Afghanistan the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country in Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the south. Occupying 652,000 square kilometers, it is a mountainous country with plains in the north and southwest. Kabul is largest city; the population is around 38 million composed of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks and Uzbeks. Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia; the land has been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by Alexander the Great, Muslim Arabs, British, by the United States with allied countries. The land served as the source from which the Kushans, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Khaljis, Hotaks and others have risen to form major empires; the political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century, with Ahmad Shah Abdali being considered as the founder of the state.
In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire. Its border with British India, the Durand Line, was formed in 1893 but it is not recognized by the Afghan government and it has led to strained relations with Pakistan since the latter's independence in 1947. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919 the country was free of foreign influence becoming a monarchy under Amanullah Khan, until 50 years when Zahir Shah was overthrown and a republic was established. In 1978, after a second coup Afghanistan first became a socialist state and a Soviet protectorate; this evoked the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s against mujahideen rebels. By 1996 most of Afghanistan was captured by the Islamic fundamentalist group the Taliban, who ruled as a totalitarian regime for over five years. Following the 9/11 attacks, an intervention by the US and its allies forcibly removed the Taliban from power, a new democratically-elected government was formed, but the Taliban still control a significant portion of the country.
Afghanistan is a unitary presidential Islamic republic. The country has high levels of terrorism, child malnutrition, corruption, it is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Group of 77, the Economic Cooperation Organization, the Non-Aligned Movement. Afghanistan's economy is the world's 96th largest, with a gross domestic product of $72.9 billion by purchasing power parity. The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul-'alam; the root name "Afghan" was used in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, the suffix "-stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan." Excavations of prehistoric sites suggest that humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, that farming communities in the area were among the earliest in the world.
An important site of early historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites. The country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and fought, it has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within vast regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Islamic Empire. For its success in resisting foreign occupation during the 19th and 20th centuries, Afghanistan has been called the "graveyard of empires," though it is unknown who coined the phrase. Many empires and kingdoms have risen to power in Afghanistan, such as the Greco-Bactrians, Hephthalites, Kabul Shahis, Samanids, Ghurids, Kartids, Timurids and the Hotak and Durrani dynasties that marked the political origins of the modern state.
Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the geographical area of Afghanistan has been connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east and north. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Neolithic and Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan. Urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilization today part of Pakistan and India. In more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well. After 20
The Stonewall Celebration Concert is the debut studio album by Renato Russo, released in 1994. The album had a sale of 250,000 copies in the first year of its release. Russo does covers of Bob Dylan, Nick Drake, Billy Joel, among others; the album was a tribute to twenty five years of the Stonewall riots in New York. Part of the royalties were donated to Ação da Cidadania Contra a Fome, a Miséria e Pela Vida campaign; the booklet provides information twenty-nine social entities, including the Grupo Gay da Bahia, ISER, Sociedade Viva Cazuza and ABIA. The repertoire brings standards of American music and songs featured in films - of which many were part of his musical education; some of the songs included are: Tanita Tikaram's music phenomenon of the 90's. Renato Russo - Lead, occasional keyboards, percussion Carlos Trilha - keyboards Carlos Trilha - producing, programming Renato Russo - producing, arranging Fábio Henriques - engineering, mixing Márcio Tavares de Lima - studio assistant Reginaldo Ferreira da Costa - personal assistant Renato Russo, Egeus Laus, Maurício Valladares - graphic design João Augusto - A & R Production
FinBank Burundi known as Finbank, is a commercial bank in Burundi, licensed by the Bank of the Republic of Burundi, the central bank and national banking regulator. The bank, established in 2002, was between 2008 and 2014 a subsidiary and a component of the Access Bank Group; the headquarters of the bank are located at Boulevard De L’Independence, in Bujumbura, the largest city and former capital of Burundi. The coordinates of the bank's headquarters are 3°23'06.0"S, 29°22'19.0"E. FinBank incorporated as a leasing finance company, under the name Finalease, in 2000. Two years it was granted a commercial banking license, it began commercial banking activities in 2003. In 2008, the Access Bank Group acquired majority shareholding in FinBank Burundi. In early 2014, Access Bank plc divested its interest in the bank to Dillux S. A, an investment company incorporated in Mauritius; as of April 2016, FinBank Burundi maintained the following networked branches: Head Office Branch – Boulevard De L’Independence, Bujumbura API Branch – Boulevard De La Liberte, Bujumbura Asiatique Branch – Bujumbura Market Branch – Rumonge Market, Rumonge Gitega Branch – Gitega List of banks in Burundi Website of FinBank Burundi