African Romance

African Romance or African Latin is an extinct Romance language, assumed to have been spoken in the Roman province of Africa by the Roman Africans during the Roman and early Byzantine Empires and several centuries after the annexation of the region by the Umayyad Caliphate in 696. African Roman is poorly attested as it was a spoken, vernacular language, a sermo rusticus, it was, along with other languages spoken in the region such as Berber languages, subsequently suppressed and supplanted by Arabic after the Muslim conquest of the area. The Roman province of Africa was organized in 146 BC following the defeat of Carthage in the Third Punic War. Carthage, destroyed following the war, was rebuilt in the dictatorship of Julius Caesar as a Roman colony. In the time of the Roman Empire, the province had become populous and prosperous, Carthage was the second-largest Latin-speaking city in the Empire. Latin was, however an urban and coastal speech, it is probable. Africa was occupied by the Germanic Vandal tribe for over a century, between 429 and 534, when the province was reconquered by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I.

The changes that occurred in spoken Latin during that time are unknown. What happened to African Romance following the Arab conquest in 696 is difficult to trace, though it was soon replaced by Arabic as the primary administrative language. At the time of the conquest a Romance language was spoken in the cities and Berber languages were spoken in the region. Loanwords from Northwest African Romance to Berber are attested and are in the accusative form: examples include atmun from temonem, it is unclear for how long Romance continued to be spoken, but its influence on Northwest African Arabic indicates it must have had a significant presence in the early years after the Arab conquest. Spoken Latin or Romance is attested in Gabès by Ibn Khordadbeh, in Béja, Biskra and Niffis by al-Bakri and in Gafsa and Monastir by al-Idrisi; the latter said of Gafsa that "its inhabitants are Berberised, most of them speak the African Latin tongue."The Normans, when they were acquiring their African kingdom in the 12th century, received help from the remaining Christian populations of Tunisia, some historians such as Vermondo Brugnatelli argue that those Christians still spoke a Romance language.

The language existed until the arrival of the Banu Hilal Arabs in the 11th century and until the beginning of the fourteenth century according to scholar Andrew H. Merrills and others. According to Alan Rushworth, "Christian communities labelled Afariqa or Ajam in the Arab sources and speaking a Latin dialect... are known to have survived until the fourteenth century." Some linguists, like the philologist Heinrich Lausberg, proposed to classify Sardinian as the sole living representative of a Southern group of the Romance languages, that once comprised the African Latin dialects, as well as the Corsican dialects spoken prior to the island's Tuscanization. Muhammad al-Idrisi gives us a single but important datum: writing on the island of Sardinia in his work defines its inhabitants: "The Sardinians are ethnically Roman Africans, live like the Berbers, shun any other nation of Rûm; that describes the evolution of vowels in the Sardinian language, which has only five vowels: unlike some other surviving Romance languages, the five long and short vowel pairs of classical Latin have merged into five single vowels with no length distinction.

Italian and Romanian have seven, while Catalan have eight. Other Romance languages spoken in Northwest Africa before the European colonization were the Mediterranean Lingua Franca, a pidgin with Arabic and Romance influences, Judaeo-Spanish, a dialect of Spanish brought by Sephardi Jews; the Italian linguist Vermondo Brugnatelli pinpoints some Berber words, relating to religious topics, as being words from Latin: for example, in Ghadames the word "äng'alus" refers to a spiritual entity using a word from the Latin angelus "angel". The Polish Arabist T. Lewicki tried to reconstruct some sections of this language based on 85 lemmas derived from Northwest African toponyms and anthroponyms found in medieval sources. According to him, several other authors adventured themselves to discover be it some parts of this extinct language. Due to the historical presence in Northwest Africa of Classical Latin, modern Romance languages, as well as the influence of the Mediterranean Lingua Franca makes it difficult to differentiate the precise origin of words in Berber languages and in the varieties of Maghrebi Arabic.

Speaking, words from African Romance are: The words ending with -u and not -us.

Roger Marche

Roger Marche was a French footballer who played as a defender. He was part of the French national team during the 1958 World Cup tournaments, he was nicknamed Le Sanglier des Ardennes for the region. Marche, born in Villers-Semeuse, Ardennes, is one of the players with the most appearances in the French top division, having played 542 matches for the clubs Stade Reims and RC Paris, he was a member of the French national team from 1947 to 1959, became the most-capped player for France with 63 international matches played, surpassing Étienne Mattler's previous record of 46 caps set in 1940. Marche held the record until 1983, when the defender Marius Trésor established a new mark with his 64th cap. Several players since have surpassed that cap total. Marche died in 1997 in Charleville-Mézières. Stade Reims Division 1: 1948–49, 1952–53.


True gobies were a subfamily, the Gobiinae, of the goby family Gobiidae, although the 5th edition of the Fishes of the World does not subdivide the Gobiidae into subfamilies. They are found in all oceans and a few rivers and lakes. Altogether, the Gobiinae unite about 1149 described species in 160 genera, new ones are still being discovered in numbers, they are mid-sized to small ray-finned fishes. Most true gobies are less than 10 cm long when grown; the largest species Glossogobius. In many true gobies, the pelvic fins have grown together into a suction cup they can use to hold on to substrate. Most have two dorsal fins, the first made up from spiny fin rays, while the other has some spines in the front followed by numerous soft rays, they are most plentiful in the tropical and subtropical regions, but as a group are cosmopolitan in marine ecosystems. A few species tolerate brackish water, some – Padogobius and Pomatoschistus species – inhabit fresh water, they are benthic as adults, only Sufflogobius bibarbatus is noted to be quite pelagic throughout its life.

Most are somewhat territorial. In some cases, they live in symbioses such as crustaceans; the larger species are fished in some cases on a commercial scale. Many Gobiinae species are popular aquarium fish. Popular are the colorful species, some of which are traded. In general, the interesting behavior and bold habits make. However, their territoriality and because the smallest species are fundamentally carnivorous and need living food to thrive make them not easy to keep; as typical for oceanic fishes, many Gobiinae tend to be impossible to breed in captivity, some species have become rare from habitat destruction and overfishing. This subfamily contains about 160 genera and 1120 species