Monastery of São Vicente de Fora
The Church or Monastery of São Vicente de Fora. It is one of mannerist buildings in the country; the monastery contains the royal pantheon of the Braganza monarchs of Portugal. The original Monastery of São Vicente de Fora was founded around 1147 by the first Portuguese King, Afonso Henriques, for the Augustinian Order; the Monastery, built in Romanesque style outside the city walls, was one of the most important monastic foundations in mediaeval Portugal. It is dedicated to Saint Vincent of Saragossa, patron saint of Lisbon, whose relics were brought from the Algarve to Lisbon in the 12th century; the present buildings are the result of a reconstruction ordered by King Philip II of Spain, who had become King of Portugal after a succession crisis in 1580. The church of the monastery was built between 1582 and 1629, while other monastery buildings were finished only in the 18th century; the author of the design of the church is thought to be the Italian Jesuit Filippo Terzi and/or the Spaniard Juan de Herrera.
The plans were followed and modified by Leonardo Turriano, Baltazar Álvares, Pedro Nunes Tinoco and João Nunes Tinoco. The church of the Monastery has a majestic, austere façade that follows the Renaissance style known as Mannerism; the façade, attributed to Baltazar Álvares, has several niches with statues of saints and is flanked by two towers. The lower part of the façade has three arches; the floorplan of the church reveals a Latin cross building with a one-aisled nave with lateral chapels. The church has a huge dome over the crossing; the general design of the church interior follows that of the prototypic church of Il Gesù, in Rome. The beautiful main altarpiece is a Baroque work of the 18th century by one of the best Portuguese sculptors, Joaquim Machado de Castro; the altarpiece is decorated with a large number of statues. The church boasts several fine altarpieces in the lateral chapels; the Monastery buildings are reached through a magnificent baroque portal, located beside the church façade.
Inside, the entrance is decorated with blue-white 18th century tiles that tell the history of the Monastery, including scenes of the Siege of Lisbon in 1147. The ceiling of the room has an illusionistic painting executed in 1710 by the Italian Vincenzo Baccarelli; the sacristy of the Monastery is exuberantly decorated with polychromed painting. The cloisters are notable for the 18th century tiles that recount fables of La Fontaine, among other themes. In 1834, after the Dissolution of the monasteries in Portugal, the monastery was transformed into a palace for the archbishops of Lisbon; some decades King Ferdinand II transformed the monks' old refectory into a pantheon for the kings of the House of Braganza. Their tombs were transferred from the main chapel to this room. Portuguese Institute for Architectural Heritage General Bureau for National Buildings and Monuments
Palace of Ajuda
The Palace of Ajuda is a neoclassical monument in the civil parish of Ajuda in the city of Lisbon, central Portugal. Built on the site of a temporary wooden building constructed to house the Royal family after the 1755 earthquake and tsunami, it was begun by architect Manuel Caetano de Sousa, who planned a late Baroque-Rococo building, it was entrusted to José da Costa e Silva and Francisco Xavier Fabri, who planned a magnificent building in the modern neoclassical style. Over time, the project underwent several periods when the construction was stopped or slowed down due to financial constraints or political conflicts; when the Royal Family had to flee to Brazil, following the invasion of Portugal by French troops, the work proceeded slowly with Fabri taking charge of the project followed by António Francisco Rosa. Lack of financial resources would result in the scaling down of the project; the construction of the Ajuda Palace, which began in 1796 and lasted until the late 19th century, was a project plagued by various political and artistic/architectural problems.
It was invaded by Napoleon's troops in 1807, discontinued by Liberal forces who imposed a constitutional monarchy that reduced the power of the royal family. Artistically, it was a convergence of the Baroque styles from Mafra connected to regal authority, with the birth of the Neoclassic style from Italy. Further interruptions occurred, due to a lack of funds, political sanctions or disconnection between the workers and the authorities responsible for the project; the project was modified several times, but was authored by Manuel Caetano de Sousa and Costa e Silva and Fabri, both of them Bolognese architects whose tastes crossed the architectural spectrum, but in which Neoclassicism predominated. When the palace became a permanent residence of the royal family during the reign of King Luis I and his wife, Maria Pia of Savoy, their architect, Possidónio da Silva, introduced many aesthetic changes and turned one of the lateral façades into the main one. In 1726, King John V of Portugal acquired three estates in the parish of Belém: one became the Palace of Belém.
On 1 November 1755, the day of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the Royal Family was in Belém, escaped the destruction of Lisbon by the earthquake and tsunami. Perturbed by the events, King Joseph refused to live under a residence of masonry, took refuge in a wooden cabin next to the Palace of the Counts of Óbidos; as the Royal family continued to fear for the viability of the Ribeira Palace in Lisbon, the King ordered the construction of a more permanent wooden building in the heights of Alto da Ajuda. The Real Barraca, or Paço de Madeira was completed on 20 September 1761, owing to risk of collapse, the theatre was reconstructed from 1767 to 1786 by Giacomo Azzolini; the court remained at this site for nearly three decades, in a luxurious atmosphere of the golden age of enlightened despotism, until the King's death in 1777. Since his successor, Queen Maria I of Portugal lived with Peter III in the Palace of Queluz at the time of Joseph's death, the Royal Barraca was vacated. In November 1794, during the reign of Queen Mary I and the Prince-Regent, the royal tent was destroyed by fire, although the fire-fighters were able to save the library and church.
A more permanent dwelling was conceived by the architect José da Costa e Silva. Starting on 17 July 1795 the rubble and terrain was cleared, which continued on 27 July under the direction of António Vicente; the first cornerstone was laid on 9 November under the direction of Manuel Caetano de Sousa. It was conceived as a Baroque-late Rococo building, but the construction was interrupted shortly after; as of 19 May 1796 the project was supplied by the masons Francisco António and Joaquim Baptista, who brought in stone from Monsanto, sand from Alfeite, calcium oxide cooked in Alcântara, tile from the Alhandra, with limestone provided from Pêro Pinheiro, Vila Chã and Monsanto. The intervention of many architects resulted in a royal decree that stated that alterations to the project could only be made in agreement with Manuel Caetano de Sousa, Joaquim de Oliveira, José da Costa e Silva and/or Francisco Xavier Fabri. But, Manuel Caetano de Sousa designed an intricate Baroque building. But, with mounting confusion and difficulties between the architects and contractors, on 21 January 1802, José da Costa e Silva and Fabri were invited by the Crown to present a new project, in conjunction with António Francisco Rosa and Manuel Joaquim de Sousa, while excluding Manuel Caetano de Sousa.
In 1802 Manuel Caetano de Sousa died, by 26 June, Costa e Silva and Fabri were appointed official architects. Costa e Silva and Fabri respected what was constructed, but introduced necessary alterations to change the Royal Palace into a more dignified and majestic building; the plan was simplified and reduced to a core structured around two courtyards, with the same level of ornam
Miguel I of Portugal
Dom Miguel I, nicknamed The Absolutist, The Traditionalist and The Usurper, was the King of Portugal between 1828 and 1834, the seventh child and third son of King João VI and his queen, Carlota Joaquina of Spain. Following his exile as a result of his actions in support of absolutism in the April Revolt, Miguel returned to Portugal as regent and fiancé of his niece Queen Maria II; as regent, he claimed the Portuguese throne in his own right, since according to the so-called Fundamental Laws of the Kingdom his older brother Pedro IV and therefore the latter's daughter had lost their rights from the moment that Pedro had made war on Portugal and become the sovereign of a foreign state. This led to a difficult political situation, during which many people were killed, persecuted or sent into exile, which culminated in the Portuguese Liberal Wars between authoritarian absolutists and progressive constitutionalists. In the end Miguel lived the last 32 years of his life in exile. In order to counter the Republican opposition from the Portuguese Freemasons, the dynastic order known as Order of Saint Michael of the Wing was revived in 1848, with statutes issued by King Miguel I of Portugal.
Miguel Maria do Patrocinio de Bragança e Bourbon, the third son of King João VI and Carlota Joaquina, was born in the Queluz Royal Palace and was created by his father Duke of Beja. Some sources have suggested that Miguel I could be the illegitimate son from an adulterous affair between his mother, Queen Charlotte, one of her alleged lovers D. Pedro José Joaquim Vito de Meneses Coutinho, Marquis of Marialva. Sources close to King João VI confirmed as much by asserting that he had not had sexual relations with his wife for two and a half years prior to Miguel's birth, but despite the gossip, Miguel was always considered to be a son of the king, by the king, by his mother, by the rest of the family, by the court, by the church. The "illegitimate child" theories may have had their origins in the writings of pro-liberal propagandists or royalists who wanted to denigrate the queen and undermine the claims of Miguel and of his descendants to the Portuguese throne. What is clear is that Miguel was the queen's favourite child.
After the death of her firstborn, it was Miguel who received most of her attention, rather than Pedro, closer to his father. In 1807, at the age of 5, Miguel accompanied the Portuguese Royal Family on their transfer to Brazil in order to escape from the first Napoleonic invasion of Portugal. Miguel was a mischievous child, sometimes seen in the miniature uniform of a general. At sixteen he was seen galloping around Mata-Carvalos, knocking off the hats of passers-by with his riding crop, he spent most of his time with a rowdy band of Indian farm-hands. In general, Miguel was spoiled by the queen and her royal household, influenced by the base tendencies of others; the Duke of Palmela described him as: "A good man when among good men, when among the bad, worse than they." Miguel was an avowed conservative and admirer of Prince Metternich, who had referred to the liberal revolutions in the 1820s as unrealistic and without any historical roots: "A people who can neither read nor write, whose last word is the dagger — fine material for constitutional principles!...
The English constitution is the work of centuries.... There is no universal recipe for constitutions."Miguel was 20 years old when he first challenged the liberal institutions established after the 1820 revolution, which may have been part of a wider strategy by the queen. He was at the head of the counter-revolution of 1823, known as the Vilafrancada, which erupted on May 27, 1823 in Vila Franca de Xira. Early in the day, Miguel joined the 23rd Infantry Regiment, commanded by Brigadier Ferreira Sampaio in Vila Franca, where he declared his support for an absolutist monarchy, he called on General Pampluna to join him and his cause. The general, not a fan of the liberal constitution, obeyed his summons and within five days he controlled the insurrectionary forces; the prince, supported by the queen, went so far as to demand the abdication of the king, faithful to his earlier oath, wanted to maintain the 1822 Constitution, despite the growing support for absolutist forces in Vila Franca. Miguel and the queen were interested in overthrowing the parliamentary system and, inspired by the return of the absolutist monarchy in Spain they exploited factionalism and plotted with outside reactionaries to overthrow the liberal Cortes.
But General Pampluna was loyal to the king, made it clear that he would do nothing to defy the monarch, advised the prince to obey his father's summons. The king himself marched on Vila Franca where he received the submission of his son, but he took advantage of the situation to abolish the 1822 Constitution and dismiss the Cortes. Many liberals went into exile. Although Miguel returned to Lisbon in triumph, the king was able to maintain complete control of power and did not succumb to the ultra-reactionary forces that supported his abdication. After the events of the Vilafrancada
Augusta Victoria of Hohenzollern
Princess Augusta Victoria of Hohenzollern was the daughter of William, Prince of Hohenzollern and Princess Maria Teresa of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. In 1913, she married the deposed King Manuel II of Portugal. After his death, Augusta Victoria married a second time, she had no children from either marriage. She was born in Potsdam, a daughter of William, Prince of Hohenzollern, sometime heir presumptive to the throne of the kingdom of Romania, his first wife Princess Maria Teresa of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. On 4 September 1913, Augusta Victoria married King Manuel II of Portugal, he had succeeded to the Portuguese throne with the assassination of his father Carlos I of Portugal and older brother Luís Filipe, Duke of Braganza, on 1 February 1908. He had been deposed by the 5 October 1910 revolution, resulting in the establishment of the Portuguese First Republic; the bride was twenty-three years old and the groom twenty-four. They were second cousins, both being great-grandchildren of Queen Maria II of Portugal and King Ferdinand II of Portugal.
Manuel died on 2 July 1932, at Fulwell Park, Middlesex, England. There were no children from this marriage. On 23 April 1939, Augusta Victoria married her second husband, Count Robert Douglas, the 13th head of the Swedish comital house of Douglas, lord of Langenstein Castle in Baden and heir of the Mühlhausen fideicommiss/entail; the bride was forty-nine years old and the groom fifty-nine. There were no children from this marriage. Douglas died on 26 August 1955. Augusta died at Eigeltingen, Baden-Württemberg, aged 76. 19 August 1890 – 4 September 1913: Her Serene Highness Princess Augusta Viktoria of Hohenzollern 4 September 1913 – 2 July 1932: Her Most Faithful Majesty The Queen of Portugal and Algarves 2 July 1932 – 2 July 1939: Her Most Faithful Majesty The Queen Dowager of Portugal and Algarves 23 April 1939 – 29 August 1966: Her Serene Highness Princess Augusta Viktoria, Countess Robert Douglas McNaughton, C. Arnold; the Book of Kings: A Royal Genealogy
Archduchess Marie Valerie of Austria
Archduchess Marie Valerie of Austria was the fourth and last child of Franz Joseph I of Austria and Elisabeth of Bavaria. Her given name was Marie Valerie Mathilde Amalie, but she was called Valerie. Princess Marie Valerie was born at Ofen in Hungary; the Empress Elisabeth was attached to Valerie, born ten years after the imperial couple's third child, whom she was allowed to raise herself in contrast to her first three children who were taken from her in infancy and raised by the Emperor's mother, Archduchess Sophie. Sophie herself wrote to Elisabeth's mother Ludovika, "Sisi is absorbed by her love and care for this irresistible little angel." She was Elisabeth's favorite child by far, was acidly referred to by some courtiers as "Die Einzige" because Elisabeth paid so much more attention to her than her siblings. Valerie loved her mother, but according to her diaries felt embarrassed and overwhelmed by Elisabeth's concentration on her as she herself was of a modest and practical nature. Another of Valerie's nicknames was "The Hungarian Child" because her birth had been a concession by Elisabeth, who disliked physical intimacy and pregnancy, in exchange for Franz Joseph's conciliation with Hungary, her most favored part of the Empire.
This process culminated in their joint coronation in Budapest on 8 June 1867, as King and Queen of Hungary. Valerie was born just over nine months later. Elisabeth deliberately chose Hungary as her child's birthplace. Had Valerie been a boy, she would have been named Stephan after Hungary's canonized king and patron saint. According to historian Brigitte Hamann, a boy born to the Queen of Hungary in the castle at Budapest would have raised the possibility of his someday becoming its king, separating Hungary from the Austrian empire, there was universal relief at the Viennese court that Valerie was a girl. Malicious rumors intimated that Valerie was the daughter of Elisabeth's friend and admirer Gyula Andrássy, the Hungarian prime minister; these persisted into Valerie's childhood. However, she physically resembled Franz Joseph more than any of her siblings more so as she grew older, the rumors died away. Due to the atmosphere they created, Valerie developed a lifelong antipathy toward anything to do with Hungary, exacerbated by Elisabeth's insistence on speaking to her only in Hungarian.
She was joyful. In addition, she spoke English and Italian fluently, loved to write plays and poems, was a talented amateur artist who enjoyed painting flowers, she was a great supporter of the Burgtheater in Vienna, attended its productions as as possible. In Bad Ischl on 31 July 1890, Valerie married her second cousin Archduke Franz Salvator, they had met in 1886 at a ball, but Valerie waited several years to be sure that her feelings toward Franz Salvator were strong enough to make a successful marriage. It was hoped by many at court that she would marry someone like the Crown Prince of Saxony or the Prince Royal of Portugal, she was courted by Prince Alfons of Bavaria. Elisabeth, declared that Valerie would be allowed to marry a chimney sweeper if she so desired. Valerie chose for love Franz Salvator, a minor prince from the Tuscan branch of the Austrian imperial family who had no great wealth to offer, Elisabeth, as promised, supported her favorite daughter; this caused a deep rift between Valerie and her sister and brother Crown Prince Rudolf for a time, but Rudolf became reconciled to the marriage when Valerie and Franz became engaged on Christmas 1888.
Valerie's solemn renunciation of her rights to the Austrian throne, necessary for the marriage to proceed, took place on 16 July 1890 at the Hermesvilla. The young couple's festive wedding followed in the parish church of Bad Ischl on 31 July; the ceremony was conducted by the Bishop of Franz Maria Doppelbauer. Afterwards and Franz honeymooned in Italy and Bavaria. Marie Valerie and Franz Salvator had 10 children: At first and Franz lived at Schloss Lichtenegg. On 11 June 1895, the couple purchased Schloss Wallsee on the Danube River from its owner, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and renovated it; when the renovation was finished, a ceremony marking their moving into the new palace was held on 4 September 1897. There was great celebration of the event in Wallsee due to Valerie's popularity, she was loved for her generous involvement in local charitable endeavors. In 1900, she became a patron of the Red Cross, for which she founded hospitals and raised considerable sums of money. During World War I, she created a hospital barracks in the castle itself and helped care for the wounded.
She was a devout Catholic who spent much time supporting religious charities and was known to the people as the "Angel of Waldsee". She was a Dame of the Star Cross Order. Valerie was affected by the suicide of her brother Rudolf on 30 January 1889, the assassination of her mother Elisabeth in September 1898, she and her sister Gisela were a great support to their father in the aftermath of these tragedies. While the marriage of Valerie and Franz was harmonious at first, it became less so with time. Franz had many affairs, including one with a dancer Stephanie Richter, known as "Hitler's Spy Princess" for her espionage activit
Morganatic marriage, sometimes called a left-handed marriage, is a marriage between people of unequal social rank, which in the context of royalty prevents the passage of the husband's titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage. This is a marriage between a man of high birth and a woman of lesser status. Neither the bride nor any children of the marriage have a claim on the bridegroom's succession rights, precedence, or entailed property; the children are considered legitimate for all other purposes and the prohibition against bigamy applies. In some countries, a woman could marry a man of lower rank morganatically. After World War I, the heads of both ruling and reigning dynasties continued the practice of rejecting dynastic titles and/or rights for descendants of "morganatic" unions, but allowed them, sometimes retroactively de-morganatizing the wives and children; this was accommodated by Perthes' Almanach de Gotha by inserting the offspring of such marriages in a third section of the almanac under entries denoted by a symbol that "signifies some princely houses which, possessing no specific princely patent, have passed from the first part, A, or from the second part into the third part in virtue of special agreements."
The Fürstliche Häuser series of the Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels has followed this lead enrolling some issue of unapproved marriages in its third section, "III B", with a similar explanation: "Families in this section, although verified, received no specific decree, but have been included by special agreement in the 1st and 2nd sections". Variations of morganatic marriage were practised by non-European dynasties, such as the Royal Family of Thailand, the polygamous Mongols as to their non-principal wives, other families of Africa and Asia. Morganatic in use in English by 1727, is derived from the medieval Latin morganaticus from the Late Latin phrase matrimonium ad morganaticam and refers to the gift given by the groom to the bride on the morning after the wedding, the morning gift, i.e. dower. The Latin term, applied to a Germanic custom, was adopted from the Old High German term *morgangeba, corresponding to Early English morgengifu; the literal meaning is explained in a 16th-century passage quoted by Du Cange as, "a marriage by which the wife and the children that may be born are entitled to no share in the husband's possessions beyond the'morning-gift'".
The morning gift has been a customary property arrangement for marriage found first in early medieval German cultures and among ancient Germanic tribes, the church drove its adoption into other countries in order to improve the wife's security by this additional benefit. The bride received property from the bridegroom's clan, it was intended to ensure her livelihood in widowhood, it was to be kept separate as the wife's discrete possession. However, when a marriage contract is made wherein the bride and the children of the marriage will not receive anything else from the bridegroom or from his inheritance or clan, that sort of marriage was dubbed as "marriage with only the dower and no other inheritance", i.e. matrimonium morganaticum. Royal men who married morganatically: Genghis Khan followed the contemporary tradition by taking several morganatic wives in addition to his principal wife, whose property passed to their youngest son following tradition. King Erik XIV of Sweden married the servant Karin Månsdotter morganatically in 1567, secondly, but this time not morganatically, in 1568.
Ludwig Wilhelm, Duke in Bavaria and Henriette Mendel. She was created Baroness von Wallersee, their daughter, Marie Louise, Countess Larisch von Moennich, was a confidante of Empress Elisabeth of Austria. Archduke Ferdinand II of Austria, ruler of the Tirol, first married Philippine Welser, a bourgeoise of a wealthy family, in 1557. Victor Emmanuel II of Italy in 1869 married morganatically his principal mistress Rosa Teresa Vercellana Guerrieri. Popularly known in Piedmontese as "Bela Rosin", she was born a commoner but made Countess di Mirafiori e Fontanafredda in 1858. Late in his life, the widowed ex-king Fernando II of Portugal married the opera singer Elise Hensler, created Countess von Edla. A list of morganatic branches of the Russian Imperial Family The 1900 marriage of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, whose subsequent assassination triggered World War I, to Countess Sophie Chotek was morganatic at the insistence of the Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I. Royal women who married morganatically: Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma married morganatically twice after the death of her husband, the emperor Napoleon I, in 1821.
Her second husband was Count Adam Albert von Neipperg. After his death, she married Count Charles-René de Bombelles, her chamberlain, in 1834. Queen Maria Christina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, regent of Spain after her husband's death while their daughter, the future Isabella II was a minor, she married one of her guards in a secret marriage. Princess Stéphanie of B