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Afonso III of Portugal

Afonso III, or Affonso, Alfonso or Alphonso or Alphonsus, the Boulonnais, King of Portugal was the first to use the title King of Portugal and the Algarve, from 1249. He was the second son of his wife, Urraca of Castile. Afonso was born in Coimbra; as the second son of King Afonso II of Portugal, he was not expected to inherit the throne, destined to go to his elder brother Sancho. He lived in France, where he married Matilda, the heiress of Boulogne, in 1238, thereby becoming Count of Boulogne, Mortain and Dammartin-en-Goële jure uxoris. In 1246, conflicts between his brother, the king, the church became unbearable. In 1247, Pope Innocent IV ordered Sancho II to be removed from the throne and to be replaced by the Count of Boulogne. Afonso, of course, did not refuse the papal order and marched to Portugal. Since Sancho was not a popular king the order was not hard to enforce, he fled in exile to Toledo, where he died on 4 January 1248; until his brother's death and his own eventual coronation, Afonso retained and used the title of Visitador, Curador e Defensor do Reino.

In order to ascend the throne Afonso abdicated his rights to the county of Boulogne in 1248. In 1253, he divorced Matilde in order to marry Beatrice of Castile, illegitimate daughter of Alfonso X, King of Castile, Mayor Guillén de Guzmán. Determined not to make the same mistakes as his brother, Afonso III paid special attention to what the middle class, composed of merchants and small land owners, had to say. In 1254, in the city of Leiria, he held the first session of the Cortes, a general assembly comprising the nobility, the middle class and representatives of all municipalities, he made laws intended to restrain the upper classes from abusing the least favored part of the population. Remembered as a notable administrator, Afonso III founded several towns, granted the title of city to many others and reorganized public administration. Afonso showed extraordinary vision for the time. Progressive measures taken during his kingship include: representatives of the commons, besides the nobility and clergy, were involved in governance.

These may have led to his excommunication by the holy see and precipitated his death, his son Denis's premature rise to the throne at only 18 years old. Secure on the throne, Afonso III proceeded to make war with the Muslim communities that still thrived in the south. In his reign the Algarve became part of the kingdom, following the capture of Faro. Following his success against the Moors, Afonso III had to deal with a political situation concerning the country's borders with Castile; the neighbouring kingdom considered that the newly acquired lands of the Algarve should be Castilian, not Portuguese, which led to a series of wars between the two kingdoms. In 1267, the Treaty of Badajoz was signed in Badajoz, determining that the southern border between Castile and Portugal should be the River Guadiana, as it is today. Afonso died in Alcobaça, Coimbra or Lisbon, aged 68. Afonso's first wife was Matilda II, Countess of Boulogne, daughter of Renaud, Count of Dammartin, Ida, Countess of Boulogne.

They had no surviving children. He divorced Matilda in 1253 and, in the same year, married Beatrice of Castile, illegitimate daughter of Alfonso X, King of Castile, Mayor Guillén de Guzmán

South Simcoe Police Service

South Simcoe Police Service is a municipal police force in Ontario, Canada providing service to the municipalities of Innisfil and Bradford West Gwillimbury. It came into existence on January 1, 1997, through the amalgamation of the Innisfil Police Service and Bradford West Gwillimbury Police Service; the neighbouring Barrie Police Service was part of the initial proposal but did not participate in the amalgamation. South Simcoe Police has 43 civilian staff members; the police force has a complement of 30 auxiliary officers. The Chief of Police from 1997 to 2011 was Bruce J Davis. On April 16, 2012 Rick Beazley was appointed Chief and was the former Chief of Police for the Strathroy-Caradoc Police Service; the current Chief is Andrew Fletcher who joined the service in 2015. Municipal councillors for The Town of Innisfil have been critical of the 6.75% budget increase for 2011 - with at least one councillor calling for the municipalities to look at other policing options. Bradford West Gwillimbury is looking at other policing options - with council voting in favour of asking the Ontario Provincial Police for a proposal to provide policing.

The police service operates out of two divisions. The South Division is based in a new building located at 81 Melbourne Drive in Bradford; the North Division has been extensively renovated and is located at 2137 Innisfil Beach Road in Innisfil. The Services Traffic and Marine Unit, Victims of Crime and uniform patrol operate out of this building. A community office was located at the Cookstown Outlet Mall at Highways 400 and 89 but closed in early 2013; the Marine Unit is patrols the shores and waters of Lake Simcoe, notably most of the southside of Kempenfelt Bay and west side of Cook's Bay. The police force operates several special function bureaus which include a canine unit, Emergency Response Unit, criminal investigations, identification unit, a traffic & marine unit. South Simcoe Police Service

Romen (mencey)

Romen was a Guanche mencey king of Menceyato de Daute in times of the conquest of Tenerife in the fifteenth century. Upon arrival of Alonso Fernández de Lugo in 1494, Romen allied with Bencomo mencey against the Spanish invasion, its menceyato one side of war. However, some historians based in Viana, refer to ally with Bencomo refused for not wanting to submit to the king of Taoro dirigiese the rest in the race. For its part, he indicates that Viera y Clavijo, Romen would not ally with Bencomo believing their domains of the danger of distant conquerors. After successive defeats and ordered major Guanche Kings, Romen gave his territory in the spring of 1496 in the act known as Paz de Los Realejos. After the surrender, Romen was brought to court to be presented to the Catholic Monarchs, his end is unknown, although having belonged to a band of war the possibility he was reduced to slavery, it being possible outside the mencey given to the Republic of Venice for the kings. Other authors believe that, although belonging to a faction of war, may well be released, under supervision and away from the island.

Los guanches

Social model of disability

The social model of disability identifies systemic barriers, derogatory attitudes, social exclusion, which make it difficult or impossible for individuals with impairments to attain their valued functionings. The social model of disability diverges from the dominant medical model of disability, a functional analysis of the body as machine to be fixed in order to conform with normative values. While physical, intellectual, or psychological variations may cause individual functional limitation or impairments, these do not have to lead to disability unless society fails to take account of and include people regardless of their individual differences; the social model of disability is based on a distinction between the terms impairment and disability. In this model, the word impairment is used to refer to the actual attributes that affects a person, such as the inability to walk or breathe independently; the word disability is used to refer to the restrictions caused by society when it does not give equivalent attention and accommodation to the needs of individuals with impairments.

As a simple example, if a person is unable to climb stairs, the medical model focuses on making the individual physically able to climb stairs. The social model tries to make stair-climbing unnecessary, such as by replacing the stairs with a wheelchair-accessible ramp. According to the social model, the person remains impaired with respect to climbing stairs, but the impairment should no longer be considered disabling in that scenario, because the person can get to the same locations without climbing any stairs; the origins of the approach can be traced to the 1960s, the specific term emerged from the United Kingdom in the 1980s. According to Mike Oliver, the social model of disability was never meant to be an all-encompassing explanation of everything that a disabled person experiences; the history of the social model of disability begins with the history of the disability rights movement. In 1975, the UK organization Union of the Physically Impaired Against Segregation claimed: "In our view it is society which disables physically impaired people.

Disability is something imposed on top of our impairments by the way we are unnecessarily isolated and excluded from full participation in society."In 1983, the disabled academic Mike Oliver coined the phrase social model of disability in reference to these ideological developments. Oliver focused on the idea of an individual model versus a social model, derived from the distinction made between impairment and disability by the UPIAS. Oliver's seminal 1990 book is cited as a major moment in the adoption of this model; the book included just three pages about the social model of disability. The "social model" was extended and developed by academics and activists in Australia, the UK, US and other countries, extended to include all disabled people, including those who have learning difficulties / learning disabilities / or who are intellectually disabled, or people with emotional, mental health or behavioural problems. A fundamental aspect of the social model concerns equality; the struggle for equality is compared to the struggles of other marginalized groups.

Equal rights are said to empower people with the "ability" to make decisions and the opportunity to live life to the fullest. A related phrase used by disability rights campaigners, as with other social activism, is "Nothing About Us Without Us."The social model of disability focuses on changes required in society. These might be in terms of: Attitudes, for example a more positive attitude toward certain mental traits or behaviors, or not underestimating the potential quality of life of those with impairments, Social support, for example help dealing with barriers. Oliver did not intend the social model of disability to be an all-encompassing theory of disability, but rather a starting point in reframing how society views disability; this model was conceived of as a tool that could be used to improve the lives of disabled people, rather than a complete explanation for every experience and circumstance. It has been criticized for underplaying the role of impairments, it has been criticized for not promoting the normal differences between disabled people, who can have any age, gender and sexual orientation, instead presenting them as a monolithic, insufficiently individuated block of people.

In the late 20th century and early 21st century, the social model of disability became a dominant identity for disabled people in the UK. The social model of disability implies that attempts to change, "fix" or "cure" individuals when used against the wishes of the patient, can be discriminatory and prejudiced; this attitude, which may be seen as stemming from a medical model and a subjective value system, can harm the self-esteem and social inclusion of those subjected to it. Some communities have resisted "treatments", for example, defending a unique culture or set of abilities. In the deaf community, sign language is valued if most people do not know it and some

LSAT light machine gun

The LSAT light machine gun is a component of the Lightweight Small Arms Technologies program. The purpose of the program was to develop a lighter, yet reliable light machine gun; the program was initiated in 2004, when the Joint Service Small Arms Program challenged the American defence industry to develop a lighter small arms and design lighter ammunition. The LMG provides a major reduction in weight over legacy weapons, as well as improvements in other areas, such as controllability and reliability; as of 2008, it had two configurations, one that fires cased telescoped ammunition, one that fires caseless ammunition. After further research and development into both technologies and the guns that fire them, one of the two variants was to be chosen for production. By May 2015, 85,000 cased-telescoped rounds had been fired through 10 test weapons, with testers claiming the weapon had gone as far as it can go until the Army decides if it wants to make it a program of record. Development began with the two types of weight-reducing ammunition, a light machine gun to serve as a testbed and technology demonstrator.

Use of an LMG for this purpose is notable, considering its greater technical complexity than infantry rifles. The use of advanced computer simulations to accelerate development may have mitigated this, the less significant LMG succeeds at being less conspicuous to unwanted media attention. For development, the use of extensive computer simulation and modelling reduces both time and expenditure for prototyping and testing; the program uses a'spiral development' approach, whereby the weapon and ammunition is rolled out in stages or'spirals', each stage producing a new version, an improvement on those from previous spirals. A competition down-selected the design concepts of various companies to leave an AAI Corporation-led team of companies as the developers of the weapon system; the cohesive team of companies is combined with government support to ensure success. The parallel development of the two ammunition types meant that, if the caseless ammunition effort succeeded, much of the development work gained with the composite cased weapon could be applied to it, and, if it failed, the composite-cased version was to succeed on its own.

The LMGs built made a 44% and 43% reduction of weight. Secondary goals have been met: the LMG has the potential to improve battlefield effectiveness; the standard LSAT machine gun weighs 9.4 lb empty, compared to 17.6 lb for a standard SAW. Cased telescoped ammunition weighs 40% less than brass-cased ammo, so a 100-round ammunition belt weighs about 2 lb for the LSAT, compared to 3.3 lb for a brass-cased belt. The LMG design is a traditionally laid-out machine-gun, it has several features conducive to its use as a light machine gun, such as a quick-change barrel, a vented fore-grip, a belt feeding mechanism, provisions for the use of an ammunition pouch, a rate of fire of 600 RPM. Other features include its light weight, an ammunition counter, a stiff and heat resistant barrel achieved with the use of fluting and specialized alloys; when firing, the weapon's chamber swings around a longitudinal pivot. A long-stroke gas-piston is used to operate this action. A round is fed into the chamber at the feed position using a rammer, the new round serves to push a spent or dud round out of the far end of the chamber.

Such rounds are pushed forward, parallel to the barrel, they slide into a separate mechanism that ejects them out of one side of the gun. The advantages of this whole action include its simplicity, its isolation of the chamber from barrel heat, its positive control of round movement from extraction to ejection. In the caseless firing version of the weapon, another mechanism is introduced to seal the chamber during firing, accounting for the increased weight of the caseless version. In September 2011, 19 soldiers participated in a two-week assessment of the LSAT light machine gun at Fort Benning, Georgia to demonstrate its capabilities against the M249 SAW. In one test the soldiers, half armed with SAWs and half with LSATs, marched six miles in full combat gear fired at targets to measure stress and muscle fatigue. Another test had the soldiers sprint 200 yards wearing body armor and a basic load of ammunition rapidly engage close-range targets. A third week involved soldiers of the 75th Ranger Regiment performing a squad maneuver live-fire exercise in an urban setting.

Feedback from participants favored the LSAT for decreased recoil. Soldiers remarked the LSAT had better accuracy than the M249; the semi-automatic option made it more viable for room clearing. One Ranger said the LSAT performed better than the Mk 46 machine gun used by special operations forces. 15 out of 19 soldiers that participated in the assessment said they would prefer using the LSAT in combat rather than the SAW. The LSAT LMG is 41 percent lighter than the 21.5 lb SAW and its ammunition volume is 12 per

Tiki Towers

Tiki Towers is a game developed by Mock Science and published by RealNetworks division GameHouse released for WiiWare, BlackBerry, iOS, Windows Phone and Symbian S60. The game has been likened to the similar puzzle game World of Goo. A sequel titled Tiki Towers 2: Monkey Republic was released in January 2011. Tiki Towers was conceived by designer Frank Boosman from the Republic of Fun before the Wii's 2006 release. Excited by the promise of the Wii, he felt that the Wii's controller, the Wii Remote, would work great with games that required a lot of physical interactions. While listening to a talk by Will Wright, Wright said something to the effect of "Monkeys are funny", which gave Boosman the idea of representing building pieces as bamboo and coconuts in his new game and since a friend of his liked Tiki culture, it was used as the game's theme. Based around a tropical Tiki culture-theme, the game involves players directing a troupe of monkeys to retrieve bananas by building towers of bamboo scaffolding to reach the fruits, with the ultimate goal of collecting all bananas and having all monkeys reach the designated "exit".

This adds conflict as the player is tasked with building towers on a limited bamboo budget and if a tower falls it may prevent the monkeys from completing the level. On the Wii version of the game, while much remains the same, one significant difference is that the player must fend off "evil monkeys" trying to sabotage the player's towers while the "good monkeys" are working toward their goal. IGN called Tiki Towers a "fun and playable imitation" of World of Goo, giving it a 7.3/10. WiiWare World gave Tiki Towers a 7/10, noting that as a solid game at a third of Goo's price, it is well worth a look. AppSpy gave Tiki Towers a 4/5, saying that the game "is for those who enjoy physics based puzzle games involving monkeys"; the mobile version was named Casual Game of the Year for 2008 by the IMGA. Official website