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Afghan National Police

The Afghan National Police is the national police force of Afghanistan, serving as a single law enforcement agency all across the country. The agency is under the responsibility of Afghanistan's Ministry of Interior Affairs, headed by Wais Barmak; the ANP had 116,000 members in December 2018. The Afghan police traces its roots to the early 18th-century when the Hotak dynasty was established in Kandahar followed by Ahmad Shah Durrani's rise to power; the police force became modernized after 1880 when Emir Abdur Rahman Khan established diplomatic relations with British India. In the 1980s it began receiving equipment from former Soviet Union; the current ANP was established after the removal of the Taliban government in late 2001. Several government agencies from the United States as well as Germany's Bundespolizei and the United Kingdom's Ministry of Defence Police provided most of the early training. In 2007, the EU-led mission was heading the civilian policing in the Kabul area but by 2005 the United States established training programs in all the provinces of Afghanistan.

Since 2009, the Afghan National Police began receiving advanced training from U. S.-led NATO forces. The Afghan police force has its origins in the Hotak and Durrani empires in the early 18th century, over the centuries it was modernized to its current form. In the 1950s a group of army officers were reassigned to the police forces to develop a new cadre and modernize the police organization, and in the early 1960s five of the top police students from the Kabul police academy were sent to Munich Germany to get their master's degrees in criminology and police work. Among those were Farouq Barakzai, Farouq Yaqobi, Assadullah Ahmadzai, Sidique Wahidi, Saadullah Yusufi, some others; the agency became stronger throughout the 1980s Soviet occupation until Kabul fell in 1992 to the insurgents. The country at that point descended into civil war and came under the heel of the Taliban government, which enforced a primitive and barbaric justice system. After the collapse of the Taliban government in late 2001, there was little in the nation resembling a functional police department as private armed militias of warlords filled the vacuum left behind by a lack of central governance.

The Ministry of Interior in Kabul, under the new Karzai government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, exercised little control over provincial police structures and was unable to secure the remote provinces. Most of these problems were established after the Fall of Kabul in 1992, when the Soviet-backed government of Najibullah fell apart and the country entered into anarchy and chaos. From 1978 to 1992 the Afghan police had firm control over the country, much thanks to the Soviet Union and other factors related to the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan or the Soviet war in the country. Traditionally, police officers were poorly paid, recruited or conscripted from the poorest classes of society and held in contempt by the communities they served. Compounding these factors, over two decades of unrest had resulted in an illiteracy rate conservatively estimated at over 70% for police recruits. Although early efforts had trained 35,000 officers in basic recruit schools during 2003 and 2004, this training was insufficient to strengthen the structures and senior command levels needed to create an effective police force.

Germany, as lead nation for police under the Bonn II Agreement, concentrated its efforts on setting up the Kabul Police Academy and drafted the long range blueprint for restructuring the police services. Except for Kunduz Province which had a Provincial Reconstruction Team, Germany's program had only limited reach into the provinces; as the US Department of State International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau's activity at this time was limited in resources and scope, the US Departments of Defense and State, in 2005, decided to shift the implementation of the police training and equipment program to the Office of Security Cooperation-Afghanistan, under the authority of the Commanding General, Combined Forces Command. In 2006, OSC-A became the Combined Security Transition Command – Afghanistan keeping the OSC-A mission; the 2005 changes led to an increased impetus to implement significant reform programs the reform of higher staff levels at the Ministry of the Interior, the placement of police mentors throughout the country, substantial pay increases in the police salary plan and an impending, complete restructuring of the police payroll system.

A nationwide reassessment of infrastructure and equipment needs was undertaken, followed with the distribution of critically needed weapons, ammunition and office/dorm furniture. Although progress has been made in the areas of infrastructure and payroll distribution, these programs would take some time to reach fruition. In the late 2000s the number of ANP officers getting killed in the line of duty jumped sharply, with over 1,600 officers being killed in the years 2008 and 2009. By 2012, Afghan officials estimated that about 200 police officers are killed in the line of duty each month. See List of Afghan security forces fatality reports in Afghanistan. In the meantime, ANP members have been accused of massacres and corruption. In 2012, one ANP from Paktia and two from Logar were arrested for kidnapping children; the police confessed to the crime, while one of the kidnapped boys said, "I received a phone call from the policemen who introduced themselves as my friends. They offered me a ride. I went unconscious after they dragged me into a car."

In January 2013, a police commander in Uruzgan Province was accused of killing 121 local peop

Doan House

The Doan House is a historic residence in the city of Wilmington, United States. Constructed in the middle of the nineteenth century for a local medical official, it was for many years the home of one of the city's prominent lawyers; the house's prominent location at the city's edge and its distinctive architecture have made it a local landmark, it has been designated a historic site. The Doan House was constructed in 1840 as the home of James Wilson, who with his wife Eleanor was the superintendent of the Clinton County Infirmary from 1836 until 1840. In 1869, the property was purchased by Azariah Doan, a prominent Wilmington lawyer and Civil War veteran. During the time that the Doans owned the house, they modernized it by adding numerous Italianate features to the original Federal-style components. For much of its history, the Doan House was a prominent travellers' landmark, as it was the city's easternmost house and the first or last portion of the city to be reached by those travelling into or out of the city's eastern side.

Azariah Doan was born at Wilmington in 1824 and distinguished himself in childhood as a diligent student. At the age of twenty-two, he was admitted to the bar, he split the following fifteen years between private practice and service as a deputy clerk and prosecutor for Clinton County. Upon the outbreak of the Civil War, he volunteered for military service and was appointed an officer of the 79th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, of which he was the colonel during the final year of the war. Upon the conclusion of the war, Doan returned to his native city, where within months he ran as a Republican for the Ohio Senate. In private life, Doan was married for seven years to the former Amanda Stratton, who died of cholera, for many years to the former Martha Taylor, who bore him six children. Despite his military service, Doan was a leader in a local Monthly Meeting of Friends, he died in 1911. Built on a stone foundation, the Doan House features an asbestos roof. Built according to a design by James Wilson, its earliest resident, the house is built in the Federal style.

Modifications included the construction of a Italianate front porch and the installation of a circular dormer window. Today, the latter feature is the house's most distinctive element. Wilmington is not the only city in the region. In 1979, the Doan House was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, qualifying because of its historic architecture and its place as the home of Judge Doan, it was the city's third building to be listed on the National Register.

Arbigny

Arbigny is a commune in the Ain department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of eastern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Arbignerons or Arbigneronnes Arbigny is some 20 km north of Mâcon and 40 km south by south-east of Chalon-sur-Saône; the commune can be accessed by the D933 from Sermoyer in the north passing through the centre of the commune and village and continuing south to Pont-de-Vaux. The D126 runs west from the village changing to the D163 at the border of the commune and continuing to Uchizy. There are two other hamlets in the commune - La Varenne. About 80% of the commune is farmland with the rest being the forested eastern part; the western border of the commune is formed by the Saône river. In the north and east there are ponds which are drained by the Biel d'Etang Neuf and the Biel d'Etang Butière which flow west to the Saône; the area has been occupied since prehistoric times. The village was known as Albiniacus in the Middle Ages. List of mayors of Arbigny The remains of an old Fortified Chateau A Napoleonic milestone dated 1808 A Stone marker commemorating the landing fields of the Royal Air Force during the Second World War, on the road to Uchizy just before the bridge over the Saône.

The code name of the landing field was "JUNOT". A Plaque honouring two young resistance fighters murdered by the Nazis in 1944 at a place called "La Varenne"; the floodplains of the Saône Valley have been classified as protected areas since 1994. Communes of the Ain department Chizerots Arbigny on the old National Geographic Institute website Arbigny on Lion1906 Arbigny on Google Maps Arbigny on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Arbigny on the 1750 Cassini Map Arbigny on the INSEE website INSEE