This page refers to the Afrikaner Broederbond. For its incarnation see Afrikanerbond. For the political party formed in 1881 by Rev S. J. du Toit, see Afrikaner Bond. For the unrelated company, see Brøderbund; the Afrikaner Broederbond or Broederbond was a secret male and Afrikaner Calvinist organisation in South Africa dedicated to the advancement of Afrikaner interests. It was founded by H. J. Klopper, H. W. van der Merwe, D. H. C. du Plessis and Rev. Jozua Naudé in 1918 and was known as Jong Zuid Afrika until 1920, when it became the Broederbond, its large influence within South African political and social life, came to a climax with the rise of apartheid, designed and implemented by Broederbond members. Between 1948 and 1994, many prominent figures of South African political life, including all leaders of the government, were members of the Afrikaner Broederbond. Described as an "inner sanctum", "an immense informal network of influence", by Jan Smuts as a "dangerous, political fascist organization", in 1920 Jong Zuid Afrika, now restyled as the Afrikaner Broederbond, was a grouping of 37 white men of Afrikaner ethnicity, Afrikaans language, the Calvinist faith, who shared cultural, semi-religious, political objectives based on traditions and experiences dating back to the arrival of Dutch white settlers, French Huguenots, German at the Cape in the 17th and 18th centuries and including the dramatic events of the Great Trek in the 1830s and 1840s.
Ivor Wilkins and Hans Strydom recount how, on the occasion of its 50th anniversary, a leading broeder said: for understandable reasons it was difficult to explain aims…n the beginning people were allowed in…who thought it was just another cultural society. The precise intentions of the founders are not clear. Was the group intended to counter the dominance of the British and the English language, or to redeem the Afrikaners after their defeat in the Second Anglo-Boer War, it sought to protect a culture, build an economy and seize control of a government. The remarks of the organisation's chairman in 1944 offer a different, more accurate interpretation in the context of the post-Boer War and post- World War I era, when Afrikaners were suffering through a maelstrom of social and political changes: The Afrikaner Broederbond was born out of the deep conviction that the Afrikaner volk has been planted in this country by the Hand of God, destined to survive as a separate volk with its own calling.
In other words, the traditional pious Calvinism of the Afrikaners, a pastoral people with a difficult history in South Africa since the mid-17th century, supplied an element of Christian predestination that led to a determination to wrest the country from the English-speaking British and place its future in the hands of the Afrikaans-speaking Afrikaners, whatever that might mean for the large black and mixed-race population. To the old thirst for sovereignty that had prompted the Great Trek into the interior from 1838 on, would be added a new thirst for total independence and Nationalism; these two threads merged to form a "Christian National" civil religion that would dominate South African life from 1948 to 1994. This was the historical context; the scorched earth policy of the British during the second Boer War devastated Boer lands. In British concentration camps, 27 000 Boer women and children had died; the Boer surrender at Vereeniging, though pragmatic, was humiliating. Lord Milner's inflammatory policy of Anglicisation rubbed salt into Afrikaner wounds, a backlash was inevitable.
The National Party and the Broederbond were the long-term and powerful results. The National Party had been established in 1914 by Afrikaner nationalists, it first came to power in 1924. Ten years its leader J. B. M. Hertzog and Jan Smuts of the South African Party merged their parties to form the United Party; this angered a contingent of hardline nationalists under D. F. Malan, who broke away to form the ’’Purified National Party’’. By the time World War II broke out, resentment of the British had not subsided. Malan's party opposed South Africa's entry into the war on the side of the British. Jan Smuts had commanded the British Army in East Africa in World War I and was amenable to backing the Allies a second time; this was the spark Afrikaner nationalism needed. Hertzog, in favour of neutrality, quit the United Party when a narrow majority in his cabinet backed Smuts, he started the Afrikaner Party which would amalgamate with D. F. Malan's ’’Purified National Party’’ to become the force that would take over South African politics for the next 46 years, until majority rule and Nelson Mandela's election in 1994.
Although the press had maintained a steady trickle of unsourced exposés of the inner workings and membership of the Broederbond since the 1960s, the first comprehensive exposé of the organisation was a book written by Ivor Wilkins and Hans Strydom, The Super-Afrikaners. Inside the Afrikaner Broederbond, first published in 1978; the most notable and discussed section of the book was the last section which consisted of a near-comprehensive list of 7500 Broederbond members. The Broederbond was portrayed as Die Stigting Adriaan Delport in the 1968 South African feature film Die Kandidaat, directed by Jans Rautenbach and produced by Emil Nofal; the chairmen of the Broederbond were: Every Prime Minister and State President in South Africa from 1948 to the end of Apartheid in 1994 was a member of the Afrikaner Broederbond. Once the Herenigde Nasionale Party
Ewn Garabandal is a Lombard novelist, best known for his novel "Feha Gìbuss e il Libro della Profezia", a fantasy book about angels and demons published in hardcover in 2007. Ewn Garabandal is a pen name used by Fabio Ghezzi, an Italian writer and designer born in Monza in 1978, he graduated at San Giuseppe Institute from Monza with a major in Arts. From 1995 to 1998 he collaborated with the local newspaper from Monza, the "Cittadino". From 1997 to 2004 he collaborated with the "Gruppo Netweek" journals writing the Sports column. Since 1997 he has been enrolled in the Lombardy journalist register. In the late 90s he worked as a bartender. In 2004 he graduated in Industrial Design at the Politechincs of Milano II Bovisa, with the highest grades of 110/110. In August 2007 he experienced the Santiago de Compostela pilgrimage starting from Saint Jean-Pie-De-Port and walking for 780 km, as to follow the primary path. In 2007 Garabandal made his debut with the editor Ugo Mursia from Milan with the fantasy novel entitled "Feha Gìbuss e il Libro della Profezia".
In April 2009 the black novel named. In 2009 he completed the first draft of his third novel, temporary entitled "MM", was working on two other projects. Feha Gìbuss e il Libro della Profezia, Milan Cadde l'Angelo, Milan Official Website Since January 2009 the official web site
Jamaal Torrance is an American sprinter, who specializes in the 400 meters. In 2005, Torrance Anchored an NCAA Division II Outdoors 4 x 400 m runner up team and placed seventh at the NCAA Division II Outdoors. In 2006, Torrance came in fourth at the NCAA Division II Outdoors, became the NCAA Division II Indoor champion, anchored for the winning team at the NCAA Division II 4 x 400 m At the 2007 Pan American Games, Torrance won a silver medal being part of the 4 x 400 m relay. Torrence finished seventh in the 400 meters with a time of 46.06. At the 2008 IAAF World Indoor Championships, Torrance won a gold medal being part of the 4 x 400 m relay. At the 2010 IAAF World Indoor Championships, Torrance won a bronze medal in the 400 meters with a time of 46.43 and a gold medal in the 4 x 400 m relay. Jamaal Torrance at World Athletics USATF bio: Jamaal Torrance
The Russian diaspora is the global community of ethnic Russians. The Russian-speaking diaspora are the people for whom Russian language is the native language, regardless of whether they are ethnic Russians or, for example, Tatars, or Jews; the number of ethnic Russians living outside the Russian Federation is estimated at between 20 and 30 million people, the majority of them in countries of the Former Soviet Union. The largest overseas community is found in the United States, estimated at some 3.1 million people. The next largest communities of Russian speakers outside the former Soviet Union are found in Germany and in Israel, both of unknown size but estimated at around 1.2 million people in Germany and around 1,000,000 in Israel. In addition, in Canada, Argentina, The United Kingdom, New Zealand and Venezuela, several hundred thousand citizens each identify as being of at least partial Russian descent. A significant ethnic Russian emigration took place in the wake of the Old Believer schism in the 17th century.
Ethnic Russian communities, such as the Doukhobors emigrated as religious dissidents fleeing centrist authority. Emigration from the USSR is broken down into three "waves" of emigration; the waves are the "First Wave", or "White Wave", which left during the Communist Revolution of 1917 and the following civil war, the "Second Wave" which emigrated during and after World War Two, the "Third Wave", which emigrated throughout the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s, 1980s. A sizable wave of ethnic Russians emigrated in the wake of the October Revolution of 1917 and Civil War of 1917-1922, they became known collectively as the White émigrés. This emigration is referred to as the "first wave" though previous emigrations had taken place, as it was comprised the first emigrants to have left in the wake of the communist revolution, because it exhibited a political character. A smaller group of Russians referred to by Russians as the "second wave" of Russian emigration, left during World War II, they were refugees, Soviet POWs, eastern workers, or surviving veterans of the Russian Liberation Army and other anti-communist armed units who had served under the German command and evaded forced repatriation.
In the immediate postwar period, the largest Russian communities in the emigration settled in Germany, the U. S. United Kingdom and Australia. Emigres who left after the death of Stalin, but before perestroika, are grouped into a "third wave"; these emigres were Jews, Armenians and other peoples who resided outside the former borders of the Russian Empire but now found themselves inside the borders of the USSR. This majority of this wave left during the 1970s. At the beginning of the 1990s, Russia experienced one of the most dramatic periods in its history; the collapse of the USSR resulted in an upsurge of international migrations to Russia, the overwhelming number of them involve population movements between Russia and other post-Soviet states. Some 20 to 30 million ethnic Russians are estimated to live outside the bounds of the Russian Federation. Official census data only considers nationality; the number of native speakers of the Russian language who reside outside of the Russian Federation is estimated as close to 30 million by SIL Ethnologue.
In the Former Soviet UnionFormer Warsaw PactOutside of the former Soviet Union or Warsaw Pact Today the largest ethnic Russian diasporas outside of Russia exist in former Soviet states such as Ukraine, Kazakhstan 2016, Latvia and Kyrgyzstan. The situation faced by ethnic Russian diasporas varied widely. In Belarus there was no perceivable change in status. While in Estonia and Latvia they were labelled foreigners or non-citizens if none of their ancestors had been a citizen of these countries before Soviet occupation and if they did not request Russian Federation citizenship during the period it was available. Russians are one of the 56 ethnic groups recognized by the People's Republic of China. There are 15,600, living in northern Xinjiang, in Inner Mongolia and Heilongjiang. In the 1920s Harbin was flooded with 100,000 to 200,000 Russian White émigrés fleeing from Russia; some Harbin Russians moved to other cities such as Shanghai and Tianjin. By the 1930s, Shanghai's Russian community had grown to more than 25,000.
There are smaller numbers of Russians in Japan and in Korea. The Japanese government disputes Russia's claim to the Kuril Islands, which were annexed by the USSR in 1945 after Japan's surrender in World War II; the Red Army expelled all Japanese from the island chain, resettled by Russians and other Soviet nationalities. A few Russians settled in the Korean peninsula in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the population of Russians in Singapore was estimated at no more than a thousand by the local Russian embassy in 2008. Russian settlement in Mexico was minimal but well documented i
Vanessa Rare is a New Zealand film and television actress, film screenwriter and director. She belongs to Ngāti Pu, Ngāti Porou, Pukenga and Ngāpuhi iwi. Rare's screen debut was as Rata in the 1990 comedy film Rata, she has acted in a number of movies, as well as holding an extended role on the soap opera Shortland Street as Te Hana Hudson from 2001 to 2005. In the 1990s Rare studied literature and television and film studies at the University of Auckland and began to write and direct television series and short films. In 2003 Rare was nominated for Best Script, Single Episode of a Drama Series or Serial for Mataku at the New Zealand Television Awards. In 2014 she was nominated for Best Supporting Actress for The Z-Nail Gang at the New Zealand Film Awards
Public Bath House No. 4 was a historic public bath located in the Nodine Hill section of Yonkers, Westchester County, New York. It was built in 1925 and was a two-story, six bay wide pastel stucco building in a Second Renaissance Revival / Mission style, it features a central pavilion flanked by recessed bays containing modified Palladian windows. The interior was in four sections: reception area, custodian's apartment, a swimming pool, it was maintained by the Laporta family Gabrielle Laporta of Colts Neck, NJ. The reception and shower areas were modernized in 1961, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1985, demolished in June 2011. Public Bath Number 4, New York