butchers began to sell groceries and everyday items and incorporated the village Post Office which opened within the butchers on 15 June 1993; the shop was featured on BBC South Today as one of the most unusual locations for a Post Office in the region, the butcher Robert Fry was the subject of ITV's Country Ways programme some years ago. Robert Fry retired on 31 May 2013 and the shop in South Street closed. Alterations to create a shop and post office in the URC Chapel meeting area commenced on 25 February 2013. Chalke Valley Stores opened on 3 June 2013 and the official opening by Sir Terry Pratchett took place on 22 June 2013.
There is a Coffee Shop in the Chapel worship area and an office for the Chalke Valley Community Hub, Chalke Valley Stores, Church Benefice and URC on the balcony, a Village Archive on the balcony outside the office. The local public house is the Queen's Head which enjoys a prime position at a crossroads in North Street adjacent to the shop in the Chapel. Watercress has been grown in the River Ebble cressbeds for many years and is sold from the packing station at The Marsh; the Chalke Valley Sports Centre is located in Knighton Road and has a football pitch, tennis courts, skate park and a Multi-Use Games Area for table tennis, short mat bowls and other indoor functions. The Chalke Valley Cricket Club is nominally part of the Chalke Valley Sports Centre but has its own management and finances and moved to a new ground at Butt's Field, Bowerchalke in 2010; the Gurston Down speed hill-climb course is at Gurston Farm in Broad Chalke and attracts many hundreds of visitors every year. The civil parish elects a parish council.
It is in the area of Wiltshire Council unitary authority, responsible for most local government functions. Notable people include John Aubrey and Maurice Henry Hewlett, both authors, Reverend Professor Rowland Williams, a theologian whose essays and sermons caused him to be charged with heterodoxy, he was vicar of Broad Chalke and is buried in the church graveyard. Sir Anthony Eden, who served as Prime Minister lived in the village. Sir Cecil Beaton and designer, lived at Reddish House, as did Dr. Lucius Wood, father of the painter Christopher Wood. Beaton photographed many celebrities in his conservatory. In 1980 Ursula Henderson bought the house from the estate of Cecil Beaton and lived there until 1987, she was born Ursula von Pannwitz and was once styled Countess of Chichester from her first marriage to John Buxton Pelham, 8th Earl of Chichester, she kept macaws which flew noisily and around the village, stripping bark from trees. Reddish House was owned by musicians Toyah Willcox and Robert Fripp.
The village was home to author Sir Terry Pratchett, author James Holland and noted musician, bell ringer and conductor Dennis Chalk BEM. Herbert Bundy, a local farmer, was the centre of a landmark case in English contract law on undue influence; the cricketer John Stevens was born at Broad Chalke. It is not known when Broad Chalke was first inhabited or what it was called but fragmentary