Aetolia is a mountainous region of Greece on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, forming the eastern part of the modern regional unit of Aetolia-Acarnania. The Achelous River separates Aetolia from Acarnania to the west. In classical times Aetolia comprised two parts: "Old Aetolia" in the west, from the Achelous to the Evenus and Calydon; the country has a level and fruitful coastal region, but an unproductive and mountainous interior. The mountains contained many wild beasts, acquired fame in Greek mythology as the scene of the hunt for the Calydonian Boar. Tribes known as Curetes – named after the nearby mountain Kourion, or just to stand out from the Acarnanians, who were called so because they were unshorn – and Leleges inhabited the country, but at an early period Greeks from Elis, led by the mythical eponym Aetolus, set up colonies. Dionysius of Halicarnassus mentions that Curetes was the old name of the Aetolians and Leleges the old name of the Locrians; the Aetolians took part under their king Thoas.
The mountain tribes of Aetolia were the Ophioneis, the Apodotoi, the Agraeis, the Aperantoi and the Eurytanians. The primitive lifestyle of those tribes made an impression on ancient historians. Polybius doubted their Greek heritage, while Livy reports that they spoke a language similar to the Macedonians. On the other hand, Thucydides claims that Eurytanians spoke a difficult language and ate their food raw, they were semi-barbaric and predatory. They worshiped Apollo as god of Artemis as goddess of wilderness, they worshiped Athena, not as goddess of wisdom, but emphasizing the element of war – i.e. a goddess, a counterbalance to the god Ares. They called Artemis "Laphrios gods," i.e. patrons of the spoils and loot of war. In addition, they worshiped the river Achelous and Bacchus. In Thermos, an area north of Trichonis lake, there was after the 7th century a shrine of Apollo “Thermios,” which became a significant religious center during the time of the Aetolian League; the Aetolians refused to participate in the Persian Wars.
In 426 BC, led by Aegitios, they defeated the Athenians and their allies, who had turned against Apodotia and Ophioneia under the general command of Demosthenes. However, they failed to regain Naupaktos, which had meanwhile been conquered by the Corinthians with the aid of the Athenians. At the end of the Peloponnesian War, the Aetolians took part as mercenaries of the Athenians in the expedition against Syracuse; the Achaeans occupied Calydon, but the Aetolians recovered it in 361 BC. In 338 BC, Naupaktos was again taken by the Aetolians, with the help of Philip II. During the Lamian War, the Aetolians helped the Athenian general Leosthenes defeat Antipater; as a result, they came into conflict with Antipater and Craterus, taking great risks, but were saved by the disagreement between the two Macedonian generals and Perdiccas. The Acarnanians attempted to invade their land, but the Aetolians were able to force them to flee; the Aetolians set up the Aetolian League, in early times. It soon became a powerful confederation and by c. 340 BC it became one of the leading military powers in ancient Greece.
It had been organized during the reign of Philip II by the cities of Aetolia for their mutual benefit and protection and became a formidable rival to the Macedonian monarchs and the Achaean League. The great courage shown by the Aetolians during the fighting against the Macedonians increased their glamour and fame after winning the last Amphictyonic war and more after repulsing the Gallic invasion under Brennus and rescuing the sanctuary of Delphi. Subsequently, the Sotiria Games were established in honour of Zeus the Saviour; the Aetolians’ power magnified with the occupation of the lands of Ozoloi and Phocians, as well as Boeotia. They united under the power of their League in the areas of Tegea, Orchomenus and Phigaleia. Between 220 -- 217 BC, the Social War broke out between the Aetolian Leagues; the war was first started by the Aetolians with the help of the Eleans. Allies of the Achaeans were the Macedonians, the Boeotians, the Phocians, the Epirotes, the Acarnanians and the Messenians.
The Aetolians allied with the Romans, while Philip destroyed the temple of Apollo Thermios and allied with the Carthaginians. The Aetolians continued to fight on the side of the Romans in the Battle of Cynoscephalae, ignoring the great dangers looming for Greece as a result of this alliance; the Aetolians took the side of Antiochus III against the Roman Republic, on the defeat of that monarch in 189 BC, they became the subjects of Rome. Following the conquest of the Achaeans by Lucius Mummius Achaicus in 146 BC, Aetolia became part of the Roman province of Achaea; when the Roman garrisons were withdrawn because of the civil wars in Rome, the Aetolians, began to fight each other. Following Octavius’ victory at the Battle of Actium, the Aetolians who had sided with Antony disbanded completely. Octavius handed Calydon over to the Achaeans, who devastated it and moved the statue of Artemis Laphria to Patras. There were subsequent invasions by Goths and Vandals several centuries at the
The Tillamook County Fair is an annual event that takes place August in the city of Tillamook in Tillamook County, United States. The county fair was established in 1891; the fairgrounds have the largest facility in the county for conventions, meetings and other gatherings. The Tillamook County Fairgrounds is overseen by the Fair Board, which consists of five lay citizens appointed by the Tillamook County Commissioners; the board hires a manager, the head of operations. The land for the current fairgrounds was donated in 1921, when a county-wide levy of $1 million was passed for acquisition and building of the site; the Pig-N-Ford Races are an auto racing event. The races are run every August during, as a feature of, the Tillamook County Fair. Drivers use stripped Model T Fords with stock mechanicals. Five cars are lined up with the engines off at the start line of the Averill Arena horse racing track. Drivers stand next to the grandstands; when the starter pistol fires, the drivers run to the opposite side of the front straight, grab a live 20-pound pig from a bin must hand-crank their car and drive it one lap.
They stop, kill the engine, get a different pig, race another lap. The first driver to complete three laps in this manner without losing their pig is the winner. Qualifying races occur twice daily throughout the week at the fair. World championship finals are held on Saturday starting around 5:30pm; the race was first run in 1925. The official story is that two local farmers were chasing a runaway pig in their Model Ts and were having so much fun, they decided it should be a race at the next county fair; the Pig-N-Ford Races have been run every year since 1925. Drivers belong to the Tillamook County Model T Pig-N-Ford Association, membership is a lifelong affair. Cars and memberships are passed down through families or sold to close friends; some of the cars that first ran in 1925 are still on the track today. There are 10 cars that race yearly. Cars and racers are: 10 Owner & Driver: John Haertel 12 Owner: Rick Hurliman Driver: Chris Hurliman 13 Owner & Driver: Marty Walker 14 Owner & Driver: Daymon Wehinger 15 Owner & Driver: Lonnie Prince 16 Owner: Clint Hurliman Driver: Chad Wilson 17 Owners: Punk Dunsworth & Jim Martin Driver: Jake Martin 18 Owner: Parry Hurliman Driver: Nick Hurliman 19 Owner & Driver: Bob Wassmer 20 Owner: Ken Salo Driver: Ben Salo Tillamook County Fair Pig-N-Ford Races
The Coca-Cola Red Sparks are a Japanese company-owned rugby union team based in Fukuoka city, Kyūshū. The coach is Shogo Mukai, the former Japan national rugby union team coach during the 2003 Rugby Union World Cup; the team was founded as Kitakyushu Coca-Cola and changed its name to Coca-Cola West Japan. The team won promotion to the expanded Top League of 14 teams at the end of the 2005–06 season, was renamed Coca-Cola West Red Sparks; the club motto is "Have Guts Have Glory" and their slogan for 2006 season: "Always Attack & Aggressive". In the fourth Top League the team came 10th, with nine losses and 21 points, it therefore did not need to take part in any play-offs. Sanix, the local rivals, came ninth; the team is now one of two teams from Kyūshū in the Top League. The other one is Kyuden Voltex; the team mascot's name is Sparky. In 2014, the team was renamed, they were relegated after the 2018/ 19 season. The Coca-Cola Red Sparks squad for the 2019–20 season is: George Leaupepe - Centre Luke Andrews - No.8 Mark Ranby - Centre Benjamin Jones - Full Back Soushi Fuchigami - Fly Half Glenn Paterson - Fly Half Nick Cummins - Wing Sam Afro Wykes - Second row Earl Va'a 2017–present Sawayaka Sports Hiroba, Kashiihama 3–21, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka.
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