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Afonso V of Portugal

Afonso V, known by the sobriquet the African, was King of Portugal. His sobriquet refers to his conquests in Northern Africa; as of 1471, Afonso V was the first king of Portugal to claim dominion over a plural "Kingdom of the Algarves", instead of the singular "Kingdom of the Algarve". Territories added to the Portuguese crown lands in North Africa during the 15th century came to be referred to as possessions of the Kingdom of the Algarve, not the Kingdom of Portugal; the "Algarves" were considered to be the southern Portuguese territories on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar. Afonso was born in the second son of King Edward of Portugal by his wife Eleanor of Aragon. Following the death of his older brother, Infante João, Afonso acceded to the position of heir apparent and was made the first Prince of Portugal by his father, who sought to emulate the English Court's custom of a dynastic title that distinguished the heir apparent from the other children of the monarch, he was only six years old when he succeeded his father in 1438.

During his minority, Afonso V was placed under the regency of his mother in accordance with a will of his late father. As both a foreigner and a woman, the queen was not a popular choice for regent. Opposition rose and without any important ally among the Portuguese aristocracy other than Afonso, Count of Barcelos, the illegitimate half brother of King Edward, the queen's position was untenable. In 1439, the Portuguese Cortes decided to replace the queen with Peter, Duke of Coimbra, the young king's oldest uncle. Peter's main policies were concerned with restricting the political power of the great noble houses and expanding the powers of the crown; the country prospered under his rule, but not peacefully, as his laws interfered with the ambition of powerful nobles. The count of Barcelos, a personal enemy of the Duke of Coimbra became the king's favourite uncle and began a constant struggle for power. In 1442, the king made Afonso the first Duke of Braganza. With this title and its lands, he became the most powerful man in Portugal and one of the richest men in Europe.

To secure his position as regent, Peter had Afonso marry his daughter, Isabella of Coimbra, in 1445. But on 9 June 1448, when the king came of age, Peter had to surrender his power to Afonso V; the years of conspiracy by the Duke of Braganza came to a head. On 15 September of the same year, Afonso V nullified all the laws and edicts approved under the regency. In the following year, led by what were discovered to be false accusations, Afonso declared Peter a rebel and defeated his army in the Battle of Alfarrobeira, in which his uncle was killed. After this battle and the loss of one of Portugal's most remarkable infantes, the Duke of Braganza became the de facto ruler of the country. Afonso V turned his attentions to North Africa. In the reign of his grandfather John I, Ceuta had been conquered from the king of Morocco, now the new king wanted to expand the conquests; the king's army conquered Alcácer Ceguer in 1458 and Arzila in 1471. Tangiers, on the other hand, was won and lost several times between 1460 and 1464.

These achievements granted the king the nickname of the Africano. The king supported the exploration of the Atlantic Ocean led by prince Henry the Navigator but after Henry's death in 1460, he did nothing to continue Henry's work. Administratively, Afonso V was a passive king, he chose not to pursue the revision of laws or development of commerce, preferring instead to preserve the legacy of his father Edward and grandfather John I. In 1452, Pope Nicholas V issued the papal bull Dum Diversas, which granted Afonso V the right to reduce "Saracens and any other unbelievers" to hereditary slavery; this was reaffirmed and extended in the Romanus Pontifex bull of 1455. These papal bulls came to be seen by some as a justification for the subsequent era of slave trade and European colonialism; when the campaigns in Africa were over, Afonso V found new grounds for battle in neighboring Castile. On December 11, 1474 King Henry IV of Castile died without a male heir, leaving just one daughter, Joanna la Beltraneja.

However, her paternity was questioned. The death of Henry ignited a war of succession with one faction supporting Joanna and the other supporting Isabella, Henry's half-sister. Afonso V was persuaded to intervene on behalf of his niece, he proclaimed himself king of Castile and led troops into the kingdom. Because of their close blood-relationship, a formal marriage had to wait for papal dispensation. On May 12, 1475, Afonso entered Castile with an army of 14,000 foot soldiers. In March, 1476, after several skirmishes and much maneuvering, the 8, 000 men of Afonso and Prince João, faced a Castilian force of similar size in the battle of Toro; the Castilians were led by Isabella's husband, Prince Ferdinand II of Aragon, Cardinal Mendoza and the Duke of Alba. The fight was fierce and confusing but the result was a stalemate: While the forces of Cardinal Mendoza and the Duke of Alba won over their opponents led by the Portuguese King –who left the battlefield to take refuge in Castronuño, the troops commanded by Prince Joao defeated and persecuted the troops of the Castilian right wing, recovered the Portuguese royal standard, remaining ordered in the battlefield where they collected the fugitives of Afonso.

Both sides claimed victory but Afonso's prospects for obtaining the Castilian crown were d

Sigmoidoscopy

Sigmoidoscopy is the minimally invasive medical examination of the large intestine from the rectum through the nearest part of the colon, the sigmoid colon. There are two types of sigmoidoscopy: flexible sigmoidoscopy, which uses a flexible endoscope, rigid sigmoidoscopy, which uses a rigid device. Flexible sigmoidoscopy is the preferred procedure. A sigmoidoscopy is similar to, but not the same as, a colonoscopy. A sigmoidoscopy only examines up to the sigmoid, the most distal part of the colon, while colonoscopy examines the whole large bowel. Flexible sigmoidoscopy enables the physician to look at the inside of the large intestine from the rectum to the left side of the colon, called the sigmoid. Physicians may use the procedure to find the cause of abdominal pain, or constipation, they use it to look for benign and malignant polyps, as well as early signs of cancer in the descending colon and rectum. With flexible sigmoidoscopy, the physician can see intestinal bleeding, abnormal growths, ulcers in the descending colon and rectum.

Flexible sigmoidoscopy is not sufficient to detect polyps or cancer in the ascending or transverse colon. However, although in absolute terms only a small section of the large intestine can be examined using sigmoidoscopy, the sites which can be observed represent areas which are most affected by diseases such as colorectal cancer, for example the rectum. For the procedure, the patient must lie on their side on the examining table; the physician inserts a short, lit tube into the rectum and guides it into the colon. The tube is called a sigmoidoscope; the scope transmits an image of the inside of the rectum and colon, so the physician can examine the lining of these organs. The scope blows air into these organs, which inflates them in order to help the physician see better. If anything unusual is in the rectum or colon, like a polyp or inflamed tissue, the physician can remove a piece of it using instruments inserted into the scope; the physician will send that piece of tissue to the lab for testing.

Bleeding and puncture of the colon are possible complications of sigmoidoscopy. However, such complications are uncommon. Flexible sigmoidoscopy takes 10 to 20 minutes. During the procedure, the patient might feel pressure and slight cramping in the lower abdomen, but the patient will feel better afterward when the air leaves the colon; the colon and rectum must be empty for flexible sigmoidoscopy to be thorough and safe, thus the patient must drink only clear liquids for 12 to 24 hours beforehand. This includes bouillon or broth, strained fruit juice, plain coffee, plain tea, or diet soft drinks; the night before or right before the procedure, the patient receives a laxative and an enema, a liquid solution that washes out the intestines. No sedation is required during this procedure as long as the examination does not exceed the level of the splenic flexure. Rigid sigmoidoscopy may be useful in ano-rectal diseases such as bleeding per rectum or inflammatory rectal disease in the general practice and pediatrics.

For performing the examination, the patient must lie on the left side, in the so-called Sims' position. The bowels are emptied with a suppository, a digital rectal examination is first performed; the sigmoidoscope is inserted with obturator in general direction of the navel. The direction is changed and the obturator is removed so that the physician may penetrate further with direct vision. A bellows is used to insufflate air to distend the rectum. Lateral movements of the sigmoidoscope's tip negotiate the Houston valve and the recto-sigmoid junction. Several studies have shown the potential benefits of sigmoidoscopy in detecting colorectal cancer. In a 2009 Norwegian study, results were somewhat inconclusive at seven years. We found a trend towards reduced mortality from colorectal cancer for both total colorectal cancer mortality and rectosigmoidal cancer mortality, but this was not statistically significant in intention to screen analysis. Corresponding reductions in mortality among attenders were 59% and 76%, both statistically significant compared with the control group The study saw no detectable difference in all-cause mortality.

A 2010 British study showed sigmoidoscopy reduced "overall colorectal cancer incidence and mortality by 31 percent", "incidence of cancer in just the lower part of the colon was reduced by 50 percent for those who underwent screening compared with those in the control group." Overall colon-cancer mortality was reduced by 43%. The study showed that the effect was persistent—a single sigmoidoscopy reduced cancer rates for the length of the 11 year study. Although considered quite safe, sigmoidoscopy does carry the rare possibility of tearing of the intestinal wall by the instrument, which could require immediate surgery to repair the tear. Colonoscopy Flexible Sigmoidoscopy. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse. National Institute for Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Public domain text used as source for this article. Rigid Sigmoidoscopy; the Wales Day Centre. Sigmoidoscopy Patient Experiences Flexible Sigmoidoscopy

Mark Hamburger

Mark John Hamburger is an American professional baseball pitcher, a free agent. He played in Major League Baseball for the Texas Rangers. Hamburger attended Mounds View High School in Arden Hills and was a multi-sport athlete playing basketball, tennis and baseball. After graduating from high school in 2005, Hamburger attended and played baseball at Mesabi Range College where he posted an 11-0 record and a 0.65 ERA. The summer following Hamburger's season of collegiate baseball, he attended a try-out for the Minnesota Twins, held at the Metrodome in 2007. Hamburger was signed by the Twins after the try-out, received a $2,000 signing bonus, was assigned to the Gulf Coast League Twins. During the 2008 season, Hamburger was assigned to the Elizabethton Twins where he won closer of the year. After two years in the Twins' minor league system, Hamburger was traded to the Texas Rangers in exchange for Eddie Guardado on August 25, 2008. Hamburger was called up to the majors for the first time on August 30, 2011.

He was claimed off of waivers by the San Diego Padres on June 25, 2012, placed on their Triple-A team, the Tucson Padres. For the second time in 2012, he was claimed off waivers by the Houston Astros on July 21. In February 2013, Hamburger received a 50-game suspension without pay after a second violation of the Minor League Drug Prevention and Treatment Program for a drug of abuse. On September 4, 2013, the Minnesota Twins signed Hamburger to a minor league deal, he elected free agency on November 6, 2015. On April 12, 2016, Hamburger signed with the St. Paul Saints. Hamburger played the Australian Baseball League 2016-17 season with the Melbourne Aces that won the regular season but lost the final to the Brisbane Bandits, he was the league leader for ERA. On April 20, 2017, Hamburger signed with the St. Paul Saints of the American Association of Independent Professional Baseball. On September 11, 2017, Hamburger was traded to the Somerset Patriots of the Atlantic League of Professional Baseball.

On September 29, 2017, Hamburger was traded back to the St. Paul Saints. Hamburger returned to the Melbourne Aces of the Australian Baseball League for the 2017/18 season. On March 23, 2018, Hamburger was traded by the St. Paul Saints to the New Britain Bees of the Atlantic League of Professional Baseball, he became a free agent following the 2018 season. From open tryout with buddy to the big leagues. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference, or MiLB