Loving v. Virginia
Loving v. Virginia, 388 U. S. 1, was a landmark decision of the U. S. Supreme Court which struck down all state laws banning interracial marriage as violations of the Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution; the case was brought by Mildred Loving, a woman of color, Richard Loving, a white man, sentenced to a year in prison in Virginia for marrying each other. Their marriage violated Virginia's anti-miscegenation statute, the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, which criminalized marriage between people classified as "white" and people classified as "colored"; the Lovings appealed their conviction to the Supreme Court of Virginia. They appealed to the U. S. Supreme Court, which agreed to hear their case. On June 12, 1967, the Court issued a unanimous decision in their favor and overturned their convictions; the Court struck down Virginia's anti-miscegenation law, thereby overruling the 1883 case Pace v. Alabama and ending all race-based legal restrictions on marriage in the United States.
Virginia had argued that its law was not a violation of the Equal Protection Clause because the punishment was the same regardless of the offender's race, thus it "equally burdened" both whites and non-whites. The Court found that the law nonetheless violated the Equal Protection Clause because it was based on "distinctions drawn according to race" and outlawed conduct—namely, getting married—that was otherwise accepted and which citizens were free to do. Additionally, the Court ruled that the freedom to marry was a constitutionally protected fundamental liberty, therefore the government's deprivation of it on an arbitrary basis such as race was violation of the Due Process Clause; the decision was followed by an increase in interracial marriages in the U. S. and is remembered annually on Loving Day. It has been the subject of three movies, including the 2016 film Loving. Beginning in 2013, it was cited as precedent in U. S. federal court decisions holding restrictions on same-sex marriage in the United States unconstitutional, including in the 2015 Supreme Court decision Obergefell v. Hodges.
Anti-miscegenation laws in the United States had been in place in certain states since colonial days. Marriage to a slave was never legal. In the Reconstruction Era in 1865, the Black Codes across the seven states of the lower South made intermarriage illegal; the new Republican legislatures in six states repealed the restrictive laws. After the Democrats returned to power, the restriction was reimposed. A major concern was how to draw the line between black and white in a society in which white men had many children with black slave women. On the one hand, a person's reputation as black or white was decisive in practical matters. On the other hand, most laws used a "one drop of blood" rule, which meant that one black ancestor made a person black in the view of the law. In 1967, 16 states Southern, still had anti-miscegenation laws. Mildred Delores Loving was the daughter of Theoliver Jeter. Mildred's racial identity has been a point of confusion, she has been noted as self-identifying as Indian-Rappahannock, but was reported as being of Cherokee and African American ancestry.
During the trial, it seemed clear that she identified herself as black as far as her own lawyer was concerned. However, upon her arrest, the police report identifies her as "Indian", she said in a 2004 interview, "I have no black ancestry. I am Indian-Rappahannock." A possible contributing factor is that it was seen at the time of her arrest as advantageous to be "anything but black". There was an ingrained history in the state of the denial of African ancestry. Additionally, the frequent racial mixing of Central Point, where she lived, could have contributed to this fluid racial identity. Mildred was known as a humble woman, she was raised in the same rural Virginia community as her husband, Richard. Richard Perry Loving was a white man, the son of Lola Loving and Twillie Loving, he was a construction worker. The 1830 census marks Richard's paternal ancestor, as having owned seven slaves. Richard's grandfather, T. P. Farmer, fought for the Confederacy in the Civil War, their families both lived in Virginia.
The county adhered to strict Jim Crow segregation laws but Central Point had been a visible mixed-race community since the 19th century. Richard's father worked for one of the wealthiest black men in the county for 25 years. Richard's closest companions were black, including those he drag-raced with and Mildred's older brothers; the couple fell in love. Richard moved into the Jeter household. After the Supreme Court case, the couple moved back to Central Point, where Richard built them a house; the couple had three children: Donald and Sidney. Richard Loving died aged 41 in 1975, when a drunk driver struck his car in Caroline County, Virginia. Mildred Loving lost her right eye in the same accident, she died of pneumonia on May 2, 2008, in her home in Central Point, aged 68. At the age of 18, Mildred became pregnant. In June 1958, the couple traveled to Washington, D. C. to marry, thereby evading Virginia's Racial Integrity Act of 1924, which made marriage between whites and non-whites a crime. They returned to the small town of Virginia.
Based on an anonymous tip, local police raided their home in the early morning hours of July 11, 1958, hoping to find them having sex, given that interracial sex was also illegal in Virginia. When the officers found the Lovings sleeping in their bed, Mildred pointed out their marriage
Baltimore is the largest city in the state of Maryland within the United States. Baltimore was established by the Constitution of Maryland as an independent city in 1729. With a population of 611,648 in 2017, Baltimore is the largest such independent city in the United States; as of 2017, the population of the Baltimore metropolitan area was estimated to be just under 2.808 million, making it the 20th largest metropolitan area in the country. Baltimore is located about 40 miles northeast of Washington, D. C. making it a principal city in the Washington-Baltimore combined statistical area, the fourth-largest CSA in the nation, with a calculated 2017 population of 9,764,315. Baltimore is the second-largest seaport in the Mid-Atlantic; the city's Inner Harbor was once the second leading port of entry for immigrants to the United States. In addition, Baltimore was a major manufacturing center. After a decline in major manufacturing, heavy industry, restructuring of the rail industry, Baltimore has shifted to a service-oriented economy.
Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins University are the city's top two employers. With hundreds of identified districts, Baltimore has been dubbed a "city of neighborhoods." Famous residents have included writers Edgar Allan Poe, Edith Hamilton, Frederick Douglass, Ogden Nash, H. L. Mencken. During the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner" in Baltimore after the bombardment of Fort McHenry, his poem popularized as a song. Baltimore has more public statues and monuments per capita than any other city in the country, is home to some of the earliest National Register Historic Districts in the nation, including Fell's Point, Federal Hill, Mount Vernon; these were added to the National Register between 1969–1971, soon after historic preservation legislation was passed. Nearly one third of the city's buildings are designated as historic in the National Register, more than any other U. S. city. The city has 33 local historic districts. Over 65,000 properties are designated as historic buildings and listed in the NRHP, more than any other U.
S. city. The historical records of the government of Baltimore are located at the Baltimore City Archives; the city is named after Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore of the Irish House of Lords and founding proprietor of the Province of Maryland. Baltimore Manor was the name of the estate in County Longford on which the Calvert family lived in Ireland. Baltimore is an anglicization of the Irish name Baile an Tí Mhóir, meaning "town of the big house." The Baltimore area had been inhabited by Native Americans since at least the 10th millennium BC, when Paleo-Indians first settled in the region. One Paleo-Indian site and several Archaic period and Woodland period archaeological sites have been identified in Baltimore, including four from the Late Woodland period. During the Late Woodland period, the archaeological culture, called the "Potomac Creek complex" resided in the area from Baltimore south to the Rappahannock River in present-day Virginia. In the early 1600s, the immediate Baltimore vicinity was sparsely populated, if at all, by Native Americans.
The Baltimore County area northward was used as hunting grounds by the Susquehannock living in the lower Susquehanna River valley. This Iroquoian-speaking people "controlled all of the upper tributaries of the Chesapeake" but "refrained from much contact with Powhatan in the Potomac region" and south into Virginia. Pressured by the Susquehannock, the Piscataway tribe, an Algonquian-speaking people, stayed well south of the Baltimore area and inhabited the north bank of the Potomac River in what are now Charles and southern Prince George's counties in the coastal areas south of the Fall Line. European colonization of Maryland began with the arrival of an English ship at St. Clement's Island in the Potomac River on March 25, 1634. Europeans began to settle the area further north, beginning to populate the area of Baltimore County; the original county seat, known today as "Old Baltimore", was located on Bush River within the present-day Aberdeen Proving Ground. The colonists engaged in sporadic warfare with the Susquehanna, whose numbers dwindled from new infectious diseases, such as smallpox, endemic among the Europeans.
In 1661 David Jones claimed the area known today as Jonestown on the east bank of the Jones Falls stream. The colonial General Assembly of Maryland created the Port of Baltimore at old Whetstone Point in 1706 for the tobacco trade; the Town of Baltimore, on the west side of the Jones Falls, was founded and laid out on July 30, 1729. By 1752 the town had just 27 homes, including two taverns. Jonestown and Fells Point had been settled to the east; the three settlements, covering 60 acres, became a commercial hub, in 1768 were designated as the county seat. Being a colony, the Baltimore street names were laid out to demonstrate loyalty to the mother country. For example King George, King and Caroline streets. Baltimore grew swiftly in the 18th century, its plantations producing grain and tobacco for sugar-producing colonies in the Caribbean; the profit from sugar encouraged the cultivation of cane in the Caribbean and the importation of food by planters there. As noted, Baltimore was as the county seat, in 1768 a courthouse was built to serve both the city and county.
Its square was a center of community discussions. Baltimore established its public market system in 1763. Lexington Market, founded in 1782, i
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t
The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States during the early to mid-19th century, used by African-American slaves to escape into free states and Nova Scotia with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause. The term is applied to the abolitionists, both black and white and enslaved, who aided the fugitives. Various other routes led to Mexico or overseas. An earlier escape route running south toward Florida a Spanish possession, existed from the late 17th century until Florida became a United States territory in 1821. However, the network now known as the Underground Railroad was formed in the late 1700s, it ran north to the free states and Canada, reached its height between 1850 and 1860. One estimate suggests that by 1850, 100,000 slaves had escaped via the "Railroad". British North America, where slavery was prohibited, was a popular destination, as its long border gave many points of access. Most former slaves settled in Ontario.
More than 30,000 people were said to have escaped there via the network during its 20-year peak period, although U. S. Census figures account for only 6,000. Numerous fugitives' stories are documented in the 1872 book The Underground Railroad Records by William Still, an abolitionist who headed the Philadelphia Vigilance Committee. At its peak, nearly 1,000 slaves per year escaped from slave-holding states using the Underground Railroad – more than 5,000 court cases for escaped slaves were recorded – many fewer than the natural increase of the enslaved population; the resulting economic impact was minuscule, but the psychological influence on slave holders was immense. Under the original Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, officials from free states were required to assist slaveholders or their agents who recaptured runaway slaves, but and governments of many free states ignored the law, the Underground Railroad thrived. With heavy lobbying by southern politicians, the Compromise of 1850 was passed by Congress after the Mexican–American War.
It stipulated a more stringent Fugitive Slave Law. Because the law required sparse documentation to claim a person was a fugitive, slave catchers kidnapped free blacks children, sold them into slavery. Southern politicians exaggerated the number of escaped slaves and blamed these escapes on Northerners interfering with Southern property rights; the law deprived suspected slaves of the right to defend themselves in court, making it difficult to prove free status. In a de facto bribe, judges were paid a higher fee for a decision that confirmed a suspect as a slave than for one ruling that the suspect was free. Many Northerners who might have ignored slave issues in the South were confronted by local challenges that bound them to support slavery; this was a primary grievance cited by the Union during the American Civil War, the perception that Northern States ignored the fugitive slave law was a major justification for secession. The escape network was not underground nor a railroad, it was figuratively "underground" in the sense of being an underground resistance.
It was known as a "railroad" by way of the use of rail terminology in the code. The Underground Railroad consisted of meeting points, secret routes and safe houses, personal assistance provided by abolitionist sympathizers. Participants organized in small, independent groups. Escaped slaves would move north along the route from one way station to the next. "Conductors" on the railroad came from various backgrounds and included free-born blacks, white abolitionists, former slaves, Native Americans. Church clergy and congregations played a role the Religious Society of Friends, Congregationalists and Reformed Presbyterians, as well as certain sects of mainstream denominations such as branches of the Methodist church and American Baptists. Without the presence and support of free black residents, there would have been no chance for fugitive slaves to pass into freedom unmolested. To reduce the risk of infiltration, many people associated with the Underground Railroad knew only their part of the operation and not of the whole scheme.
"Conductors" transported the fugitives from station to station. A conductor sometimes pretended to be a slave. Once a part of a plantation, the conductor would direct the runaways to the North. Slaves traveled at about 10 -- 20 miles to each station, they rested, a message was sent to the next station to let the station master know the runaways were on their way. They would stop at the so-called "stations" or "depots" during the rest; the stations were located in barns, under church floors, or in hiding places in caves and hollowed-out riverbanks. The resting spots where the runaways could sleep and eat were given the code names "stations" and "depots", which were held by "station masters". "Stockholders" gave money or supplies for assistance. Using biblical references, fugitives referred to Canada as the "Promised Land" or "Heaven" and the Ohio River as the "River Jordan", which marked the boundary between slave states and free states. Although the fugitives sometimes traveled on boat or train, they traveled
Fredua Koranteng "Freddy" Adu is an American soccer player. He plays as an attacking midfielder, but he is used as a winger or forward. From before the time of his signing with D. C. United at the age of 14, Adu was treated as the future of United States soccer. However, he failed to live up to the expectations and after leaving D. C. United in 2006, has turned into a journeyman, playing for thirteen teams in eight different countries: the United States, Monaco, Turkey, Brazil and Finland. At D. C. United, Adu broke several records. First, he became the youngest athlete to sign a professional contract in the United States, after he was selected by the team in the 2004 MLS SuperDraft on January 16, 2004. Three months on April 3, 2004, he became the youngest player to appear in a Major League Soccer game when he came on as a substitute in a game against the San Jose Earthquakes, on April 17, he became the youngest scorer in MLS history, scoring a goal in a 3–2 loss to the MetroStars. Adu grew up in the port city of Tema, where he played soccer against men three times his age.
In 1997, when he was eight, his mother won the Green Card Lottery, his family moved to Rockville, Maryland, in the United States, where he attended Sequoyah Elementary School. In February 2003, he became a U. S. citizen. Soon after arriving in the United States, he was discovered by a local soccer coach and began playing with boys several years older. Adu attended The Heights School, a private school in Potomac, for several years. While playing with the U. S. Olympic Development Program in an under-14 tournament against the youth squads of such traditionally strong Italian teams as Lazio and Juventus, Adu's team won the competition, he led the tournament in scoring, he was named MVP. At the age of 14, Adu became the youngest American to sign a major league professional contract in any team sport when he was chosen by D. C. United as the number one overall pick in the 2004 MLS SuperDraft. In order to allow Adu to play close to home, MLS assigned him to D. C. United on November 18, 2003, working a deal with the Dallas Burn, who owned the top pick in the 2004 MLS SuperDraft.
Dallas was compensated with a player allocation. Having signed with D. C. United, Adu became the first player selected in that draft, two months before it took place. D. C. United had signed American youngsters Bobby Convey in 2000, Santino Quaranta in 2001—both aged 16 and the youngest player in MLS at the times of being drafted. On April 3, Adu came on in United's first game of the 2004 season against the San Jose Earthquakes as a second-half substitute, making him the youngest player to appear in United States professional sports. On April 17, at the age of fourteen, Adu scored his first professional goal in the 75th minute of a 3–2 away loss against the MetroStars. In doing so, he became the youngest player in MLS history to score a goal. In his first season as a pro, Adu finished the year with five goals and three assists, while playing in all 30 regular season games. Although a starter, Adu was relegated to a substitute when D. C. United acquired central midfielder Christian Gómez mid-season, it was in this role that he appeared in United's MLS Cup victory.
He played in three of four playoff games by D. C. United, assisting in one goal during that time. Adu was criticized from a number of different angles in his first season as a professional; some commentators have suggested that Adu was too young to be playing professionally and that he needed more time to develop mentally and physically amongst players his own age. In his second season, he was suspended for one game after he complained about his playing time in the media. During November 2006, Adu had a trial with English club Manchester United for a fortnight, but he was not able to gain a work permit and so could not play in any competitive games, only trained with several players from the Manchester United academy during his two weeks. Continued development of his defensive skills, helped Adu become a starting midfielder during the 2006 season. In addition, Adu had been chosen to take spot kicks during D. C. United's two penalty shootouts—scoring on both attempts, he was selected to the MLS All-Star team twice, once as a commissioner's choice and once as the coach's.
He was selected to the MLS 2006 semifinals Best XI by Soccer America magazine. In 2005, he was nominated for FIFPRO Young player of the year. On December 11, 2006, D. C. United traded Adu and goalkeeper Nick Rimando to Real Salt Lake in exchange for a major allocation, goalkeeper Jay Nolly, future considerations. Adu made his debut for Real Salt Lake on April 7, 2007, playing the full 90 minutes in a 2–2 draw with FC Dallas, he scored his first goal for the club on May 20, 2007, converting a penalty kick in the 68th minute of a 2–1 loss to FC Dallas. Adu went on to score his second goal with Salt Lake from another penalty in a 1–1 draw in an exhibition against Boca Juniors. Adu was captain of the U-20 United States men's national team in the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup, where he made an impressive showing. After the conclusion of that tournament, Benfica of the Portuguese Liga secured Adu's rights from MLS for a transfer fee of $2 million. On July 28, 2007, Adu opted out of playing for Real in their regular-season match, that day, boarded a plane to Portugal to negotiate with Benfica.
On July 30, Benfica issued an official statement announcing that Adu had been transferred to their club. The following day, the signing was completed and he trained with the team in Lisbon. Adu cost Benfica US$2 million. On August 14, 2007, Adu made his debut with Benfica against Copenhagen in a UE
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, the District of Columbia to its south and west. The state's largest city is Baltimore, its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the Chesapeake Bay State, it is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary. Sixteen of Maryland's twenty-three counties border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, which combined total more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Although one of the smallest states in the U. S. it features a variety of climates and topographical features that have earned it the moniker of America in Miniature. In a similar vein, Maryland's geography and history combines elements of the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic regions of the country. One of the original Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain, Maryland was founded by George Calvert, a Catholic convert who sought to provide a religious haven for Catholics persecuted in England.
In 1632, Charles I of England granted Calvert a colonial charter, naming the colony after his wife, Queen Mary. Unlike the Pilgrims and Puritans, who enforced religious conformity in their settlements, Calvert envisioned a colony where people of different religious sects would coexist under the principle of toleration. Accordingly, in 1649 the Maryland General Assembly passed an Act Concerning Religion, which enshrined this principle by penalizing anyone who "reproached" a fellow Marylander based on religious affiliation. Religious strife was common in the early years, Catholics remained a minority, albeit in greater numbers than in any other English colony. Maryland's early settlements and population centers clustered around rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay, its economy was plantation-based, centered on the cultivation of tobacco. The need for cheap labor led to a rapid expansion of indentured servants, penal labor, African slaves. In 1760, Maryland's current boundaries took form following the settlement of a long-running border dispute with Pennsylvania.
Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, by 1776 its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Many of its citizens subsequently played key military roles in the war. In 1790, the state ceded land for the establishment of the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C. Although a slave state, Maryland remained in the Union during the U. S. Civil War, its strategic location giving it a significant role in the conflict. After the war, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, railroad networks, mass immigration from Europe. Since the Second World War, the state's population has grown to six million residents, it is among the most densely populated states in the nation; as of 2015, Maryland had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its close proximity to Washington, D. C. and a diversified economy spanning manufacturing, higher education, biotechnology. Maryland has been ranked as one of the best governed states in the country.
The state's central role in American history is reflected by its hosting of some of the highest numbers of historic landmarks per capita. Maryland is comparable in overall area with Belgium, it is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next smaller state. The next larger state, its neighbor West Virginia, is twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature, it ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region, pine groves in the Maryland mountains to the west. Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania, on its west by West Virginia, on its east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, on its south, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia; the mid-portion of this border is interrupted by District of Columbia, which sits on land, part of Montgomery and Prince George's counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland.
This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia.. The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County, the eastern half of Worcester County, a small portion of the state's northeast corner. So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State", a nickname, used by Massachusetts for decades; the highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3,360 feet, is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the bo
Cambridge is a city in Dorchester County, United States. The population was 12,326 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of the county's largest municipality. Cambridge is the fourth most populous city in Maryland's Eastern Shore region, after Salisbury and Easton. Settled by English colonists in 1684, Cambridge is one of the oldest colonial cities in Maryland. At the time of English colonization, the Algonquian-speaking Choptank Indians were living along the river of the same name. During the colonial years, the English colonists developed farming on the Eastern Shore; the largest plantations were devoted first to tobacco, mixed farming. Planters bought enslaved Africans to mixed farming; the town was a trading center for the area. The town pier was the center for slave trading for the region, a history documented well in historical markers throughout the town center, it was incorporated in 1793, occupies part of the former Choptank Indian Reservation. Cambridge was named after the county in England.
The town became a stop on the underground railroad, which had an extensive network of safe houses for slaves escaping to the north. Cambridge developed food processing industries in the late 19th century, canning oysters and sweet potatoes. Industrial growth in Cambridge was led by the Phillips Packing Company, which grew to become the area's largest employer; the company won contracts with the Department of Defense during the First and Second World wars that aided its growth. At its peak, it employed as many as 10,000 workers. Changing tastes brought about a decline in business leading Phillips to downsize its operations. By the early 1960s the company ceased operations altogether; this added to the city's growing social problems. During the period from 1962 until 1967, Cambridge was a center of protests during the Civil Rights Movement as African Americans sought equal access to employment and housing, they sought to end racial segregation of schools and other public accommodations. Riots erupted in Cambridge in 1963 and 1967, the Maryland National Guard were deployed to the city to assist local authorities with peace-keeping efforts.
The leader of the movement was Gloria Richardson. With the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, public segregation in Cambridge ended. In 2002, the city's economy was boosted by jobs and tourism associated with the opening of the 400-room Hyatt Regency Chesapeake Bay resort; this resort includes a golf course and marina. The resort was the site of the 2007 US House Republican Conference, which included an address by U. S. President George W. Bush, as well as subsequent visits by U. S. President Barack Obama. Cambridge was designated a Maryland Main Street community on July 1, 2003. Cambridge Main Street is a comprehensive downtown revitalization process created by the Maryland Department of Housing and Community Development, it plans to strengthen the economic potential of select cities around the state. The initiative has led to enhancements of its heritage tourism attractions. Together with other cities on the Eastern Shore, Cambridge is attracting more tourists, it has revitalized its downtown business district, part of, designated a historical district in 1990.
Four different teams in the old Eastern Shore Baseball League—the Canners, Cardinals and Dodgers—were located in Cambridge. The Brinsfield I Site, Cambridge Historic District, Wards I and III, Christ Episcopal Church and Cemetery, Dale's Right, Dorchester County Courthouse and Jail, Goldsborough House, LaGrange, Annie Oakley House, Pine Street Neighborhood Historic District, Rock Methodist Episcopal Church, Stanley Institute, Sycamore Cottage, Yarmouth are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Cambridge is located at 38°33′59″N 76°4′37″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.64 square miles, of which, 10.34 square miles is land and 2.30 square miles is water. Cambridge is on the southern bank of the Choptank River; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Cambridge has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of the census of 2010, there were 12,326 people, 5,144 households, 3,040 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,192.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,228 housing units at an average density of 602.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 47.9% African American, 45.9% White, 0.4% Native American, 1.3% Asian, 2.0% from other races, 2.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.9% of the population. There were 5,144 households of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.0% were married couples living together, 24.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.9% were non-families. 34.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.93. The median age in the city was 37.6 years. 24.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 45.8% male and 54.2% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 10,911 people, 4,629 households, 2,697 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,622.3 people per square mile. There were 4,62