SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

African Slave Trade Patrol

African Slave Trade Patrol was part of the suppression of the Atlantic slave trade between 1819 and the beginning of the American Civil War in 1861. Due to the abolitionist movement in the United States, a squadron of U. S. Navy warships were assigned to catch slave traders around Africa; the operations were ineffective as after 42 years only about 100 suspected slave ships were captured. The first American squadron was sent to Africa in 1819 and for several years after the ships were rotated out, there was not a constant American naval presence off Africa until the 1840s. In the two decades between few slave ships were captured as there were not enough United States Navy ships to patrol over 3,000 miles of African coastline, as well as the vast American coasts and the ocean in between; the slavers knew that if they hoisted a Spanish or Portuguese flag they could escape pursuit. Congress made it difficult for the navy to keep a small force in Africa until 1842 when the Webster–Ashburton Treaty with the United Kingdom was signed.

Commodore Matthew C. Perry was sent to command the Africa Squadron again after serving as the commander in 1821 aboard USS Shark, his arrival marked the beginning of America's growing effectiveness in the suppression though the overall victories were insignificant compared to the Royal Navy's West Africa Squadron in the same period. The British captured hundreds of slave ships and fought several naval battles, their success was due to the superior size of their navy and supply bases located in Africa itself; the combined efforts of both the British and the United States freed thousands of slaves but the trade continued on and the operation was expanded to the West Indies and the Indian Ocean. The Brazil Squadron, the West Indies Squadron, the East India Squadron and the Home Squadron were all responsible for capturing at least a few slavers each. On 13 June 1844, the brig USS Truxtun was placed back in commission with Commander Henry Bruce in charge. Two weeks she sailed down the Delaware River and passed between the capes and into the Atlantic.

After visiting Funchal, the ship joined the African Station off Tenerife in the Canary Islands. For the next sixteen months, Truxtun patrolled off West Africa, visiting Monrovia and Sierra Leone, where slaves were freed. Truxtun sailed to Maio islands of Santiago, São Vicente; the Americans captured only one slaver on their cruise in 1845, the New Orleans schooner named Spitfire. The vessel was taken without incident. Though she was only about 100 tons, she carried 346 slaves; the Americans discovered that she had landed 339 slaves near Matanzas, in Cuba, the year before. Commander Bruce reported that "between her decks, where the slaves were packed, there was not room enough for a man to sit, unless inclining his head forward. No one can imagine the sufferings of slaves on their passage across, unless the conveyances in which they are taken are examined. A good hearty negroe costs but twenty dollars, or thereabouts, brings from three to four hundred dollars in Cuba." The capture of Spitfire gave the American Navy the incentive to increase the strength of the Africa Squadron, the ship was fitted out and used in anti-slavery operations.

On October 30, 1845, Truxtun weighed anchor at Monrovia, she headed west towards Gosport Navy Yard which she reached on November 23. She was decommissioned on November 28; the brig USS Perry served in the South Atlantic with the Brazil Squadron beginning in 1847. Perry got under way from Philadelphia on May 16, 1847, with specific orders to patrol between Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires, Argentina. Lieutenant John A. Davis was informed that suspected slavers in the American barque Ann D. Richardson were bound for the coast of Africa under false papers. Perry seized the ship off Rio de Janeiro on December 16 and two days she seized the American brig Independence. Investigation proved that both ships had been engaged in the slave trade and were sent to, New York City, as prizes; the captain of Independence was outraged about his arrest and petitioned Commodore George W. Storer but to no avail. USS Perry returned to Norfolk on July 10, 1849, decommissioned there four days later, she served in Africa again but only for a short while until she sailed back to New York.

One of the American's more significant victories in the operation was the capture of the slave ship Martha. On June 6 of 1850, under Lieutenant Davis, discovered the large rigged ship Martha of Ambriz while she was standing in to shore. Soon after, as Perry came within gun range, Lieutenant Davis and his men witnessed some of Martha's crew throwing a desk over the side while raising the American flag; the slavers did not realize that the brig was a United States Navy vessel until an officer and a few enlisted men were dispatched, at which time they lowered the American ensign and raised a Brazilian flag. When the officer reached Martha's deck, the captain denied having any papers, so a boat was sent after the desk, still floating, all the necessary evidence was recovered. After that the slave trader admitted to Davis that he was a United States citizen and his ship was equipped for blackbirding. A hidden deck was found below with a large amount of farina and beans, over 400 wooden spoons, metal devices used to restrain slaves.

It was learned that the captain of Martha was expecting a shipment of 1,800 Africans when Perry appeared. Martha was sent with a prize crew to New York City where she was condemned and the slaver captain paid 3,000 dollars to escape prison; the 1,066 ton clipper ship USS Nightingale sailed a

Jules René Bourguignat

Jules René Bourguignat was a French malacologist, a scientist who studied mollusks. He served as secretary-general of the Société malacologique de France. During his lifetime, he traveled visiting, for example, Lake Tanganyika and North Africa, he defined 112 new genera and around 2540 new species of mollusks. Bourguignat named and described many genera and species of mollusks, including: Aspatharia Bourguignat, 1885, a genus of freshwater mussel. Bridouxia Bourguignat, 1885, a genus of freshwater snail. Lanistes alexandri Bourguignat, 1850, a species of freshwater snail. Reymondia Bourguignat, 1885, a genus of freshwater snail. Spekia Bourguignat, 1879, a genus of freshwater snail. 1853-1880. Aménités malacologiques. Paris, 2 vol. 45 pl. regroupant 85 mémoires dans les domaines de la paléontologie, l'archéologie, la botanique et la malacologie. 1861-1862. Spicilèges malacologiques. Paris, 1 vol. 15 pl. regroupant 15 mémoires. 1876-1885. Species novissimae Molluscorum in europaeo systemati detectae, notis diagnosticis succinctis breviter descriptae.

Paris. 1852. Testacea novissima quae Cl. de Saulcy, in itinere per Orientem, annis 1850 et 1851, collegit. Lutetiae. 1853. Catalogue raisonné des Mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles recueillis par M. F. de Saulcy, pendant son voyage en Orient. Paris, 4 pl. 1854. Monographie des espèces françaises du genre Sphaerium, suivie d'un catalogue synonymique des Sphéries constatées en France à l'état fossile. Bordeaux, 4 pl. 1860. Malacologie terrestre de l'île du Château d'If, près Marseille. Paris, 2 pl. Bourguignat J. R. 1860. Malacologie terrestre et fluviatile de la Bretagne. Paris, 2 pl. Bourguignat J. R. 1860. Methodus conchyliologicus denominationis. Bourguignat J. R. 1861. Étude synonymique sur les mollusques des Alpes maritimes publiés par A. Risso en 1826. Paris: J. B. Baillière. 1862. Malacologie du Lac des Quatre-Cantons et de ses environs. Paris, 4 pl. Bourguignat J. R. 1862. Paleóntologie des mollusques fluviales de l'Algeie. Paris. 1863. Monographie du nouveau genre français Moitessieria. Paris, 2 pl. Bourguignat J. R. 1863-1870.

Mollusques nouveaux, litigieux ou peu connus. Paris, 2 vol. 49 pl. regroupant 12 décades. 1863. Volume 1. 1865. Volume? 1864. Malacologie de Grande Chartreuse. Paris, 103 p. 17 pl. Bourguignat J. R. 1864. Malacologie d'Aix-les-Bains. Paris, 86 p. 3 pl. 1864. Malacologie de l'Algérie, ou Histoire naturelle des animaux Mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles recueillis jusqu'à ce jour dans nos possessions du nord de l'Afrique. Paris, 58 pl. et 5 cartes. 1865. Monographie du nouveau genre Paladilhia. Paris, 21 p. 1 pl. 1866. Recherches sur la distribution géographique des Mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles en Algérie et dans les régions circonvoisines. Ann. Sc. nat. Zool. V, Paris, 2 cartes. 1869. Catalogue des Mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles des environs de Paris, à l'époque quaternaire. Paris, 32 p. 3 pl. 1869. "Inscriptions romaines de Vence", Bibliotheca Regia Monacensis. 1876-1877. Histoire des Clausilies vivantes et fossiles de France. Ann. Sc. nat. Zool.. Paris. Bourguignat J. R. 1876. Species novissimae Molluscorum in Europaeo systemati detectae: notis diagnosticis succinctis breviter descriptae.

1877. Aperçu sur les espèces françaises du genre Succinea. Paris. Bourguignat J. R. 1880. Monographie du genre Emmericia. Angers: Lachèse et Dolbeau. 1880. Recensement des Vivipara du système européen. Paris. 1880-1881. Matériaux pour servir à l'histoire des Mollusques Acéphales du système européen. Poissy, 2 fascicules. Bourguignat J. R. 1883. Aperçu sur les Unionidae de la péninsule italique. Paris, Imprimerie de Jules Tremblay. 1883. Histoire malacologique de l'Abyssinie. Paris, 5 pl. et 1 carte. Bourguignat J. R. 1884. Histoire des mélaniens du système européen. Paris, Librairie des sciences naturelles, Paul Klincksieck. Bourguignat J. R.. Notice prodromique sur les mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles recueillis par M. Victor Giraud dans la region méridionale du lac Tanganika. Paris. 110 pp. Open Library List of principal works by Bourguignat. Georges Servain 1891. Oeuvres scientifiques de M. J.-R. Bourgignat: précédées d'une préface biographique. Paris: Impr. D. Dumoulin

Genre fiction

Genre fiction known as popular fiction, is a term used in the book-trade for fictional works written with the intent of fitting into a specific literary genre, in order to appeal to readers and fans familiar with that genre. Although genre fiction is distinguished from literary fiction, a number of major literary figures have written genre fiction, for example, John Banville publishes crime novels as Benjamin Black, both Doris Lessing, Margaret Atwood have written science fiction. Georges Simenon, the creator of the Maigret detective novels, has been described by André Gide as "the most novelistic of novelists in French literature"; the main genres are crime, romance, science fiction, inspirational, historical fiction and horror. More commercially oriented genre fiction has been dismissed by literary critics as poorly written or escapist. In the publishing industry the term "category fiction" is used as a synonym for genre fiction, with the categories serving as the familiar shelf headings within the fiction section of a bookstore, such as Western or mystery.

The uncategorized section is known in the industry as "general fiction", but in fact many of the titles in this large section are themselves genre novels that have been placed in the general section because sellers believe they will appeal, due to their high quality or other special characteristics, to a wider audience beyond readers of that specific genre. Some adult fans are embarrassed to read genre fiction in public; some authors known for literary fiction have written novels under pseudonyms, while others have employed genre elements in literary fiction. Romance fiction had an estimated $1.375 billion share in the US book market in 2007. Religion/inspirational literature followed with $819 million, science fiction/fantasy with $700 million, mystery with $650 million and classic literary fiction with $466 million. Genre began as an absolute classification system for ancient Greek literature. Poetry and drama each had a specific and calculated style that related to the theme of the story.

Among the genres were the epic in poetry and tragedy and comedy for plays. In periods other genres such as the chivalric romance and prose fiction developed. Though the novel is seen as a modern genre, Ian Watt, in The Rise of the Novel suggests that the novel first came into being in the early 18th century, it has been described as possessing "a continuous and comprehensive history of about two thousand years", from the time of both Classical Greece and Rome; the "romance" is a related long prose narrative. Walter Scott defined it as "a fictitious narrative in verse. However, many romances, including the historical romances of Scott, Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights and Herman Melville's Moby-Dick, are frequently called novels, Scott describes romance as a "kindred term". Romance, as defined here, should not be confused with the genre fiction love romance or romance novel. Other European languages do not distinguish between romance and novel: "a novel is le roman, der Roman, il romanzo."Genre fiction developed from various subgenres of the novel during the nineteenth century, along with the growth of the mass-marketing of fiction in the twentieth century: this includes the gothic novel, science fiction, adventure novel, historical romance, the detective novel.

Some scholars see precursors to the genre fiction romance novels in literary fiction of the 18th and 19th centuries, including Samuel Richardson's sentimental novel Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded and the novels of Jane Austen such as Pride and Prejudice. The following are some of the main genres as they are used in contemporary publishing: Crime fiction is the literary genre that fictionalises crimes, their detection and their motives, it is distinguished from mainstream fiction and other genres such as historical fiction or science fiction, but the boundaries are indistinct. Crime fiction has multiple subgenres, including detective fiction, courtroom drama, hard-boiled fiction, mystery fiction, legal thrillers. Suspense and mystery are key elements to the genre. Fantasy is a genre of fiction that uses magic or other supernatural elements as a main plot element, theme, or setting. Many works within the genre take place in imaginary worlds where magic and magical creatures are common. Fantasy is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the expectation that it steers clear of scientific and macabre themes though there is a great deal of overlap among the three, all of which are subgenres of speculative fiction.

Fantasy works feature a medieval setting. The romance novel or "romantic novel" focuses on the relationship and romantic love between two people, must have an "emotionally satisfying and optimistic ending." There are many subgenres of the romance novel including fantasy, science fiction, same sex romantic fiction, paranormal fiction. There is a literary fiction form of romance, which Walter Scott defined as "a fictitious narrative in prose or verse. According to Romance Writers of America's data, the most popular subgenres are: Romantic suspense, Contemporary romance, Historical romance, Erotic romance, Paranormal romance, Young adult romance, Christian romance Other: Inspirational romance, chick-lit, Contemporary series romance, women's fiction. Science fiction is a genre of speculative fiction dea