Aetna Inc. is an American managed health care company that sells traditional and consumer directed health care insurance and related services, such as medical, dental, behavioral health, long-term care, disability plans through employer-paid insurance and benefit programs, through Medicare. Since November 28, 2018, the company has been a subsidiary of CVS Health; the company's network includes 22.1 million medical members, 12.7 million dental members, 13.1 million pharmacy benefit management services members, 1,200,000 health-care professionals, over 690,000 primary care doctors and specialists, over 5,700 hospitals. Aetna is the direct descendant of Aetna Insurance Company of Connecticut; the name of the company is based on Mount Etna, at the time the most active volcano in Europe. 1819: Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, Yale graduate and attorney, becomes second president of Aetna Insurance Company, succeeding Thomas Kimberly Brace. Ellsworth, who became the first U. S. Patent Commissioner, served as Aetna's president for two years until 1821, when he resigned, but he continued as a director for another 16 years.
Ellsworth's brother, William Wolcott Ellsworth served as a director, as well as the company's first general counsel. On May 28, 1853, the Annuity department separated from Aetna Insurance to be incorporated as the Aetna Life Insurance Company, with Eliphalet Bulkeley as president. On November 29, 1853, J. B. Bennett was appointed general agent of the company. 1854 Aetna hired its first full-time employee, Thomas O. Enders to become company president. 1857 Aetna moved to new offices on Cone Streets in Hartford. The Panic of 1857 struck Hartford and the nation, causing the closing of all but one bank and many other businesses. Eliphalet Bulkeley blocked a move to liquidate the company during the economic downturn; the Aetna Insurance Company issued life insurance policies on an undetermined number of African-American slaves, naming their owners as beneficiaries. 1861 - Aetna began offering participating life insurance policies which paid dividends to policyholders just as the mutual life insurance policies did.
Aetna introduced its new service with a promotional effort including higher commissions for its agents while most companies were cutting back due to the outbreak of the American Civil War and the consequent loss of premium payments from Southern policyholders. However, the death toll of the war coupled with the booming wartime economy caused an expansion of the life insurance business to match Aetna's expansion. 1865 - By 1864 Aetna had increased its volume of business by 600% over 1861 and its annual premium income ninefold, exceeding one million dollars. As a result, Aetna possessed the financial stability and resources it needed to meet the stringent regulatory requirements placed on life insurance companies in Massachusetts and New York. 1867 - Company income rose from $78,000 in 1861 to $5,129,000 by 1867. Aetna moved to its third home office at Hartford. By 1924, Aetna had 43 % of its assets, invested in farm mortgages. 1868 Aetna altered its business practices, hiring its first actuary and abandoning the half-note premium system in favor of an all-cash premium plan.
1872 - Eliphalet A. Bulkeley died and Thomas O. Enders became president. 1878 - Aetna increased its capitalization from $150,000 to $750,000. 1879 - Enders' failing health forced him to resign and Eliphalet Bulkeley's son Morgan G. Bulkeley replaced him. 1888 - Aetna outgrew its old offices on 670 Main Street in Hartford and purchased its fourth home office, next door at 650 Main Street. 1891 - Aetna issued its first accident policy, purchased by Morgan Bulkeley himself. 1892 - Aetna held its first general agents conference in Chicago. 1899 - Aetna became one of the first publicly held insurance companies to enter the health insurance field. 1902 - Aetna created an Accident and Liability department to offer employers' liability and workmen's collective insurance, in reaction to the growing strength of the Progressive social reform movement. This would become the cornerstone of the Aetna Liability Company. 1903 - An Engineering and Inspection Division was created to improve workplace safety. 1904 - Aetna introduced its first corporate seal, conveying Aetna's status as the largest life insurer in the world writing accident and liability coverage.
1907 - Aetna created a casualty subsidiary to handle items such as automobile property coverage. This business developed into the Aetna Surety Company. 1908 - Aetna hired its first home office female employee, the first of what has become more than two-thirds of Aetna's employees. 1910 - Under the management of E. E. Cammack, Aetna began using Hollerith punched cards machines for tabulating and hired 35 women to input mortality statistics on keypunch machines, the company's first female home office clerks. 1911 - Aetna began its first national advertising campaign. The same year, Aetna formed a bond department to market surety coverages. 1912 - Aetna introduced the first combination automobile policy, with several separate types of coverage combined into one contract. Several Aetna insureds were killed on the RMS Titanic. 1913 - Aetna formed i
Un Mas Dos is the second EP by American indie rock band Straylight Run, released on September 16, 2008. The EP is the band's first release since they were dropped by Universal Republic and since the departure of vocalist and pianist Michelle DaRosa. Straylight Run entered the studio on June 10 and was expected to finish work on the EP in around early August, 2008. AbsolutePunk reviewer Adrian Villagomez awarded the album a rating of 75%. Commenting on the three songs, he noted opener "Wait and Watch" as the "angriest song on the EP, but it’s the weakest", "Ten Ton Shoes" "is the anchor of Un Mas Dos, the band sticks to the message familiar to the listener – the world will beat you down and eat you alive", whilst labelling "Try" as the standout track "it deserves repeat listens... it’s tough to resist singing along to his earnest and frustrated voice as the hook grabs hold." Villagomez stated, "Switching between this EP and the band's previous material, I'm inclined to blame the production for keeping Nolan's voice too far from the forefront – this is my chief criticism with the release."
John Charles O'Neill was an Irish-born officer in the American Civil War and member of the Fenian Brotherhood. O'Neill is best known for his activities leading the Fenian raids on Canada in 1866 and 1871, he was born in Clontibrit County Monaghan, where he received some schooling. He emigrated to New Jersey in 1848 at the height of the Great Famine, he worked in a number of jobs. In 1857 he enlisted in the 2nd United States Dragoons and served in the Utah War deserting afterwards to California. In California, he joined the 1st Cavalry, served as a sergeant in the American Civil War with this regiment until December 1862, at which time he was commissioned as an officer in the 5th Indiana Cavalry, he was credited as being a daring fighting officer, but believed he had not received due promotion, which led to a transfer to the 17th United States Colored Infantry as captain. He left the Union Army prior to the end of the conflict, marrying Mary Crow, with whom he had several children. While in Tennessee, O'Neill joined the militant Irish-American movement, the Fenian Brotherhood, which eschewed politics in favor of militant action to expel the British presence in Ireland.
He attached himself to the group led by William Randall Roberts. O'Neill, ranked as colonel, travelled to the Canada–US border with a group from Nashville to participate in the Fenian raids; the assigned commander of the expedition did not appear, so O'Neill took command. On 1 June 1866, he occupied Fort Erie; the following day, north of Ridgeway, Ontario, O'Neill's group encountered a detached column of Canadian volunteers, commanded by Lt-Col. Alfred Booker; the inexperienced Canadians were routed by the Civil War veterans. O'Neill withdrew back to Fort Erie and fought a battle against a detachment led by John Stoughton Dennis. With overwhelming numbers of Canadian forces closing in, O'Neill oversaw a successful evacuation on the night of 2–3 June back to United States territory, he was charged with violating the neutrality laws of the US, but it was dropped. The Dictionary of Canadian Biography states, he had won the only success the Fenians achieved in their numerous enterprises against Canada.
He had handled his force well, it should be added that he had kept his men under strict control and that there was little looting or disorder. The episode shortly led to the Roberts party of the Fenian Brotherhood appointing him "inspector general of the Irish Republican Army." He took Roberts' place as president at the end of 1867. However, the split between two factions of the Fenians remained, penetration of O'Neill's organisation by British and Canadian spies ensured that his next venture into Canada in 1870 was known in advance, Canada was accordingly prepared. After the Battle of Trout River ended in a disorganized rout, O'Neill was arrested by United States Marshal George P. Foster and charged with violating neutrality laws; that led to O'Neill's imprisonment in July 1870 – he was sentenced to two years – but he and other Fenians were pardoned by President Ulysses S. Grant that October. Though he renounced the idea of further attacks on Canada, he changed his mind at the urging of an associate of Louis Riel, William Bernard O'Donoghue.
With the latter, without the backing of the bulk of the Fenians, he led an attack on the Hudson's Bay Company's post at Pembina, Manitoba, on 5 October 1871. The area was disputed between America and Canada, he was arrested by American troops. O'Neill was working for a firm of land speculators in Holt County, Nebraska, in January 1878, when he died of a paralytic stroke; the Fergal O'Hanlon Lecture is an annual lecture given in memory of Fergal O'Hanlon who died, along with Seán South, when they, along with others, unsuccessfully attacked a Royal Ulster Constabulary Barracks in Brookeborough, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland on New Year's Day, 1957. In 2000, the lecture was delivered by Derek Warfield of the Wolfe Tones; the lecture was attended by relatives of Feargal O'Hanlon and by Gerry O'Neill, whose great grandfather was a brother of John O'Neill
"Jaga Dia Untukku" is a second single by Malaysian artist, Siti Nurhaliza from her sixteenth solo album, Fragmen. Written by Rozisangdewi, the song is composed and recorded by Aubrey Suwito in January 2014. First performed during her 2014 Dato' Siti Nurhaliza Live in Concert – Where the Heart is, the song revolves around her feelings when she learned that her husband was involved in a motorcycle accident in New Zealand in December 2012; the song was released on iTunes on 4 May 2014. This song used as the theme song for the Malaysian television drama series, Rindu Awak 200% aired on TV3; the song was recorded in January 2014, in which it was inspired by her feelings when she learned her husband was involved in a motorcycle accident in December 2012. Much like other songs from Fragmen in which they describe the glimpses on her life, "Jaga Dia Untukku" is said by Siti to "translate all my feelings and those who were involved in it". Both composer and the lyricist of "Jaga Dia Untukku", Rozisangdewi were with her when the incident happened.
At three minutes and twenty three seconds, "Jaga Dia Untukku" is a song with a moderately fast tempo. Written by Rozisangdewi, the song is composed by Aubrey Suwito; the lyric of the song is all inspired by her experiences in dealing with the news of the incident and her worries when taking care of him. According to Zaidi Mohamad of Berita Harian, its lyric, "portrays the sadness and the pain that appears to be close to Siti in reminiscing how she dealt with the trying moments when her husband was involved in a road accident around late December of 2012 in New Zealand"; the song was first performed during her 2014 two-day fundraising concert, Dato' Siti Nurhaliza Live in Concert – Where the Heart is at Plenary Hall, Kuala Lumpur Convention Center on 8 and 9 February. For radio releases, Hot FM was the first radio station in Malaysia to broadcast the exclusive premiere for Malaysian listeners on 2 May. Apart from the debut of the song during the two-day 2014 Dato' Siti Nurhaliza Live in Concert – Where the Heart is on 8 and 9 February, the song was performed during her two-day Secretaries' Week show, "Lebih Indah Bersama Datuk Siti Nurhaliza" on 15 and 16 April.
Credits adapted from Fragmen booklet liner notes. Digital download"Jaga Dia Untukku" – 3:23 Note 1: ^ Though it was reported that the song was released on iTunes on 4 April, the song was released on 4 May, two days after she promoted the song to radio stations. Note 2: ^ This single could be charted higher than stated here, since the data by the Music Weekly Asia start to be available much after the release of the single on 4 May
Herman Casler an American inventor, was co-founder of the partnership called the K. M. C. D. Syndicate, along with W. K-L. Dickson, Elias Koopman, Henry Marvin, incorporated into the American Mutoscope Company in December 1895. Casler and Marvyn had worked together in 1893 on a detective camera the size of a watch called the Photoret. Dickson, who at the time was working for Thomas Edison, next proposed that they work on a peephole film viewing device superior to Edison's Kinetoscope machine. Casler, following Dickson's proposal, invented the "Mutoscope", which displayed short films through flip-cards rotated by a hand crank that could be slowed at the operator's will, unlike Edison's motorized Kinetoscope, in which films were viewed through actual 35 mm film; the prototype of the "Mutograph" camera was completed in November 1894, first tested with film in June 1895, the first official Mutoscope films were made in August 1895. To avoire infringement on Edison's motion photo patents, the Mutograph camera used continuous movement friction rollers to move 68 mm film into the camera, instead of intermittent movement by sprockets as Edison's 35 mm camera did.
Casler's patents, which he assigned to American Mutoscope in January 1896, were used as security for financing the new company. The Mutoscope became as popular in nickelodeon parlors as the Kinetograph. However, the first public demonstration of projected motion pictures in the United States had occurred in April 1895. Casler designed the Biograph Projector, introduced on a tour of vaudeville houses in September-October 1896; the 68 mm film that Casler's camera and projector used offered four times the image area of Edison's 35 mm film, a quality improvement noted by early viewers. Both the Mutoscope and Biograph had great success; the company name was changed to American Mutoscope and Biograph Company in 1899. Casler helped develop a portable hand-cranked camera in 1900 to replace the bulky, motor-operated camera used until then. After Biograph switched to 35 mm film production in 1902, the number of frames per second was halved, Casler helped John Pross to develop a three-blade projector shutter that reduced flicker in the projected image.
Casler was associated with Biograph until 1921 in the design and manufacture of motion picture cameras, automatic printing machines, other special machines associated with the production of motion pictures. Casler was raised in Fort Plain, New York, served as an apprentice to his cousin and inventor Charles E. Lipe, founder of the C. E. Lipe Machine Shop in Syracuse, New York from 1889 to 1893. During 1893—1895, Casler worked as a draftsman for the General Electric Co. in Schenectady, New York, designing electric rock drills. He was superintendent of the Marvin Electric Drill Co. of Canastota, New York, in 1895—1896, with Harry Marvin as his employer. Marvin and Casler formed the Marvin & Casler Co. in 1896 to manufacture the Mutoscope and other Casler inventions, notably penny arcade machines. Casler became sole owner of Marvin & Casler, which he sold in 1919, he retired in 1926, but continued to serve as a consulting engineer to a number of corporations, filed his last patent in 1937, two years before his death.
Dayi uses a set of 46 character components laid out on a standard QWERTY keyboard. A Chinese character is built by combining up to four of the 46 characters, using a system similar to that of Cangjie, but is decomposed in stroke order instead of in geometric shape in Cangjie. On most keyboards in Taiwan, most keys show four symbols. On the keys, the Latin letters are in the upper left, Bopomofo symbols on the upper right, Cangjie symbols on the lower left, Dayi symbols on the lower right. Like Cangjie, every radical has some auxiliary shapes. For example, key 6 is mapped to 車 in the keyboard, its mnemonic word is "6片車門", its auxiliary shapes include "片", "爿", "甫", "門", "鬥"; the following are rules of the Dayi input method: Input is with accordance to Chinese writing stroke order: "top first bottom", "left first right". For characters made of more than 4 symbols, enter the first three and the last symbol. For instance, "壽" is represented by just 4 symbols: 士乛工舟. For symmetrical characters, enter the center followed by either side.
For instance, "巫" is represented by 工人人. "臼" is the wildcard key for the top part of words regardless of the contents:Examples:兒 = 臼儿 與 = 臼一八 覺 = 臼冖目儿 One common frustration of learning any Chinese input method is not knowing the correct sequence of keys to enter. This problem can be alleviated with the help of an answer table; the following technique can be used to familiarize oneself with the Dayi keyboard layout. Speed and proficiency will develop with additional practice; this technique can be used with other input methods as well using similar lookup tables as answers. Find a source of used Chinese vocabulary to type; this can may be found on the Internet by HSK level. For Dayi, use the list of Chinese Traditional words. Navigate to a lookup table to use as an answer key. For Dayi, dayin4.cin is publicly available on the Internet at various open-source repositories. Using the annotated image of the Dayi keyboard layout, look for the radicals that make up the character. Enter them according to the methodology.
If the character is not entered, search the answer table for the desired sequence of keystrokes. Try to understand why those keystrokes are used. Note that there may be more than one answer for conciseness.醫 = 匚牛大酉,It can be condensed into 匚酉 since it does not conflict with other words in the dictionary. Repeat with ~roughly 150 words in the word list. Repeat with the next ≈150 word in the word list. If possible, this time avoid turning to the annotated layout of the Dayi keyboard. After successful practice, about 300 items have been entered; the locations of many common radicals would be quite familiar. The keyboard layout for the Dayi input method contains keys for many of the Kangxi radicals in its entirety; this means that a single keystroke accounts for the left half or right half of many Chinese characters. For instance, "車" in "輸" is represented by "6"; this allows for characters to be represented by 4 keys or less. In comparison, in Cangjie, "車" in "輸" is represented by "JJ" for "十十", thus requiring up to 5 keys per Chinese character.
A user of Cangjie would require experience and attention to decomposition rules to notice that the "田" segments of the Kangxi radical are omitted. Unlike other input methods, Dayi's use of 46 character components instead of 26 happens to be its greatest impediment, because it makes typing digits and punctuation marks inconvenient; some operating systems that support the Dayi input method are: Microsoft Windows 8/10 Microsoft Windows 95/XP Linux Apple Macintosh Chinese input methods for computers Keyboard layout List of Commonly Used Characters in Modern Chinese Cangjie input method dayi4.cin lookup table from the chinese-opendesktop project, https://github.com/chinese-opendesktop/cin-tables/blob/master/dayi4.cin