A panicle is a much-branched inflorescence. Some authors distinguish it by requiring that the flowers be pedicellate; the branches of a panicle are racemes. A panicle may have indeterminate growth; this type of inflorescence is characteristic of grasses such as oat and crabgrass, as well as other plants such as pistachio and mamoncillo. Botanists use the term paniculate in two ways: "having a true panicle inflorescence" as well as "having an inflorescence with the form but not the structure of a panicle". A corymb may have a paniculate branching structure, with the lower flowers having longer pedicels than the upper, thus giving a flattish top superficially resembling an umbel. Many species in the subfamily Amygdaloideae, such as hawthorns and rowans, produce their flowers in corymbs. Thyrse, a branched inflorescence where the main axis has indeterminate growth, the branches have determinate growth
California oak woodland
California oak woodland is a plant community found throughout the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion of California in the United States and northwestern Baja California in Mexico. Oak woodland is widespread at lower elevations in coastal California; the dominant trees are oaks, interspersed with other broadleaf and coniferous trees, with an understory of grasses, herbs and California native plants. Oak savannas occur where the oaks are more spaced due a combination of lack of available moisture, low-intensity frequent fires; the oak woodlands of Southern California and coastal Northern California are dominated by coast live oak, but include valley oak, California black oak, canyon live oak, other California oaks. The foothill oak woodlands around the Central Valley are dominated by gray pine. Oregon oak woodland is found in Northern California's Klamath-Siskiyou, Northern Coast Ranges, southern Cascade Range; these woodlands are composed of Oregon oak, interior live oak, coast live oak, together with California black oak, canyon live oak, blue oak, Pacific madrone, California bay, incense cedar, coast Douglas fir, ponderosa Pine.
Blue oak woodland is found in the inner coast ranges and the Sierra Nevada foothills, surrounding the Central Valley. Primary species are blue oak and interior live oak, together with valley oak, canyon live oak, California scrub oak, gray pine, California buckeye, western redbud. Coast live oak woodland is widespread in northern and southern California, is dominated by coast live oak, together with California buckeye, Pacific madrone, California bay, California walnut. Valley oak woodland is found in the interior valleys of northern and southern California, is dominated by valley oak and coast live oak, together with gray pine and Coulter pine. Island oak woodland is found on the California Channel Islands, is made up of island oak and coast live oak, together with canyon live oak, MacDonald scrub oak hybridized with valley or other oaks), Catalina ironwood, bishop pine. Engelmann oak woodland is found in a few locations in the northern Peninsular Ranges of Southern California, including the Santa Rosa Plateau and San Gabriel Mountains foothills.
It consists of Engelmann oak together with coast live oak. Blue oak woodlands cover about 2,939,000 acres of the state, of this area about 79%, or 2,322,000 acres, shows no evidence of past cutting of trees. Recent research by the University of Arkansas Tree-Ring Laboratory has studied several unlogged stands of blue oak woodlands, suggests that the state may harbor over 500,000 acres of such old growth forests; this would make California's oak woodlands some of the most extensive old growth forests left in the state. However, most oaks of full tree size are more than one hundred years old, few saplings are produced, because cattle tear the plants to pieces; the Oaks 2040 survey estimates that 750,000 acres of California oak woodlands are threatened by 2040 as a burgeoning state population makes more use of the wildland. This comprehensive survey includes oak woodland maps and inventory data for the ten oak types found in California. By evaluating this new information against current State of California economic growth projections, the location and extent of oak woodlands most at risk of development are identified.
The headwaters area of Yulupa Creek in Annadel State Park is cited as one of the best examples of California oak woodlands. Much of this woodland is a pristine ecosystem with considerable biodiversity. An unusual characteristic of this Annadel forest is the high content of undisturbed prehistoric bunch grass understory, testifying to the absence of historic grazing or other agriculture. California chaparral and woodlands Oak savanna Cedar hemlock douglas-fir forest California native plants Blue Oak Ranch Reserve Dallman, Peter R.. Plant Life in the World's Mediterranean Climates. California Native Plant Society–University of California Press. Gaman and Firman, Jeffrey. Oaks 2040: The Status and Future of Oaks in California. Published by the California Oak Foundation, Oakland. Pavlik, Bruce M. Pamela C. Muick, Sharon G. Johnson,and Marjorie Popper. Oaks of California. Cachuma Press and the California Oak Foundation. Schoenherr, Allan A.. A Natural History of California. University of California Press.
Californiaoaks.org | Oaks 2040: The Status and Future of Oaks in California UCanr.org | University of California Oak Woodland Management Program
Thomas Nuttall was an English botanist and zoologist who lived and worked in America from 1808 until 1841. Nuttall was born in the village of Long Preston, near Settle in the West Riding of Yorkshire and spent some years as an apprentice printer in England. Soon after going to the United States he met Professor Benjamin Smith Barton in Philadelphia. Barton encouraged his strong interest in natural history. In 1810 he travelled to the Great Lakes and in 1811 travelled on the Astor Expedition led by William Price Hunt on behalf of John Jacob Astor up the Missouri River. Nuttall was accompanied by the English botanist John Bradbury, collecting plants on behalf of Liverpool botanical gardens. Nuttall and Bradbury left the party at the trading post with the Arikara Indians in South Dakota, continued farther upriver with Ramsay Crooks. In August they joined Manuel Lisa's group on a return to St. Louis. Although Lewis and Clark had travelled this way many of their specimens had been lost. Therefore, many of the plants collected by Nuttall on this trip were unknown to science.
The imminent war between Britain and America caused him to return to London via New Orleans. In London he spent time organising his large plant collection and discussing his experiences with other scientists. In 1815 he returned to America and after spending some more time collecting published The Genera of North American Plants in 1818. From 1818 to 1820 he travelled along the Arkansas and Red Rivers, returning to Philadelphia and publishing his Journal of Travels into the Arkansas Territory during the year 1819, he was elected an Associate Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1823. In 1825 he became curator of the botanical gardens at Harvard University, he published his Manual of Canada. In 1834 he resigned his post and set off west again on an expedition led by Nathaniel Jarvis Wyeth, this time accompanied by the naturalist John Kirk Townsend, they travelled through Kansas and Utah, down the Snake River to the Columbia. Nuttall sailed across the Pacific Ocean to the Hawaiian Islands in December.
He returned in the spring of 1835 and spent the next year botanizing in the Pacific Northwest, an area covered by David Douglas. On the Pacific coast, Nuttall heard of the ship Alert leaving San Diego in May 1836 and bound for Boston, it is here that he miraculously encounters Richard Henry Dana Jr. a former student of his at Harvard who had set sail from Boston on a two-year voyage to the California coast at about the same time that Nuttall had begun his expedition. Dana writes in his Two Years Before the Mast of his amazement at seeing his old professor "strolling about San Diego beach, in a sailor's pea jacket, with a wide straw hat, barefooted, with his trousers rolled up to his knees, picking up stones and shells." Nuttall was taken on the Alert as a passenger along with many of his flora and fauna specimens which he brought back to Boston to be cataloged and preserved for posterity. Dana writes that he had some occasions to speak with Nuttall about his botanizing while Dana was at the helm of the ship "on a calm night" and was amused to hear his fellow shipmates refer to Nuttall as "Old Curious" for all the curiosities he conveyed on board.
From 1836 until 1841 Nuttall worked at the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia. During this time he made contributions to the Flora of North America being prepared by Asa Gray and John Torrey; the death of his uncle required Nuttall to return to England. By terms of his uncle's will, to inherit the property, Nuttall had to remain in England for nine months of each year, his North American Sylva: Trees not described by F. A. Michaux, the first book to include all the trees of North America, was finished just before he left the US in December 1841. From 1842 until his death in 1859 Nuttall lived at Nutgrove Hall in St Helens, built by printer Jonas Nuttall in 1810. Nuttall is buried at Christ Church in the nearby village of Eccleston; the World Register of Marine Species lists 44 marine genera and species named after him with the epithet nuttalli. Various plants and birds were named after Nuttall, including Nuttall's woodpecker Dryobates nuttallii by his friend William Gambel, yellow-billed magpie Pica nuttalli and common poorwill Phalaenoptilus nuttallii by John James Audubon.
He is commemorated in the Pacific dogwood Cornus nuttallii, Nuttall's larkspur, Nuttall's oak Quercus texana, the catclaw briar Mimosa nuttallii, Nuttall's violet Viola nuttallii, Nuttall's saltbush Atriplex nuttallii, Nuttall's rayless goldenrod Bigelowia nuttallii. The Nuttall Ornithological Club of Cambridge, Massachusetts, is named after him. Wilson, J. G.. "Nuttall, Thomas". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Nuttall, Thomas". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. North American sylva - digital facsimiles from Linda Hall Library Nelson, John. "Thomas Nuttall. Brief life of a pioneering naturalist: 1786-1859". Harvard Magazine. Retrieved 15 October 2018
Binomial nomenclature called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; the first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. Tyrannosaurus rex is the most known binomial; the formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus; the application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants.
Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are some differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. In modern usage, the first letter of the first part of the name, the genus, is always capitalized in writing, while that of the second part is not when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a binomial name is given, at least when it is first mentioned, the date of publication may be specified. In zoology "Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758"; the name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that first published a description and name for this species of limpet. "Passer domesticus". The original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica; the ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, although nomenclatorial catalogs include such information.
In botany "Amaranthus retroflexus L." – "L." is the standard abbreviation used in botany for "Linnaeus". "Hyacinthoides italica Rothm. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica. The name is composed of two word-forming elements: "bi", a Latin prefix for two, "-nomial", relating to a term or terms; the word "binomium" was used in Medieval Latin to mean a two-term expression in mathematics. Prior to the adoption of the modern binomial system of naming species, a scientific name consisted of a generic name combined with a specific name, from one to several words long. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature; these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, second, to be a diagnosis or description. In a simple genus, containing only two species, it was easy to tell them apart with a one-word genus and a one-word specific name; such "polynomial names" may sometimes look like binomials, but are different. For example, Gerard's herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort: "The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort.
The other... is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia". The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels; the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words. The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus, it was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word "trivial name" together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as specific name; the Bauhins' genus names were retained in many of these, but the descriptive part was reduced to a single word. Linnaeus's trivial names introduced an important new idea, namely that the function of a name could be to give a species a unique label; this meant. Thus Gerard's Phalangium ephemerum virginianum became Tradescantia virgi
The genus Aesculus, with varieties called buckeye and horse chestnut, comprises 13–19 species of flowering plants in the soapberry and lychee family Sapindaceae. They are trees and shrubs native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere, with six species native to North America and seven to 13 species native to Eurasia. Several hybrids occur. Aesculus exhibits a classical arcto-Tertiary distribution. Linnaeus named the genus Aesculus after the Roman name for an edible acorn. Common names for these trees include "buckeye" and "horse chestnut", though they are not in the same order as chestnut trees; some are called white chestnut or red chestnut. In Britain, they are sometimes called conker trees because of their link with the game of conkers, played with the seeds called conkers. Aesculus species have stout shoots with resinous sticky, buds. Species are evergreen. Flowers are showy, insect- or bird-pollinated, with four or five petals fused into a lobed corolla tube, arranged in a panicle inflorescence.
Flowering starts after 80–110 growing degree days. The fruit matures to a capsule known as a catjacket, 2–5 cm diameter globose, containing one to three seeds per capsule. Capsules containing more than one seed result in flatness on one side of the seeds; the point of attachment of the seed in the capsule shows as a large circular whitish scar. The capsule epidermis has "spines" in some species, while other capsules are smooth. At maturity, the capsule splits into three sections to release the seeds. Aesculus seeds were traditionally eaten, after leaching, by the Jōmon people of Japan over about four millennia, until 300 AD. All parts of the buckeye or horse chestnut tree are moderately toxic, including the nut-like seeds; the toxin affects the gastrointestinal system. The USDA notes that the toxicity is due to saponin aescin and glucoside aesculin, with alkaloids contributing. Native Americans used to crush the seeds and the resulting mash was thrown into still or sluggish waterbodies to stun or kill fish.
They boiled and drained the fish at least three times to dilute the toxin's effects. New shoots from the seeds have been known to kill grazing cattle; the genus has traditionally been treated in the ditypic family Hippocastanaceae along with Billia, but recent phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular data has caused this family, along with the Aceraceae, to be included in the soapberry family. The species of Aesculus include: The most familiar member of the genus worldwide is the common horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum; the yellow buckeye, Aesculus flava, is a valuable ornamental tree with yellow flowers, but is less planted. Among the smaller species is the bottlebrush buckeye, Aesculus parviflora, a flowering shrub. Several other members of the genus are used as ornamentals, several horticultural hybrids have been developed, most notably the red horse chestnut Aesculus × carnea, a hybrid between A. hippocastanum and A. pavia. Interpretations of the tree leaves can be seen in architectural details in the Reims Cathedral.
Leaf of Aesculus was the official symbol of the Kiev City during the Soviet Russia control of Ukraine, reflecting the consistent policy of cultivating the tree in the city since the late 20th century. In the 1840 U. S. Presidential Campaign, candidate William Henry Harrison called himself the "log cabin and hard cider candidate", portraying himself sitting in a log cabin made of buckeye logs and drinking hard cider, causing Ohio to become known as "the Buckeye State". Media related to Aesculus at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Aesculus at Wikispecies Germplasm Resources Information Network: Aesculus Forest, F. Drouin, J. N. Charest, R. Brouillet, L. & Bruneau A.. A morphological phylogenetic analysis of Aesculus L. and Billia Peyr.. Can. J. Bot. 79: 154–169. Abstract. Aesculus glabra King's American Dispensatory Winter ID pictures
In biology, taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; the principal ranks in modern use are domain, phylum, order, family and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the founder of the current system of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorizing organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics and systematics, the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct; the exact definition of taxonomy varies from source to source, but the core of the discipline remains: the conception and classification of groups of organisms. As points of reference, recent definitions of taxonomy are presented below: Theory and practice of grouping individuals into species, arranging species into larger groups, giving those groups names, thus producing a classification.
A field of science that encompasses description, identification and classification The science of classification, in biology the arrangement of organisms into a classification "The science of classification as applied to living organisms, including study of means of formation of species, etc." "The analysis of an organism's characteristics for the purpose of classification" "Systematics studies phylogeny to provide a pattern that can be translated into the classification and names of the more inclusive field of taxonomy" The varied definitions either place taxonomy as a sub-area of systematics, invert that relationship, or appear to consider the two terms synonymous. There is some disagreement as to whether biological nomenclature is considered a part of taxonomy, or a part of systematics outside taxonomy. For example, definition 6 is paired with the following definition of systematics that places nomenclature outside taxonomy: Systematics: "The study of the identification and nomenclature of organisms, including the classification of living things with regard to their natural relationships and the study of variation and the evolution of taxa".
A whole set of terms including taxonomy, systematic biology, biosystematics, scientific classification, biological classification, phylogenetics have at times had overlapping meanings – sometimes the same, sometimes different, but always related and intersecting. The broadest meaning of "taxonomy" is used here; the term itself was introduced in 1813 by de Candolle, in his Théorie élémentaire de la botanique. A taxonomic revision or taxonomic review is a novel analysis of the variation patterns in a particular taxon; this analysis may be executed on the basis of any combination of the various available kinds of characters, such as morphological, palynological and genetic. A monograph or complete revision is a revision, comprehensive for a taxon for the information given at a particular time, for the entire world. Other revisions may be restricted in the sense that they may only use some of the available character sets or have a limited spatial scope. A revision results in a conformation of or new insights in the relationships between the subtaxa within the taxon under study, which may result in a change in the classification of these subtaxa, the identification of new subtaxa, or the merger of previous subtaxa.
The term "alpha taxonomy" is used today to refer to the discipline of finding and naming taxa species. In earlier literature, the term had a different meaning, referring to morphological taxonomy, the products of research through the end of the 19th century. William Bertram Turrill introduced the term "alpha taxonomy" in a series of papers published in 1935 and 1937 in which he discussed the philosophy and possible future directions of the discipline of taxonomy. … there is an increasing desire amongst taxonomists to consider their problems from wider viewpoints, to investigate the possibilities of closer co-operation with their cytological and genetical colleagues and to acknowledge that some revision or expansion of a drastic nature, of their aims and methods, may be desirable … Turrill has suggested that while accepting the older invaluable taxonomy, based on structure, conveniently designated "alpha", it is possible to glimpse a far-distant taxonomy built upon as wide a basis of morphological and physiological facts as possible, one in which "place is found for all observational and experimental data relating if indirectly, to the constitution, subdivision and behaviour of species and other taxonomic groups".
Ideals can, it may be said, never be realized. They have, however, a great value of acting as permanent stimulants, if we have some vague, ideal of an "omega" taxonomy we may progress a little way down the Greek alphabet; some of us please ourselves by thinking. Turrill thus explicitly excludes from alpha taxonomy various areas of study that he includes within taxonomy as a whole, such as ecology, physiology and cytology, he further excludes phylogenetic reconstruction from alp
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a