The African Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator as well as the prime meridian. It includes much of the continent of Africa, as well as oceanic crust which lies between the continent and various surrounding ocean ridges. Between 60 million years ago and 10 million years ago, the Somali Plate began rifting from the African Plate along the East African Rift. Since the continent of Africa consists of crust from both the African and the Somali plates, some literature refers to the African Plate as the Nubian Plate to distinguish it from the continent as a whole; the western edge of the African Plate is a divergent boundary with the North American Plate to the north and the South American Plate to the south which forms the central and southern part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The African Plate is bounded on the northeast by the Arabian Plate, the southeast by the Somali Plate, the north by the Eurasian Plate, the Aegean Sea Plate, the Anatolian Plate, on the south by the Antarctic Plate.
All of these are divergent or spreading boundaries with the exception of the northern boundary and a short segment near the Azores known as the Terceira Rift. The African Plate includes several cratons, stable blocks of old crust with deep roots in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle, less stable terranes, which came together to form the African continent during the assembly of the supercontinent Pangea around 250 million years ago; the cratons are, from south to north, the Kalahari Craton, Congo Craton, Tanzania Craton and West African Craton. The cratons were separated in the past, but came together during the Pan-African orogeny and stayed together when Gondwana split up; the cratons are connected by orogenic belts, regions of deformed rock where the tectonic plates have engaged. The Saharan Metacraton has been tentatively identified as the remains of a craton that has become detached from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle, but alternatively may consist of a collection of unrelated crustal fragments swept together during the Pan-African orogeny.
In some areas, the cratons are covered by sedimentary basins, such as the Tindouf Basin, Taoudeni Basin and Congo Basin, where the underlying archaic crust is overlaid by more recent Neoproterozoic sediments. The plate includes shear zones such as the Central African Shear Zone where, in the past, two sections of the crust were moving in opposite directions, rifts such as the Anza Trough where the crust was pulled apart, the resulting depression filled with more modern sediment; the African Plate is rifting in the eastern interior of the African continent along the East African Rift. This rift zone separates the African Plate to the west from the Somali Plate to the east. One hypothesis proposes the existence of a mantle plume beneath the Afar region, whereas an opposing hypothesis asserts that the rifting is a zone of maximum weakness where the African Plate is deforming as plates to its east are moving northward; the African Plate's speed is estimated at around 2.15 cm per year. It has been moving over the past 100 million years or so in a general northeast direction.
This is drawing it closer to the Eurasian Plate, causing subduction where oceanic crust is converging with continental crust. In the western Mediterranean, the relative motions of the Eurasian and African plates produce a combination of lateral and compressive forces, concentrated in a zone known as the Azores–Gibraltar Fault Zone. Along its northeast margin, the African Plate is bounded by the Red Sea Rift where the Arabian Plate is moving away from the African Plate; the New England hotspot in the Atlantic Ocean has created a short line of mid- to late-Tertiary age seamounts on the African Plate but appears to be inactive. USGS - Understanding plate motions Meijer, P. Th.. "Cenozoic dynamics of the African plate with emphasis on the Africa-Eurasia collision". Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 104: 7405–7418. Bibcode:1999JGR...104.7405M. Doi:10.1029/1999JB900009
Di-Dar is the ninth and last Cantonese album by Hong Kong singer Faye Wong, released in December 1995 through Cinepoly. The album marked a shift from Wong's earlier style as she incorporated British psychedelic rock and ragga into her work, showcasing her evolving alternative musical influences. Di-dar featured compositions by Wong with arrangements by her then-husband Dou Wei, production by Zhang Yadong and lyrics by Lin Xi; the album was both a commercial success, selling 1.5 million copies across Asia. Di-dar peaked at number one in Hong Kong according to Billboard magazine. Di-Dar ranked at number 27 in Ming Pao Weekly's list of "40 Classic Cantopop Albums of the Last 40 Years" published in October 2008. Music journalist Fung Lai-Chee described it as "the best psychedelic and best-selling avant-garde work in Cantonese pop, with songs that are self-centred, ignoring market and others' work. Abstruse and mysterious." Di-Dar 假期 – Vacation 迷路 – Stray 曖昧 – Ambiguous 或者 – Maybe 我想 – I Think 享受 – Enjoyment 一半 – One Half 無題 – 流星 – Comet Di-Dar at Discogs
Joyce Angela Jellison is an American author and Juris Doctor living in New England. She is a graduate of Bay Path College in Longmeadow, Massachusetts, she holds a law degree from Massachusetts School of Law in Massachusetts. Joyce Angela Jellison was born in Philadelphia, the youngest of four children, she attended Pennsylvania State University for a short time before leaving and joining the United States Army Reserve. Upon returning home from basic training, she attended the Art Institute of Philadelphia. Frustrated with her academic performance and taking the advice of a teacher to focus on writing, Jellison moved to New England, she was a stringer for The Lynn Sunday Post. "I think I was the worst reporter there was," she says of this time. "I was the hungriest and took any story that came my way. I hung around a lot and as a result I stumbled on some great stories. I did not know anything about journalism. I got that job with an essay I wrote at home and an article from a high school news project."
In 1999, she graduated from Urban College of a two-year college. She moved to Lenoir, North Carolina, where she was hired by the Lenoir News-Topic as a business writer; that year she won the 1999 North Carolina Press Association Award for News Enterprise Journalism on her stories about life in prison and an Associated Press Citation for her work during the criminal trial of Robert Frederick Glass, a man convicted of murdering Sharon Lopatka, a Maryland woman. "It was my first exposure to daily news," Jellison says. "I learned as I wrote and I managed to focus on stories that were of interest to me. I learned I had a taste for uncovering social injustices and this is what I did or tried to do. At the same time, I was battling the good ole boy mentality. I was the only black and the only woman at a lot of these newspapers and it was a constant challenge." After nearly a year at the News-Topic, Jellison was hired as a crime reporter for the Hickory Daily Record. In 2000, she was awarded the Media General Award for Journalism Excellence for her story AIDS in prison, the article was picked up by the Associated Press, highlighted the need for more intensive medical care and HIV education in the North Carolina Prison System.
Jellison wrote an article for Poz magazine, "Hair Come the Condoms", which detailed the efforts of hairstylists in Durham, North Carolina, to education their customers on the importance of using condoms to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. In addition to her stories focusing on HIV and AIDS, Jellison wrote articles on North Carolina's Death Row. Motivated by her need to cover larger stories, she accepted a job as a city government reporter for the Charlotte Leader, in Charlotte, North Carolina. In 2002, she would move to Elizabeth City, North Carolina, to work as a layout editor for the Daily Advance. "I think I have worked in every capacity possible in a newsroom," Jellison has said. "The one thing I did not like was editing. It was like be trapped in a cage. I would read stories and knew I could write them better or at least ask the questions that were not be asked." Jellison moved back to Boston in 2005. Since her return she has transitioned from journalism to performing her poetry as a spoken-word artist in various venues in the New England area such as the famed Lizard Lounge and Cantab Lounge in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Her work has been featured in The Boston Globe and The MetroWest Daily News. She has said she enjoys the freedom of being a freelance writer, she is a staff writer for an online magazine examining race and identity. Jellison has been publicly forthcoming on her battle with bi-polar disorder. "It is not something I could hide," she has said. "I mean there were times when it was obvious I was balancing the reality in my head and the place which my body exists. If someone asked I never lied - but most people were afraid to ask or it didn't matter; as long as I produced the stories it didn't matter to most editors." She is the author of Where Everything Fits Beautifully, released on April 11, 2007, Black Apple, a collection of poems, short stories, essays released in August 2008, Tongue. Her work has been compared to that of Nikki Giovanni. Joyce Angela Jellison website