SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

African Great Lakes

The African Great Lakes are a series of lakes constituting the part of the Rift Valley lakes in and around the East African Rift. They include Lake Victoria, the third-largest fresh water lake in the world by area, Lake Tanganyika, the world's second-largest freshwater lake by volume and depth, Lake Malawi, the world's eighth-largest fresh water lake by area. Collectively, they contain 31,000 km3 of water, more than either Lake Baikal or the North American Great Lakes; this total constitutes about 25% of the planet's unfrozen surface fresh water. The large rift lakes of Africa are the ancient home of great biodiversity, 10% of the world's fish species live there. Countries in the African Great Lakes region include Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi, Rwanda and Uganda; the following are included on most lists of the African Great Lakes, grouped by drainage basin. The exact number of lakes considered part of the African Great Lakes varies by list, may include smaller lakes in the rift valleys if they are part of the same drainage basin as the larger lakes, such as Lake Kyoga.

Lake Victoria Lake Albert Lake Edward Lake Tanganyika Lake Kivu Lake Malawi Lake Turkana The African Great Lakes region consists of countries that surround the African Great Lakes. It comprises Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi, Rwanda and Uganda; the Bantu Swahili language is the most spoken language in the African Great Lakes region. It serves as a national or official language of four nations in the region: Tanzania, Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Due to the high population density of an estimated 107 million people, the agricultural surplus in the region, the area became organized into a number of small states; the most powerful of these monarchies were Buganda, Bunyoro and Burundi. Unusual for sub-Saharan Africa, the traditional borders were maintained by the colonial powers, however the national borders were drawn to divide monarchies that the colonials did not favor or to keep preferred groups in relative dominance over groups perceived as less euro-centric.

Being the long-sought source of the Nile, the region had long been of interest to Europeans. The first Europeans to arrive in the region in any numbers were missionaries who had limited success in converting the locals, but did open the region to colonization; the increased contact with the rest of the world led to a series of devastating epidemics affecting both humans and livestock. While seen as a region with great potential after independence, the region has in recent decades been marred by civil war and conflict, which only Tanzania has escaped. According to the UNHCR, Tanzania hosted the most Congolese refugees of the region; the worst affected areas have been left in great poverty. The highlands are cool, with average temperatures ranging between 17 °C and 19 °C and abundant rainfall. Major drainage basins include those of the Congo-Zaire and Zambezi rivers, which drain into the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Indian Ocean, respectively. Forests are dominant in the lowlands of the Congo-Zaire Basin, while grasslands and savannas are most common in the southern and eastern highlands.

Temperatures in the lowlands average about 95 °F. Around Lake Turkana, the climate is hot and dry. A short rainy season in October is followed by a longer one from April to May; the Western Rift Valley lakes are home to an extraordinary number of endemic species. More than 1,500 cichlid fish species live in the lakes, as well as other fish families; the lakes are important habitats for a number of amphibian species. Nile crocodiles are numerous. Mammals include elephants and hippopotamus; the Lake Turkana area is home to hundreds of species of birds endemic to Kenya. The flamingo wades in its shallows; the East African rift system serves as a flyway for migrating birds, bringing in hundreds more. The birds are supported by plankton masses in the lake, which feed the fish there. Vegetation ranges from rainforest to savanna grasses. In some lakes growing invasive plants, like the surface-choking water hyacinth and shore-clogging papyrus, are problems. Water hyacinth have thus far affected only Lake Victoria.

Until 12 million years ago, the bountiful waters of the equatorial plateau either flowed west into the Congo River system or east to the Indian Ocean. Creation of the Great Rift Valley changed that. A rift is a weak place in Earth's crust due to the separation of two tectonic plates accompanied by a graben, or trough, in which lake water can collect; this rift began when East Africa, impelled by currents in the mantle, began separating from the rest of Africa, moving to the northeast. The basins that resulted from the geological uplifts filled with water. Lake Victoria is not within the Rift Valley, it occupies a depression between the Eastern and Western Rifts, formed by the uplift of the rifts to either side. Around two to three million years ago, Lake Turkana was larger and the area more fertile, making it a center for early hominids. Richard Leakey led numerous anthropological excavations in the area, which yielded many important discoveries of hominin remains; the two-million-year-old Skull 1470 was found in 1972.

It was thought to be Homo habilis, but some anthropologists have assigned it to a new species, Homo rudolfensis, named after the lake. In 1984, the Turkana Boy, a nearly complete skeleton of a Homo erectus boy was discovered. More a 3,500,000-year-old skull was discovered there, named K

The Small Knives

The Small Knives are an acoustic duo from Melbourne, Australia. The Small Knives are an acoustic duo composed of Leo Mullins and Phil Romeril, both of the group 2 Litre Dolby. After relocating from Sydney to Melbourne, 2 Litre Dolby gained a strong following through their three releases and renowned live shows. After 2 Litre Dolby parted ways in mid 2000, Leo and Phil formed The Friendly Injun using a more minimal ethic towards song writing, they combined fan powered organ and strong harmonies. The Friendly Injun changed their name to The Small Knives; the band started recording their debut album in October 2002. In 2004 their debut album Rain on Tin was released; the Small Knives have shared stages with Nick Cave, The Dirty Three and Wine, Bill Callahan, Evan Dando, Art of Fighting, Preston School of Industry, Mark Eitzel, Machine Translations, New Buffalo and Architecture in Helsinki. In 2002 they performed at the Harvest Festival and played on the Gene Clark tribute album You Can't Hide Your Love Forever.

In 2007 they performed at All Tomorrow's Parties in Minehead UK. In 2009 they played at the Nick Cave curated ATP at mt Buller Rain on Tin'Smoke & Ribbons' The Small Knives website The Small Knives MySpace website

Universitas 21

Universitas 21 is a network of research-intensive universities that empowers its members to share excellence, collaborate across borders and nurture global knowledge exchange. Committed to promoting the value of internationalisation and multinational collaboration, U21 facilitates the delivery of programmes and initiatives, which could not be delivered through a single university or via bi-lateral agreements, it was founded in Melbourne, Australia in 1997, with 11 members, has grown to include twenty-seven member universities in eighteen different countries and territories. The universities collaborate on student mobility, student employability, researcher engagement and educational innovation, it offers student competitions including the Three Minute Thesis®, the U21/PwC Innovation Challenge and the RISE Showcase. Since 2012, Universitas 21 has commissioned the "U21 Ranking of National Higher Education Systems". Produced by researchers at the University of Melbourne, this ranking aims to show which countries create a "strong environment" that allows universities to contribute to growth, provide a high-quality student experience and help institutions compete globally.

It evaluates the standing of national higher education systems by providing rankings in four broad areas: resources, environment and output. The rankings are combined to provide an overall ranking; the ranking is adjusted by GDP per capita, which allows countries to be compared to others at a similar stage of economic development. Universitas 21 has Consultative Status with the Social Affairs Council. List of higher education associations and alliances U21 Universitas21