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Afanasievo culture

The Afanasievo culture, or Afanasevo culture, is the earliest known archaeological culture of south Siberia, occupying the Minusinsk Basin and the Altai Mountains during the eneolithic era, c. 3300 to 2500 BC. It is named after a nearby mountain, Gora Afanasieva in what is now Bogradsky District, Russia. David W. Anthony believes that the Afanasevans were descended from people who migrated c. 3700–3300 BCE across the Eurasian Steppe from the Repin culture of the Don-Volga region. Because of its geographical location and dating and earlier scholars such as Leo Klejn, J. P. Mallory and Victor H. Mair have linked the Afanasevans to the Proto-Tocharian language. Conventional archaeological understanding tended to date at around 2000–2500 BC; however radiocarbon gave dates as early as 3705 2874 BC on human remains. The earliest of these dates have now been rejected, giving a date of around 3300 BC for the start of the culture. Mass graves were not usual for this culture. Afanasevo cemeteries include both single and small collective burials with the deceased flexed on his back in a pit.

The burial pits are arranged in rectangular, sometimes circular, enclosures marked by stone walls. It has been argued that the burials represent family burial plots with four or five enclosures constituting the local social group; the Afanasevo economy included cattle and goat. Horse remains, either wild or domestic, have been found; the Afanasevo people became the first food-producers in the area. Tools were manufactured from stone and antler. Among the antler pieces are objects. Artistic representations of wheeled vehicles found in the area has been attributed to the Afanasevo culture. Ornaments of copper and gold have been found. At Afanasevo Gora, two strains of Yersinia pestis have been extracted from human teeth. One is dated 2909–2679 BCE. Both are from the same grave of seven people, are presumed near-contemporary; this strain's genes express flagellin. A June 2015 genetic study published in Nature included an analysis of four females from the Afanasievo culture. Two individuals carried haplogroup J2a2a, one carried T2c1a2, one carried U5a1a1.

The authors of the study found that the Afanasievo were "genetically indistinguishable" from the Yamnaya culture. The results indicated that the expansion of the ancestors of the Afanasievo people into the Altai was carried out through "large-scale migrations and population displacements", without admixture with local populations; the Afanasievo people were found to be related to the Poltavka culture. According to the authors of the study, the study underpinned the theory that the Afansievo people were Indo-Europeans ancestors of the Tocharians. In a genetic study published in Science in 2018, the remains of 24 individuals ascribed to the Afanasievo culture were analyzed. Of the 14 samples of Y-DNA extracted, 10 belonged to R1b1a1a2a2, 3 belonged to Q1a2, 1 belonged to R1b1a1a2a. With respect to mtDNA, most samples belonged to subclades of U, although T, J, H and K was detected; the authors of the study cited the results as evidence that the culture emerged as a result of a migration from the Pontic-Caspian steppe.

Because of its numerous traits attributed to the early Indo-Europeans, like metal-use and wheeled vehicles, cultural relations with Kurgan steppe cultures, the Afanasevans are believed to have been Indo-European-speaking. However, state of the art bio-archaeological studies have demonstrated that Afansievo was replaced by the Siberian-originating Okunevo culture, becoming locally extinct. Thus, there is no link between Tocharians which emerged thousands of years later. Numerous scholars have suggested that the Afanasevo culture was responsible for the introduction of metallurgy to China; the Afanasevo culture was succeeded by the Okunev culture, considered as an extension of the local non-Indo-European forest culture into the region. The Okunev culture displays influences from the earlier Afanasievo culture; the region was subsequently occupied by the Andronovo, Karasuk and Tashtyk cultures, respectively. Allentoft et al. study confirms that the Afanasevo culture was replaced by the second wave of Indo-European migrations from the Andronovo culture during late Bronze Age and early Iron Age.

Tarim mummies were found to be genetically closer to the Andronovo culture than to the Yamnaya culture or Afanasevo culture. Haak, Wolfgang. "Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe". Nature. Nature Research. 522: 207–211. Doi:10.1038/nature14317. PMC 5048219. PMID 25731166. Retrieved January 7, 2020. Hollard, C.. "Strong genetic admixture in the Altai at the Middle Bronze Age revealed by uniparental and ancestry informative markers". Journal of Forensic Sciences. American Academy of Forensic Sciences. 12: 199–207. Doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2014.05.012. PMID 25016250. Retrieved January 8, 2020

Oscar Heidenstam

Oscar Heidenstam was a Cyprus-born British bodybuilding champion, who became president of the World Amateur Body Building Association, the National Amateur Bodybuilders Association, NABBA International. He is said to be'The Father of British Bodybuilding'. Oscar Heidenstam was born in Cyprus on 27 February 1911. From the age of nine, he was educated in the UK, he had a passion for sport from a young age, throughout his school years he participated in track and field athletics, hand balancing, diving, water polo, squash, hockey and rugby. At the age of 18 he won thirty medals and two silver cups for his achievements in various sports including rugby and field athletics, gymnastics. Heidenstam served in the British armed forces during the Second World War, by the time he left the military in 1948 he had attained the rank of Major. During the war he was a physical training instructor with the Army Physical Training Corps, as well as being involved in action in Palestine, Tunisia, Sudan and Turkey.

In 1936, Heidenstam won his first bodybuilding contest. A year he won the 1937 Mr. Britain contest on his first attempt; when he won the Mr. Europe contest in 1939, he became the first British bodybuilder to achieve this. During his military career he twice won the'Best Developed Man In The Services Cup', in 1942 and 1945, he continued winning a number of them. In 1957 he won his final bodybuilding contest: Senior Mr. Britain. After the war, Heidenstam continued his career as a physical training instructor and over the years that followed trained not only members of the public but famous sports people and celebrities, he wrote several fitness articles for the Daily Mirror newspaper, joined the publishing team of Health and Strength magazine in 1953, a magazine which he became owner of in 1974. He became President of the World Amateur Body Building Association in 1977, President of the National Amateur Bodybuilders Association in 1980, President of NABBA International in 1984. Heidenstam was Secretary and President of NABBA when he died in 1991, aged 80.

Heidenstam was the author of several books:'Modern Bodybuilding' Faber Popular Books'Modern Health & Figure Culture' Faber Popular Books'Fit at 40 & After' Faber Popular Books'Muscle Building for Beginners' W. Foulsham & Co Ltd'Body Beautiful' W. Foulsham & Co Ltd'Beginners Guide to Muscle Building' W. Foulsham & Co Ltd'Body Building for women' Gallery Books'Bodybuilding for men' Gallery Books List of Cypriots

Somerset Airport (New Jersey)

Somerset Airport is a public-use airport in Somerset County, New Jersey, United States. It is located three miles north of the central business district of Somerville and is owned by Somerset Air Service, Inc; the airport is known as George Walker Field. Although most U. S. airports use the same three-letter location identifier for the FAA and IATA, Somerset Airport is assigned SMQ by the FAA but has no designation from the IATA. Somerset Airport covers an area of 210 acres which contains three runways: Runway 12/30: 2,739 x 65 ft, Surface: Asphalt Runway 8/26: 1,923 x 100 ft, Surface: Turf Runway 17/35: 1,700 x 150 ft, Surface: TurfFor the 12-month period ending September 5, 2008, the airport had 30,339 aircraft operations, an average of 83 per day, all of which were general aviation; as of 8 January 2015, there are 121 aircraft based at this airport: 93% single-engine, 7% multi-engine airplanes. Somerset Airport is within a 10-mile radius of the Trump National Golf Club in Bedminster, New Jersey, thereby subject to FAA flight restrictions whenever President Donald Trump is in Bedminster.

Thus, the airport was shut down from August 4 -- 2017 while Trump resided in Bedminster. FAA Terminal Procedures for SMQ, effective February 27, 2020 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for SMQ AirNav airport information for KSMQ FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS weather observations: current, past three days SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures


Sihaul is a village with population of about 11,000 in the sub-district of Satar Kataiya, where it ranks as the third most populous village. The sub-district forms a part of Saharsa district in India; the geographical area of the village is 9 km2 and it is the third biggest village by area in the sub-district. Population density of the village is 1287 persons per km2; the nearest town to the village is the district headquarters at 14 km distant. The village has its own post office and the pin code of Sihaul village is 852124; the village comes under Sihaul panchayat. Satar Kataiya is the sub-district headquarters. Sihaul is surrounded by Bara, Rohua, Dorma, Bihra etc. Sihaul and its surrounding areas are a flat alluvial plain forming part of the Kosi river basin; this makes the land fertile. However, frequent changes in the course of the Kosi River, one of the largest tributaries of the Ganges, have led to soil erosion; the village is home to about 11,000 people, among them 5857 are male and 5286 are female.

91% of the whole population are from general caste, 9% are from schedule caste and 0% are schedule tribes. Child population of Sihaul village is 18%, among them 53% are boys and 47% are girls. There are 2197 households in the village and an average 5 persons live in every family. In Sihaul village population of children with age 0-6 is 2011 which makes up 18.05% of total population of village. Average Sex Ratio of Sihaul village is 903, lower than Bihar state average of 918. Child Sex Ratio for the Sihaul as per census is 888, lower than Bihar average of 935; the famous temple are Durga mandir, Shiv mandir near sihaul chouk, shiv mandir near in west tola one of a Saraswati mandir in Rajput Tola. Main education Hubs are Shri Durga High school sihaul, it is one of multi religious village of all cast of HINDU & MUSLIM live. There is a river, flowing from the middle of the village. Origin of this river is Koshi. In Sihaul may fairs are celebrated, such as kojagra, durga puja, tajiya. Kojagra is the main fair and occurs after five days of durga puja, in which with puja a programme is held after puja for two days.

→→→→ Population of the village has increased by 10.5% in last 10 years. In 2001 census total population here were about 10 thousand. Female population growth rate of the village is 8.4%, -4.1% lower than male population growth rate of 12.5%. General caste population has increased by 9.8%. As of 2011 census there are 903 females per 1000 male in the village. Sex ratio in general caste is 891, in schedule caste is 1030 and in schedule tribe is 1000. There are 888 girls under 6 years of age per 1000 boys of the same age in the village. Overall sex ratio in the village has decreased by 34 females per 1000 male during the years from 2001 to 2011. Child sex ratio here has decreased by 75 girls per 1000 boys during the same time. Total 4326 people in the village are literate, among them 2794 are male and 1532 are female. Literacy rate of Sihaul is 47%. 58% of male and 35% of female population are literate here. Overall literacy rate in the village has increased by 10%. Male literacy has gone up by 9% and female literacy rate has gone up by 11%.

Sihaul has 34 % population engaged in either marginal works. 47% male and 19% female population are working population. 28% of total male population are main workers and 20% are marginal workers. For women 6% of total female population are main and 13% are marginal workers; the food crop in the village is paddy wheat. Cash crops includes Makhana, Mango, mecca. Flooding is a major reason for the poor connectivity of the area. Major flooding occurs annually, causing a significant loss of life and property but after 1984 no flood occurs in this area. By railThe closest railway station is Saharsa Junction. By roadSaharsa and Supaul are the nearby by towns to Sihaul having road connectivity. List of villages of Saharsa

Transference focused psychotherapy

Transference focused psychotherapy is a structured, twice-weekly modified psychodynamic treatment based on Otto F. Kernberg's object relations model of borderline personality disorder, it views the individual with borderline personality organization as holding unreconciled and contradictory internalized representations of self and significant others that are affectively charged. The defense against these contradictory internalized object relations leads to disturbed relationships with others and with self; the distorted perceptions of self and associated affects are the focus of treatment as they emerge in the relationship with the therapist. The treatment focuses on the integration of split off parts of self and object representations, the consistent interpretation of these distorted perceptions is considered the mechanism of change. TFP has been validated as an efficacious treatment for borderline personality disorder, though too few studies have been conducted to allow firm conclusions about its value.

TFP is one of a number of treatments that may be useful in the treatment of BPD. TFP is a treatment for borderline personality disorder. Patients with BPD are characterized by intense affects, stormy relationships, impulsive behaviors. Due to their high reactivity to environmental stimuli, patients with BPD experience dramatic and short-lived shifts in their mood, alternating between experiences of euphoria, depression and nervousness. Patients with BPD experience intolerable feelings of emptiness that they attempt to fill with impulsive and self-damaging behaviors, such as substance abuse, risky sexual behavior, uncontrolled spending, or binge eating. Further, patients with BPD exhibit recurrent suicidal behaviors, gestures, or threats. Under intense stress patients with BPD may exhibit transient paranoid symptoms. According to an object relations model, in normal psychological development mental templates of oneself in relation to others, or object representations, become more differentiated and integrated.

The infant's experience organized around moments of pain and pleasure, become integrated and differentiated mental templates of oneself in relation to others. These mature representations allow for the realistic blending of good and bad, such that positive and negative qualities can be integrated into a complex, multifaceted representation of an individual; such integrated representations allow for the tolerance of ambivalence and contradiction in oneself and others. For Kernberg the degree of differentiation and integration of these representations of self and other, along with their affective valence, constitutes personality organization. In a normal personality organization the individual has an integrated model of self and others, allowing for stability and consistency within one's identity and in the perception of others, as well as a capacity for becoming intimate with others while maintaining one's sense of self. For example, such an individual would be able to tolerate hateful feelings in the context of a loving relationship without internal conflict or a sense of discontinuity in the perception of the other.

In contrast, in Borderline Personality Organization, the lack of integration in representations of self and other leads to the use of primitive defense mechanisms, identity diffusion, unstable reality testing. Under conditions of high stress, borderline patients may fail to appreciate the "whole" of the situation and interpret events in catastrophic and intensely personal ways, they fail to discriminate the intentions and motivations of the other and thus, perceive only threat or rejection. Thus thoughts and feelings about self and others are split into dichotomous experiences of good or bad, black or white, all or nothing; the major goals of TFP are to reduce suicidality and self-injurious behaviors, to facilitate better behavioral control, increased affect regulation, more gratifying relationships, the ability to pursue life goals. This is believed to be accomplished through the development of integrated representations of self and others, the modification of primitive defensive operations, the resolution of identity diffusion that perpetuate the fragmentation of the patient's internal representational world.

The treatment begins with the development of the treatment contract, which consists of general guidelines that apply for all clients and of specific items developed from problem areas of the individual client that could interfere with the therapy progress. The contract contains therapist responsibilities; the client and the therapist must agree to the content of the treatment contract before the therapy can proceed. TFP consists of the following three steps: Diagnostic description of a particular internalized object relation in the transference Diagnostic elaboration of the corresponding self and object representation in the transference, of their enactment in the transference /countertransference Integration of the split-off self representations, leading to an integrated sense of self and others which resolves identity diffusionDuring the first year of treatment, TFP focuses

Galerians: Ash

Galerians: Ash is a survival horror video game developed by Polygon Magic for the Sony PlayStation 2. Galerians: Ash is the sequel to Galerians, a PlayStation game, it is a psychic action game with a dark setting. It follows the story of a young man named Rion who has psychic powers and the resilience to overcome the Last Galerians, a genetically engineered group of superhumans whose purpose is to wipe out humankind; the plot of Galerians: Ash is dependent upon its predecessor and begins with a synopsis of the events from that game. In the 26th century, two computer scientists develop an advanced self-replicating artificial intelligence, whom they called Dorothy. Dorothy grew in scope and influence and began to question why she should obey humans, whom she identified as inferior, her creators told her of the existence of God, that just as humankind must abide by the will of God, so must Dorothy obey her creators - humans. While Dorothy seemed to accept this explanation, she secretly began developing Galerians - a superior human race with psychic powers, for whom she would be God.

Dorothy's creators put a safeguard against her - two programs that, if introduced into Dorothy's systems, would destroy her - into the minds of their two children, Rion Steiner and Lilia Pascalle. Though Rion was captured by Dorothy's followers and experimented upon, he managed to break free using the psychic powers he gained from the experiments. Going through a series of painful ordeals, Rion found Lilia and killed the Galerians, but not without discovering that he himself was a Galerian, that the real Rion died while being subjected to the experiments. In the end Rion and Lilia destroyed Dorothy, but the mental stress of the battle destroyed Rion's brain. Galerians: Ash takes place six years after the original Galerians. Though Dorothy was destroyed, she produced several more Galerians - the Last Galerians - in her final moments, mankind has fought a desperate battle with them since; the game begins with Lilia, now a computer scientist herself, locating backup data of Rion's personality in the remains of Dorothy's systems, using them to bring Rion back to life.

Lilia realizes that only Rion has the power to stop the leader of the Last Galerians, known as Ash, end the nightmare once and for all. Galerians: Ash received "mixed" reviews according to the review aggregation website Metacritic. In Japan, Famitsu gave it a score of one six and three sevens for a total of 27 out of 40. Official website at Enterbrain Galerians: Ash at MobyGames