Aeterni Patris was an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII in August 1879. It was subtitled "On the Restoration of Christian Philosophy in Catholic Schools in the Spirit of the Angelic Doctor, St. Thomas Aquinas"; the aim of the encyclical was to advance the revival of Scholastic philosophy. In August 1879, eighteen months into his pontificate, Pope Leo XIII, issued the encyclical letter Aeterni Patris; the aim of the encyclical was to aid and advance the restoration of Christian philosophy, which he felt had fallen into danger and disrepute by adhering to modern trends in secular philosophy, by urging a return to the scholastic thinkers of the Middle Ages, most the Angelic Doctor St. Thomas Aquinas, the related philosophical system of Thomism; the encyclical attempts to clarify the roles of faith and philosophy to be covered again in John Paul II's encyclical, Fides et Ratio, showing how most beneficially each may profit from the other. The purpose of Leo XIII was the revival of St. Thomas's philosophy and the continuing of his spirit of investigation, but not the adoption of every argument and opinion to be found in the works of the scholastics.
According to the encyclical, the philosophy most conformable and useful for the faith is that of St. Thomas; the vigorous reintroduction of St. Thomas into the Catholic philosophical teaching was perceived by many as a bold and unprecedented step by the new pope. Indeed, since the French Revolution, most pontiffs had preferred to condemn the errors in contemporary philosophy, not to recommend explicitly a return to the old; the encyclical, was no surprise to any acquainted with Cardinal Pecci, who had for years been spearheading a Thomistic renaissance in the schools in his diocese of Perugia, leading to such theologians and philosophers as Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, Etienne Gilson, Jacques Maritain. The content of the encyclical was influenced by Tommaso Maria Zigliara professor from 1870 to 1879 at the College of Saint Thomas, the future Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum. "Zigliara helped prepare the great encyclicals Aeterni Patris and Rerum novarum and opposed traditionalism and ontologism in favor of the moderate realism of Aquinas."Zigliara, a member of seven Roman congregations including the Congregation for Studies, was a co-founder of the Academia Romano di San Tommaso in 1870.
Zigliara's fame as a scholar at the forefront of the Thomist revival at the time of his rectorship of the College of St. Thomas after 1873 was widespread in Rome and elsewhere. Following the publication of this encyclical Pope Leo XIII created the Pontifical Academy of St. Thomas Aquinas on October 15, 1879, ordered the publication of the critical edition, the so-called "leonine edition", of the complete works of Aquinas, the doctor angelicus; the superintendence of the leonine edition was entrusted to Zigliara. Introduction 1; the opening paragraph begins with a reference to Christ’s command to His Apostles to set all men free by teaching the truth of the faith to all nations. Although philosophy can and has deceived men about important matters, it is capable of illuminating the other sciences; this is the aim of Aeterni Patris: to promote the kind of philosophy that “shall respond most fitly to the excellence of faith, at the same time consonant with the dignity of human science.” 2. The errors of philosophy have caused problems in private life.
Philosophy alone is insufficient to emerge from error or prevent further erroneous conclusions “concerning divine or human things.” The faith of the Christian religion preserves philosophic truth by bringing to men “the grace of the divine wisdom.” Neither reason nor philosophy is destroyed by faith. 3. Pointing to the Church Fathers, the encyclical shows how reason and science were used to call people to faith; the Relationship between Philosophy and Faith: How Philosophy Aids Faith 4. In the fourth paragraph, the encyclical begins to articulate the ways in which philosophy can aid and complement true faith. Reason is characterized as a “steppingstone” to Christian faith, in that philosophy, when used rightly, fortifies the road to faith and prepares the soul for fit reception of revelation. Reason is characterized as rather autonomous, in that the pagans demonstrated and proved conclusions, using only their natural reason, which supported certain truths regarding faith: the existence of God, his power and divinity, as well as the existence of a natural law.
A comparison is drawn between the way in which the Hebrews took with them Egyptian treasures to offer to the service of God, the way in which truths discovered by the philosophy of the pagans are to be turned to the use and purposes of revealed doctrine. 5. The great and noble fruits gathered from natural reason, as described in the fifth paragraph, include its ability to recognize “that the doctrine of the Gospel has from its beginning been made manifest by certain wonderful signs.” The spread and unity of the Church is another sign that reason can recognize. 6. The sixth paragraph draws attention to the fact that sacred theology requires philosophy in order to be a genuine science: in order to assume the nature and genius of a true science, theology requires the solid foundation of philosophy. Moreover, Philosophy complements theology in that true understanding and knowledge are better and more attained by those who join together philos
Shadow Man is a studio album from South African artist Johnny Clegg and his band Savuka. It was produced by Hilton Rosenthal. While the apartheid was still in place some of the songs contained heavy political messages aimed at the regime; the lyrics were sung in English, with backing vocals in Zulu. All were written by Johnny Clegg with the exception of tracks 7 and 8, for which Keith Hutchinson collaborated. "Human Rainbow" – 4:24 "Talk to the People" – 3:58 "Too Early for the Sky" – 4:23 "I Call Your Name" – 4:01 "Take My Heart Away" – 4:15 "The Waiting" – 4:59 "African Shadow Man" – 4:28 "Dance Across the Centuries" – 3:53 "Joey Don't Do It" – 3:29 "Siyayilanda" – 4:14 Johnny Clegg – vocals, concertina, mouth bow Solly Letwaba – bass guitar, vocals Derek de Beer – drums, vocals Keith Hutchinson – keyboards, saxophone, vocals Steve Mavuso – keyboards, vocals Dudu Zulu – percussion, vocalsAdditional personnelBobby Summerfield– mixer, recording engineer, keyboards & drum programing. Mandisa Dlanga – backing vocals Deborah Fraser – backing vocals Marilyn Nokwe – backing vocals Beaulah Hashe – backing vocals
Hammarby Idrottsförening known as Hammarby IF or Hammarby, is a Swedish sports club located in Stockholm, with a number of member organizations active in a variety of different sports. It was founded in 1889 as Hammarby Roddförening, but by 1897 the club had diversified and was participating in different sports, leading to the renaming to Hammarby IF. In 1999, the club was reorganized into a legal format referred to in Swedish as an alliansförening, with each of the club's departments becoming a separate legal entity cooperating under the "Hammarby IF" umbrella. On 10 April 1889, Hammarby Roddförening was established in Södermalm, a district in the Stockholm City Centre, with engineer Axel Robert Schönthal, the first chairman, being credited as the founder, it competed against other local clubs in the sport of rowing, with the races taking place on the watercourse Hammarby Sjö, which the club took its name from. The members consisted of young men from the working class, employed as industrial workers at one of the many factories in the Södermalm district.
By 1897, the club had diversified into different sports following demands from its members, with the first other being athletics, it was renamed Hammarby Idrottsförening, or Hammarby IF for short. The new multi-sport club was established on 7 March said year, with Carl Julius Sundholm taking the inaugural chairman position; the association launched its first team sport in 1905, the section Hammarby IF Bandy, thus becoming one of the first bandy clubs in Sweden. The sporting ground Hammarby IP was built in Södermalm in 1915 opened on 15 September by Gustaf VI Adolf, by the Crown Prince of Sweden. Due to a lack of football pitches in Stockholm, several other local clubs proposed to merge with Hammarby IF to get access to the stadium. An offer from Klara SK was accepted and a football department was established the same year, Hammarby IF Fotboll. In 1918, Hammarby merged with Johanneshofs IF, a club from the neighbouring district Johanneshov; the club started playing ice hockey in 1921, with their team being made up by a group of bandy players during the first matches.
Hammarby IF Hockey would soon position itself as a giant in the early history of the sport in the country, playing in the top league from its inaugural season in 1922 until 1957. During that period, they were crowned domestic champions eight times; the club's colours are green and white, reflected in its crest and kit. When Hammarby Roddförening was founded in 1889, the club's crest consisted of a white flag with three green horizontal lines, they drew inspiration from two other competing rowing clubs in Stockholm that used two blue two red lines on a white flag, but chose the colour green since it represented hope. The club added a third stripe when it discovered that Göteborgs RF used a similar green-white flag with two stripes. In 1915, Hammarby IF determined their kit to consist of a white shirt with the abbreviation "HIF" on its chest, white shorts and black socks. Following the merger with Johanneshofs IF in 1918, Hammarby changed its team apparel to Johanneshof's black-and-yellow striped shirts, blue shorts and black socks with yellow stripes.
The first section to use the new kit was the bandy team, with the football section adopting it not much later. The club changed from blue pants to black in the 1960s; when the renowned footballer "Nacka" Skoglund rejoined Hammarby in 1964, he donated the club a set of black shorts because he thought the team's blue shorts looked awful. In 1978, 60 years after the merger with Johanneshof, Hammarby changed its home colours from black and yellow to white shirts, green shorts and white socks. Hammarby Hockey Hammarby IF – official site
The following are the members of the Dewan Undangan Negeri or state assemblies, elected in the 1986 state election and by-elections. Included is the list of the Sarawak state assembly members who were elected in 1987. Abdullah, Z. G. Adnan, H. N. & Lee, K. H.. Malaysia, tokoh dulu dan kini = Malaysian personalities and present. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Penerbit Universiti Malaya. Anzagain Sdn. Bhd.. Almanak keputusan pilihan raya umum: Parlimen & Dewan Undangan Negeri, 1959-1999. Shah Alam, Selangor: Anzagain. Chin, U.-H.. Chinese politics in Sarawak: A study of the Sarawak United People's Party. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. Faisal, S. H.. Domination and Contestation: Muslim Bumiputera Politics in Sarawak. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. Hussain, M.. Membangun demokrasi: Pilihanraya di Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Karya Bistari. Ibnu, H.. PAS kuasai Malaysia?: 1950-2000 sejarah kebangkitan dan masa depan. Kuala Lumpur: GG Edar. Sankaran, R. Mohd, H. A.. Malaysia's 1986 General Election: The Urban-Rural Dichotomy.
Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
Eurovision, founded 1954 in Geneva, Switzerland, is a television network, part of the European Broadcasting Union. Eurovision was set up for the purpose of exchanging TV programmes and, subsequently, TV news footage; the first official Eurovision transmission took place on 6 June 1954. It showed the Narcissus Festival in Switzerland, it has a radio counterpart, within that same European Broadcasting Union. The name "Eurovision" was coined by British journalist George Campey when writing for the Evening Standard, was adopted by the EBU for its network. Eurovision is managed by the European Broadcasting Union’s Eurovision Operations Department and offers permanent coverage of Europe, the Americas, the Middle East, North Africa and the Asia-Pacific region, as well as ad-hoc coverage of the African continent and the Pacific Rim. Not confined only to Europe, Eurovision encompasses 75 television broadcasting organizations located in 56 countries of Europe, North Africa, the Middle East. Furthermore, there are 61 associated broadcasting organizations in Europe, America and Oceania.
The EBU in co-operation with the respective host broadcaster, organises competitions and events in which its Members can participate, if they wish to do so. These include: The Eurovision Song Contest is an annual international song competition, first held in Lugano, Switzerland, on 24 May 1956. Seven countries participated – each submitting two songs, for a total of 14; this was the only contest in which more than one song per country was performed: since 1957 all contests have allowed one entry per country. The 1956 contest was won by Switzerland. In this competition, only countries that are members of the EBU can participate; the first winner was Switzerland, the most recent is The Netherlands with a new voting system. The first host city was Lugano, the most recent was Tel Aviv. Let the Peoples Sing is a biennial choir competition, the participants of which are chosen from radio recordings entered by EBU radio members; the final, encompassing three categories and around ten choirs, is offered as a live broadcast to all EBU members.
The overall winner is awarded the Silver Rose Bowl. Jeux Sans Frontières was a Europe-wide television game show. In its original conception, it was broadcast from 1965 to 1999 under the auspices of the EBU; the original series run ended in 1982 but was revived in 1988 with a different complexion of nations and was hosted by smaller broadcasters. Eurovision Young Musicians is a competition for European musicians that are younger than 19 years old, it is organised by the EBU and is a member of EMCY. The first competition was held in Manchester, United Kingdom on 11 May 1982; the televised competition is held every two years, with some countries holding national heats. Since its foundation in 1982, the Eurovision Young Musicians competition has become one of the most important music competitions on an international level; the Eurovision Young Dancers is a biennial dance showcase broadcast on television throughout Europe. The first competition was held in Reggio Emilia, Italy on 16 June 1985, it uses a format similar to the Eurovision Song Contest, every country, a member of the EBU has had the opportunity to send a dance act to compete for the title of "Eurovision Young Dancer".
The act can be either a solo act or a dance couple, all contestants must be between the ages of 16 and 21 years and not professionally engaged. Junior Eurovision Song Contest, is an annual international song competition, first held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 15 November 2003. Sixteen countries participated – each submitting one song, for a total of 16 entries; the 2003 Contest was won by Croatia and the current winner is Poland with a new voting system. The first host city was Copenhagen and the most recent is Minsk; the Eurovision Dance Contest was an international dancing competition, held for the first time in London, United Kingdom on 1 September 2007. The competition was repeated in 2008 when it was held in Glasgow, United Kingdom, but has not been held since; the Eurovision Magic Circus Show is an entertainment show organised by the EBU, which began in 2010. Children aged between 7-14 representing countries within the EBU membership area, perform a variety of circus acts at the Geneva Christmas Circus.
The main show is accompanied by the Magic Circus Show Orchestra. Eurovision Choir is a new event launched by the EBU, the latest event to be launched since the Eurovision Magic Circus Show; the event consists of non-professional choirs who are members of the EBU, with the inaugural contest taking place on 22 July 2017, hosted by the Latvian broadcaster Latvijas Televīzija, coinciding with the closing ceremony of the European Choir Games 2017. The European Sports Championships is a multi-sport event involving some of the leading sports in Europe; the European Governing Bodies for athletics, cycling and triathlon, will co-ordinate their individual championships as part of the first edition in the summer of 2018, hosted by the cities of Berlin and Glasgow. The Eurovision Asia Song Contest will be the upcoming Asia-Pacific counterpart of the Eurovision Song Contest; the inaugural contest will consis
Kimaiyo Karoney Arap Sego is a lawyer and a former prominent politician from Kenya. Between 1988 and 1992, he served as Member of Parliament for Tinderet Constituency and as Minister of Commerce in the Moi government, he served as Chairman of the Kenyan National Anti-corruption Campaign Steering committee. Kimaiyo Arap Sego was born in 1952 in Kilibwoni location, Tinderet constituency, Nandi County to Sylvester Sego and Felister Sego, both farmers, his father served in the King’s African Rifles as a soldier of the battalion during the East African campaign of the Second World War. During his early years, he was educated at Kapchemoiywo Primary School, he joined the prestigious Kapsabet High School for his O-levels and together with his younger brother Alexander Kiplimo Sego, an accomplished career banker, were among the first students from Tinderet to be accepted into the prestigious boy’s high school. He is one of the prominent Old Boys of the school, he studied Law at the University of Nairobi’s School of Law and was admitted to the bar in 1973.
Arap Sego launched his political bid for the Tinderet Constituency parliamentary seat during the 1988 general elections. He won by a landslide victory. After the elections, he was appointed by President Daniel Toroitich arap Moi to the cabinet as Minister of Commerce. During his tenure, he oversaw the amendment of the Trade Licensing Act which promoted the growth of domestic industries and as Minister, he represented Kenya in the Uruguay Round of the WTO Multilateral Trade Negotiations under the auspices of GATT, his Ministerial tenure, however ended prematurely when he was sacked just after nine months in office by Moi and replaced by fellow Nandi MP John Cheruiyot. Reasons for his dismissal have been a source of much debate as regards the unconstitutional sweeping powers of the presidency. Political analysts such as Lynch observe that the grounds for his sacking were political since at the time, "Moi sustained internecine battles so that politicians expended much of their energy on fighting one another rather than on expanding their local support base."During the first multi-party national elections in Kenya in 1992, he defected from the ruling political party Kenya African National Union and joined the opposition party DP.
This move proved a costly political decision. Whilst en route to submit his nomination papers for the Tinderet seat on a DP Party ticket, he was attacked and escaped narrowly, he lost the election to Henry Kosgey. After spending a number of years away from the public spotlight, he resumed public service in 2003 when he was appointed as Delegate to the National Constitutional Conference; the Bomas conference was created under the Constitution of Kenya Review Commission Act with the objective of reforming the 1969 Kenyan Constitution. Arap Sego served in the Technical Working Committee K, in charge of Constitutional Commission and Amendments to the Constitution. In 2005, he was appointed as Chairman of the National Anti-corruption Campaign Steering Committee created in May 2004 to spearhead the fight against corruption in Kenya, he led anti-corruption campaigns across the country and headed the committee until 2014. Arap Sego runs a private law practice in Nandi County in Kenya