Pamela Suzette Grier is an American actress. Grier became known in the early 1970s for starring in a string of 1970s women in prison and blaxploitation films such as The Big Bird Cage, Foxy Brown, Sheba, Baby, she starred in Quentin Tarantino's 1997 crime film Jackie Brown, for which she received a Satellite Award and a Golden Globe nomination for Best Actress. She has been nominated for a SAG Award. For six seasons, Grier portrayed Kate "Kit" Porter on the Showtime television series The L Word, which ran from 2004, she received an Emmy nomination for her work in the animated program Happily Ever After: Fairy Tales for Every Child. Tarantino said. Grier was born on May 26, 1949, in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, the daughter of Gwendolyn Sylvia, a homemaker and nurse, Clarence Ransom Grier, Jr. who worked as a mechanic and technical sergeant in the United States Air Force. She has one brother. Grier has stated that she is of mixed ancestry consisting of African-American, Chinese and Cheyenne heritage.
At age 6, Grier was raped by two boys. "It took so long to deal with the pain of that," she says, "You try to deal with it, but you never get over it," she adds. "And not just me. Because of her father's military career, the family moved during her childhood to various places such as England before settling in Denver, where she attended East High School. While in Denver, she appeared in a number of stage productions, participated in beauty contests to raise money for college tuition at Metropolitan State College. Grier moved to Los Angeles, California, in 1967, where she was hired to work the switchboard at American International Pictures, she is believed to have been discovered by director Jack Hill, who cast her in his women-in-prison films The Big Doll House and The Big Bird Cage. While under contract at AIP, she became a staple of early 1970s blaxploitation movies, playing big, assertive women, beginning with Jack Hill's Coffy, in which she plays a nurse who seeks revenge on drug dealers.
Her character was advertised in the trailer as the "baddest one-chick hit-squad that hit town!" The film, filled with sexual and violent elements typical of the genre, was a box-office hit. Grier is considered to be the first African-American female to headline an action film, as protagonists of previous blaxploitation films were males. In his review of Coffy, critic Roger Ebert praised the film for its believable female lead, he noted that Grier was an actress of "beautiful face and astonishing form" and that she possessed a kind of "physical life" missing from many other attractive actresses. Grier subsequently played similar characters in the AIP films Foxy Brown, Sheba and Friday Foster. With the demise of blaxploitation in the 1970s, Grier appeared in smaller roles for many years, she acquired progressively larger character roles in the 1980s, including a druggie prostitute in Fort Apache, The Bronx, a witch in Something Wicked this Way Comes, Steven Seagal's detective partner in Above the Law.
She had a recurring role on Miami Vice from 1985 to 1989 and made guest appearances on Martin, Night Court, The Fresh Prince of Bel Air. She had a recurring role in the TV series Crime Story between 1986 and 1988, her role in Rocket Gibraltar was cut due to fears by the film's director, Daniel Petrie, of "repercussions from interracial love scenes." She appeared on Sinbad, Preston Chronicles, The Cosby Show, The Wayans Brothers Show, Mad TV. In 1994, Grier appeared in Snoop Dogg's video for "Doggy Dogg World". In the late 1990s, Grier was a cast member of the Showtime series Linc's, she appeared in 1996 in John Carpenter's Escape from L. A. and 1997 with the title role in Quentin Tarantino's Jackie Brown, films that paid homage to her 1970s blaxploitation movies. She was nominated for numerous awards for her work in the Tarantino film. Grier appeared on Showtime's The L Word; the series ran for six seasons and ended in March 2009. Grier guest-stars in such television series as Law & Order: Special Victims Unit.
In 2010, Grier began appearing in a recurring role on the hit science-fiction series Smallville as the villain Amanda Waller known as White Queen, head agent of Checkmate, a covert operations agency. She appeared as a colleague to Julia Roberts' college professor in 2011's Larry Crowne. In 2010, Grier wrote Foxy: My Life in Three Acts, with Andrea Cagan. In January 2018, Grier revealed a biopic based on her book is in Pam. Grier received an honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from the University of Maryland Eastern Shore in 2011; that same year, she received an honorary Doctorate of Science from Langston University. She started the Pam Grier Community Garden and Education Center with the National Multicultural Western Heritage Museum; the purpose is to teach people about organic gardening and nutrition among other things. Grier has had a few high profile relationships. Grier met basketball player Kareem Abdul-Jabbar. Soon after they began dating, he converted to Islam. Abdul-Jabbar gave her an ultimatum to convert to Islam.
He said, ``, I'm getting married at 2 this afternoon. She's a converted Muslim, she's been prepared for me," adding, "once you become Muslim, you might appreciate another wife." Grier declined, he got married that day. G
A dome is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere. The precise definition has been a matter of controversy. There are a wide variety of forms and specialized terms to describe them. A dome can rest upon a rotunda or drum, can be supported by columns or piers that transition to the dome through squinches or pendentives. A lantern may itself have another dome. Domes have a long architectural lineage that extends back into prehistory and they have been constructed from mud, stone, brick, metal and plastic over the centuries; the symbolism associated with domes includes mortuary and governmental traditions that have developed over time. Domes have been found from early Mesopotamia, they are found in Persian, Hellenistic and Chinese architecture in the Ancient world, as well as among a number of contemporary indigenous building traditions. Dome structures were popular in Byzantine and medieval Islamic architecture, there are numerous examples from Western Europe in the Middle Ages.
The Renaissance architectural style spread from Italy in the Early modern period. Advancements in mathematics and production techniques since that time resulted in new dome types; the domes of the modern world can be found over religious buildings, legislative chambers, sports stadiums, a variety of functional structures. The English word "dome" derives from the Latin domus from ancient Greek δόμος, which, up through the Renaissance, labeled a revered house, such as a Domus Dei, or "House of God", regardless of the shape of its roof; this is reflected in the uses of the Italian word duomo, the German/Icelandic/Danish word dom, the English word dome as late as 1656, when it meant a "Town-House, Guild-Hall, State-House, Meeting-House in a city." The French word dosme came to acquire the meaning of a cupola vault by 1660. This French definition became the standard usage of the English dome in the eighteenth century as many of the most impressive Houses of God were built with monumental domes, in response to the scientific need for more technical terms.
A dome is a rounded vault made of either curved segments or a shell of revolution, meaning an arch rotated around its central vertical axis. The terminology used has been a source of controversy, with inconsistency between scholars and within individual texts, but the term "dome" may be considered a "blanket-word to describe an hemispherical or similar spanning element." A half-dome or semi-dome is a semi-circular shape used in apses. Sometimes called "false" domes, corbel domes achieve their shape by extending each horizontal layer of stones inward farther than the lower one until they meet at the top. A "false" dome may refer to a wooden dome. "True" domes are said to be those whose structure is in a state of compression, with constituent elements of wedge-shaped voussoirs, the joints of which align with a central point. The validity of this is unclear, as domes built underground with corbelled stone layers are in compression from the surrounding earth; the Italian use of the term finto, meaning "false", can be traced back to the 17th century in the use of vaulting made of reed mats and gypsum mortar.
As with arches, the "springing" of a dome is the level. The top of a dome is the "crown"; the inner side of a dome is called the "intrados" and the outer side is called the "extrados". The "haunch" is the part of an arch that lies halfway between the base and the top; the word "cupola" is another word for "dome", is used for a small dome upon a roof or turret. "Cupola" has been used to describe the inner side of a dome. Drums called tholobates, are cylindrical or polygonal walls with or without windows that support a dome. A tambour or lantern is the equivalent structure over a dome's oculus. A masonry dome outward, they are thought of in terms of two kinds of forces at right angles from one another. Meridional forces are compressive only, increase towards the base, while hoop forces are in compression at the top and tension at the base, with the transition in a hemispherical dome occurring at an angle of 51.8 degrees from the top. The thrusts generated by a dome are directly proportional to the weight of its materials.
Grounded hemispherical domes generate significant horizontal thrusts at their haunches. Unlike voussoir arches, which require support for each element until the keystone is in place, domes are stable during construction as each level is made a complete and self-supporting ring; the upper portion of a masonry dome is always in compression and is supported laterally, so it does not collapse except as a whole unit and a range of deviations from the ideal in this shallow upper cap are stable. Because voussoir domes have lateral support, they can be made much thinner than corresponding arches of the same span. For example, a hemispherical dome can be 2.5 times thinner than a semicircular arch, a dome with the profile of an equilateral arch can be thinner still. The optimal shape for a masonry dome of equal thickness provides for perfect compression, with none of the tension or bending forces against which masonry is weak. For a particular material, the optimal dome geometry is called the funicular surface, the comparable shape in three dimensions to a catenary curve for a two-dimensional arch.
The pointed profiles of many Gothic domes more approximate this optimal shape than do hemispheres, which were favored by Roman and Byza
Circassian beauties is a phrase used to refer to an idealized image of the women of the Circassian people of the Northwestern Caucasus. A extensive literary history suggests that Circassian women were thought to be unusually beautiful and elegant, as such were desirable as concubines; this reputation dates back to the Late Middle Ages, when the Circassian coast was frequented by traders from Genoa, the founder of the Medici dynasty, Cosimo de' Medici, had an illegitimate son from a Circassian slave. During the Ottoman Empire and Persian Safavid and Qajar dynasties, Circassian women living as slaves in the Sultan's Imperial Harem and Shah's harems started to build their reputation as beautiful and genteel, which became a common trope in Western Orientalism; as a result of this reputation, in Europe and America Circassians were characterised as ideals of feminine beauty in poetry and art. Cosmetic products were advertised, from the 18th century on, using the word "Circassian" in the title, or claiming that the product was based on substances used by the women of Circassia.
In consequence, most wives of several Ottoman Sultans were ethnic Circassians converted to Islam, e.g. Valide Sultans, including Perestü Valide Sultan, Pertevniyal Valide Sultan, Şevkefza Valide Sultan, Tirimüjgan Valide Sultan, Nükhetseza Başhanımefendi, other important Hatuns and Sultans like Şemsiruhsar Hatun and Saçbağlı Sultan, Haseki sultans such as Mahidevran Haseki Sultan, Hümaşah Haseki Sultan, Hatice Muazzez Haseki Sultan, Ayşe Haseki Sultan besides numerous Başkadınefendis, including Bedrifelek I, Bidar II, Kamures I, Servetseza I as well as Kadınefendis such as Bezmara VI, Düzdidil III, Hayranıdil II, Meyliservet IV, Mihrengiz II, Neşerek III, Nurefsun II, Reftaridil II, Şayan III, amongst many others, or İkbals, most notable of them being Cevherriz II, Ceylanyar II, Dilfirib I, Nalanıdil III, Nergis IV in addition to Gözdes, including Dürdane I, Hüsnicenan III, Safderun IV, amongst others; the "golden age" of the Circassian beauty may be considered to be between the 1770s, when the Russian Empire seized the Crimean Khanate and cut off their slave trade in Eastern European women, which increased the demand for Circassian women in Near Eastern harems.
In the 1860s the showman P. T. Barnum exhibited, they wore a distinctive curly, big hair style, which had no precedent in earlier portrayals of Circassians, but, soon copied by other female performers in the United States, who became known as "moss-haired girls". This hair style was a sort of a exhibit's trademark and was achieved by washing the hair of women in beer, drying it and teasing it, it is not clear. It may have been a reference to the Circassian fur hat, rather than the hair. There were several classical Turkish music pieces and poems that praise the beauty of the "Lepiska Saçlı Çerkes"; the legend of Circassian women in the western world was enhanced in 1734, when, in his Letters on the English, Voltaire alludes to the beauty of Circassian women: The Circassians are poor, their daughters are beautiful, indeed it is in them they chiefly trade. They furnish with those beauties the seraglio of the Turkish Sultan, of the Persian Sophy, of all of those who are wealthy enough to purchase and maintain such precious merchandise.
These maidens are honorably and virtuously instructed how to fondle and caress men. Their beauty is mentioned in Henry Fielding's Tom Jones, in which Fielding remarked, "How contemptible would the brightest Circassian beauty, drest in all the jewels of the Indies, appear to my eyes!"Similar erotic claims about Circassian women appear in Lord Byron's Don Juan, in which the tale of a slave auction is told: The legend of Circassian women was repeated by legal theorist Gustav Hugo, who wrote that "Even beauty is more to be found in a Circassian slave girl than in a beggar girl", referring to the fact that a slave has some security and safety, but a "free" beggar has none. Hugo's comment was condemned by Karl Marx in The Philosophical Manifesto of the Historical School of Law on the grounds that it excused slavery. Mark Twain reported in The Innocents Abroad that "Circassian and Georgian girls are still sold in Constantinople by their parents, but not publicly."American travel author and diplomat Bayard Taylor in 1862 claimed that, "So far as female beauty is concerned, the Circassian women have no superiors.
They have preserved in their mountain home the purity of the Grecian models, still display the perfect physical loveliness, whose type has descended to us in the Venus de' Medici." An anthropological literary suggests that Circassians were best characterized by what was called "rosy pale" or "translucent white skin". While most Circassian tribes were famous for abundance of fair or dark blond and red hair combined with greyish-blue or green eyes, many had the pairing of dark hair with light complexions, a typical feature of Peoples of the Caucasus. Many of the Circassian women in the Ottoman harem were described as having "green eyes and long, dark blond hair, pale skin of translucent white colour, thin waist, slender body structure, good-looking hands and feet." The fact that Circassian women were
A hippie is a member of the counterculture of the 1960s a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to other countries around the world. The word hippie came from hipster and used to describe beatniks who moved into New York City's Greenwich Village and San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury district; the term hippie first found popularity in San Francisco with Herb Caen, a journalist for the San Francisco Chronicle. The origins of the terms hip and hep are uncertain. By the 1940s, both had meant "sophisticated; the Beats adopted the term hip, early hippies inherited the language and countercultural values of the Beat Generation. Hippies created their own communities, listened to psychedelic music, embraced the sexual revolution, many used drugs such as marijuana, LSD, psilocybin mushrooms to explore altered states of consciousness. In 1967, the Human Be-In in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, Monterey Pop Festival popularized hippie culture, leading to the Summer of Love on the West Coast of the United States, the 1969 Woodstock Festival on the East Coast.
Hippies in Mexico, known as jipitecas, formed La Onda and gathered at Avándaro, while in New Zealand, nomadic housetruckers practiced alternative lifestyles and promoted sustainable energy at Nambassa. In the United Kingdom in 1970, many gathered at the gigantic Isle of Wight Festival with a crowd of around 400,000 people. In years, mobile "peace convoys" of New Age travelers made summer pilgrimages to free music festivals at Stonehenge and elsewhere. In Australia, hippies gathered at Nimbin for the 1973 Aquarius Festival and the annual Cannabis Law Reform Rally or MardiGrass. "Piedra Roja Festival", a major hippie event in Chile, was held in 1970. Hippie and psychedelic culture influenced 1960s and early 1970s young culture in Iron Curtain countries in Eastern Europe. Hippie fashion and values had a major effect on culture, influencing popular music, film and the arts. Since the 1960s, mainstream society has assimilated many aspects of hippie culture; the religious and cultural diversity the hippies espoused has gained widespread acceptance, their pop versions of Eastern philosophy and Asian spiritual concepts have reached a larger audience.
Lexicographer Jesse Sheidlower, the principal American editor of the Oxford English Dictionary, argues that the terms hipster and hippie derive from the word hip, whose origins are unknown. The word hip in the sense of "aware, in the know" is first attested in a 1902 cartoon by Tad Dorgan, first appeared in prose in a 1904 novel by George Vere Hobart, Jim Hickey: A Story of the One-Night Stands, where an African-American character uses the slang phrase "Are you hip?" The term hipster was coined by Harry Gibson in 1944. By the 1940s, the terms hip and hepcat were popular in Harlem jazz slang, although hep came to denote an inferior status to hip. In Greenwich Village in the early 1960s, New York City, young counterculture advocates were named hips because they were considered "in the know" or "cool", as opposed to being square. In the April 27, 1961 issue of The Village Voice, "An open letter to JFK & Fidel Castro", Norman Mailer utilizes the term hippies, in questioning JFK's behavior. In a 1961 essay, Kenneth Rexroth used both the terms hipster and hippies to refer to young people participating in black American or Beatnik nightlife.
According to Malcolm X's 1964 autobiography, the word hippie in 1940s Harlem had been used to describe a specific type of white man who "acted more Negro than Negroes". Andrew Loog Oldham refers to "all the Chicago hippies," in reference to black blues/R&B musicians, in his rear sleeve notes to the 1965 LP The Rolling Stones, Now! The word hippie was used in reference to Philadelphia in at least two popular songs in 1963: South Street by The Orlons, You Can't Sit Down by The Dovells. In both songs, the term is applied to residents of Philadelphia's South Street. Although the word hippies made other isolated appearances in print during the early 1960s, the first use of the term on the West Coast appeared in the article "A New Paradise for Beatniks" by San Francisco journalist Michael Fallon. In that article, Fallon wrote about the Blue Unicorn Cafe, using the term hippie to refer to the new generation of beatniks who had moved from North Beach into the Haight-Ashbury district. New York Times editor and usage writer Theodore M. Bernstein said the paper changed the spelling from hippy to hippie to avoid the ambiguous description of clothing as hippy fashions.
A July 1968 Time magazine study on hippie philosophy credited the foundation of the hippie movement with historical precedent as far back as the sadhu of India, the spiritual seekers who had renounced the world by taking "Sannyas". The counterculture of the Ancient Greeks, espoused by philosophers like Diogenes of Sinope and the cynics were early forms of hippie culture, it named as notable influences the religious and spiritual teachings of Henry David Thoreau, Hillel the Elder, Buddha, St. Francis of Assisi, J. R. R. Tolkien; the first signs of modern "proto-hippies" emerged in fin de siècle Europe. Late 1890s to early 1900s, a German youth movement arose as a countercultural reaction to the organized social and cultural clubs that centered around "German folk music". Known as Der Wandervogel, the hippie movement opposed the formality of traditional German clubs, instead emphasizing folk music and singing, creative dress, outdoor
The Jackson 5
The Jackson 5 known as the Jacksons, were an American pop band composed of members of the Jackson family. The group was founded in 1964 in Gary, Indiana by brothers Jackie and Jermaine, with younger brothers Marlon and Michael Jackson joining soon after, they were among the first black American performers to attain a crossover following, preceded by the Supremes, the Four Tops, the Temptations. The Jackson 5 performed in talent shows and clubs on the Chitlin' Circuit signed with Steeltown Records in 1967 and released two singles. In 1968, they left Steeltown Records and signed with Motown, where they achieved 16 top-40 singles on the Hot 100; the group left Motown for Epic Records in 1975, with the exception of Jermaine, replaced by Randy. At Epic, they released five albums between 1976 and 1981, including the successful albums Destiny and Triumph and the singles "Enjoy Yourself", "Shake Your Body", "Can You Feel It"; the brothers released solo albums, most Michael, whose 1982 album Thriller became the best-selling album in history.
In 1983, Jermaine reunited with the band to perform on the Motown 25: Yesterday, Forever TV special. They released the Victory album the following year, followed by an extensive tour which featured songs from Michael's solo albums. After the Victory tour and Marlon Jackson left the group; the remaining four released the poorly received 2300 Jackson Street album in 1989 before being dropped from their label. In 2001, the Jacksons reunited on Michael's 30th anniversary television special; the four eldest of the brothers embarked on their Unity Tour in 2012 following Michael's death, they planned several major performances for 2017. The Jackson 5 have sold more than 100 million records worldwide, making them one of the best-selling bands of all time, they were inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1997 and the Vocal Group Hall of Fame in 1999. They were the first group to debut with four consecutive number one hits on the Hot 100 with the songs "I Want You Back", "ABC", "The Love You Save", "I'll Be There".
The five Jackson brothers' interest in music was bolstered by their father Joe Jackson. In 1962, Joe found Tito playing with his guitar after a string broke, he was impressed enough to buy him his own guitar. Tito and Jackie formed their own group, with Michael playing congas and childhood friends Reynaud Jones and Milford Hite playing keyboards and drums. Marlon joined on tambourine in August 1965, when Evelyn LaHaie suggested that the group name themselves the Jackson Five Singing Group. In 1965, the group won a talent show at Theodore Roosevelt High School in Indiana. Jermaine performed several Motown numbers, including the Temptations' "My Girl", Michael performed Robert Parker's "Barefootin'". Johnny Jackson and Ronnie Rancifer replaced Hite and Jones. After several more talent show wins, Joe Jackson booked his sons to perform at several respected music venues of the chitlin' circuit, including Chicago's Regal Theater and Harlem's Apollo Theater, winning the talent competitions on both shows in 1967.
They won the Apollo contest on August 13, 1967, Gladys Knight sent a tape of the boys' demo to Motown Records, hoping to get them to sign, but their tape was rejected and sent back. In November 1967, Joe Jackson signed the group's first contract with Gordon Keith, an owner and producer of Steeltown Records, the Jackson Five recorded and released the singles "Big Boy", sung by Michael, "We Don't Have to Be Over 21". During early 1968, the group performed at strip clubs on Joe's behest to earn extra income, they performed a week-long run of shows at the Regal Theater as the opening act for Bobby Taylor & the Vancouvers, Taylor sent them to Detroit to help with their Motown audition, set for July 23 at Motown's headquarters on Woodward Avenue. The taped audition was sent to Berry Gordy's office in Hollywood, but Gordy turned them down again, since he had Stevie Wonder in his spotlight, he changed his mind and the group signed a contract on March 11. Gordy sent them to Hollywood in July. Starting in August, the Jackson Five performed as the opening act for the Supremes, whose lead singer Diana Ross was planning to leave for a solo career at the end of the year, performing at the Daisy in Los Angeles and at the Miss Black America Pageant in New York.
The group recorded their first single "I Want You Back", written by the Corporation which consisted of Freddie Perren, Deke Richards, Alphonzo Mizell with Gordy as a fourth partner. In October, their first single for Motown was released and the group promoted it while performing at the Hollywood Palace with Ross hosting. In December, the brothers made their first appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show, their debut album Diana Ross Presents the Jackson 5 was released that same month. "I Want You Back" topped the Billboard Hot 100 in January, 1970. The Jackson 5 released two more number-one singles led by the Corporation: "ABC" and "The Love You Save"; the single "I'll Be There" was co-written and produced by Hal Davis and became the band's fourth number-one single, making them the first recording act to have their first four singles reach the top of the Hot 100, all four were as popular in other countries as they were in the United States. The group released a succession of four albums in one year and replaced the Supremes as Motown's best-selling group.
They continued their success with singles such as "Mama's Pearl", "Never Can Say Goodbye", "Sugar Daddy", giving them a total of seven top-ten singles within a two-year period. The Jackson Five became Motown's main marketing focus and the label ca
James Marshall "Jimi" Hendrix was an American rock guitarist and songwriter. Although his mainstream career spanned only four years, he is regarded as one of the most influential electric guitarists in the history of popular music, one of the most celebrated musicians of the 20th century; the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame describes him as "arguably the greatest instrumentalist in the history of rock music". Born in Seattle, Hendrix began playing guitar at the age of 15. In 1961, he enlisted in the U. S. trained as a paratrooper in the 101st Airborne Division. Soon afterward, he moved to Clarksville and began playing gigs on the Chitlin' Circuit, earning a place in the Isley Brothers' backing band and with Little Richard, with whom he continued to work through mid-1965, he played with Curtis Knight and the Squires before moving to England in late 1966 after being discovered by Linda Keith, who in turn interested bassist Chas Chandler of the Animals in becoming his first manager. Within months, Hendrix had earned three UK top ten hits with the Jimi Hendrix Experience: "Hey Joe", "Purple Haze", "The Wind Cries Mary".
He achieved fame in the U. S. after his performance at the Monterey Pop Festival in 1967, in 1968 his third and final studio album, Electric Ladyland, reached number one in the U. S.. The world's highest-paid performer, he headlined the Woodstock Festival in 1969 and the Isle of Wight Festival in 1970, before his accidental death from barbiturate-related asphyxia on September 18, 1970, at the age of 27. Hendrix was inspired musically by American roll and electric blues, he favored overdriven amplifiers with high volume and gain, was instrumental in popularizing the undesirable sounds caused by guitar amplifier feedback. He was one of the first guitarists to make extensive use of tone-altering effects units, such as fuzz tone, wah-wah, Uni-Vibe in mainstream rock, he was the first artist to use stereophonic phasing effects in music recordings. Holly George-Warren of Rolling Stone commented: "Hendrix pioneered the use of the instrument as an electronic sound source. Players before him had experimented with feedback and distortion, but Hendrix turned those effects and others into a controlled, fluid vocabulary every bit as personal as the blues with which he began."Hendrix was the recipient of several music awards during his lifetime and posthumously.
In 1967, readers of Melody Maker voted him the Pop Musician of the Year, in 1968, Rolling Stone declared him the Performer of the Year. Disc and Music Echo honored him with the World Top Musician of 1969 and in 1970, Guitar Player named him the Rock Guitarist of the Year; the Jimi Hendrix Experience was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1992 and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005. Rolling Stone ranked the band's three studio albums, Are You Experienced, Axis: Bold as Love, Electric Ladyland, among the 100 greatest albums of all time, they ranked Hendrix as the greatest guitarist and the sixth greatest artist of all time. Jimi Hendrix had a diverse heritage, his paternal grandmother, Zenora "Nora" Rose Moore, was one-quarter Cherokee. Hendrix's paternal grandfather, Bertran Philander Ross Hendrix, was born out of an extramarital affair between a woman named Fanny, a grain merchant from Urbana, Ohio, or Illinois, one of the wealthiest men in the area at that time. After Hendrix and Moore relocated to Vancouver, British Columbia, had a son they named James Allen Hendrix on June 10, 1919.
In 1941 after moving to Seattle, Al met Lucille Jeter at a dance. Lucille's father was Preston Jeter, whose mother was born in similar circumstances as Bertran Philander Ross Hendrix. Lucille's mother, née Clarice Lawson, had African Cherokee ancestors. Al, drafted by the U. S. Army to serve in World War II, left to begin his basic training three days after the wedding. Johnny Allen Hendrix was born on November 1942, in Seattle. In 1946, Johnny's parents changed his name to James Marshall Hendrix, in honor of Al and his late brother Leon Marshall. Stationed in Alabama at the time of Hendrix's birth, Al was denied the standard military furlough afforded servicemen for childbirth, he spent two months locked up without trial, while in the stockade received a telegram announcing his son's birth. During Al's three-year absence, Lucille struggled to raise their son; when Al was away, Hendrix was cared for by family members and friends Lucille's sister Delores Hall and her friend Dorothy Harding. Al received an honorable discharge from the U.
S. Army on September 1, 1945. Two months unable to find Lucille, Al went to the Berkeley, home of a family friend named Mrs. Champ, who had taken care of and had attempted to adopt Hendrix. After returning from service, Al reunited with Lucille, but his inability to find steady work left the family impoverished, they both struggled with alcohol, fought when intoxicated. The violence sometimes drove Hendrix to hide in a closet in their home, his relationship with his brother Leon was precarious. In ad
The Western world known as the West, refers to various nations depending on the context, most including at least part of Europe and the Americas, with the status of Latin America in dispute. There are many accepted definitions, all interrelated; the Western world is known as the Occident, in contrast to the Orient, or Eastern world. Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome are considered to be the birthplaces of Western civilization: the former due to its impact on philosophy, democracy and art, building designs and proportions, architecture. Western civilization is founded upon Christianity, in turn shaped by Hellenistic philosophy and Roman culture; the ancient Hellenes had been affected by ancient Near East civilizations, including Judaism and Early Christianity. In the modern era, Western culture has been influenced by the Renaissance, the Ages of Discovery and Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolutions. Through extensive imperialism and Christianization by Western powers in the 15th to 20th centuries, much of the rest of the world has been influenced by Western culture.
The concept of the Western part of the earth has its roots in the theological and emphatical division between the Western Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches. West was literal, opposing Catholic Europe with the cultures and civilizations of Orthodox Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia and the remote Far East, which early-modern Europeans saw as the East. By the mid-20th century. Worldwide export of Western culture went through the new mass media: film and television and recorded music, while the development and growth of international transport and telecommunication played a decisive role in modern globalization. In modern usage, Western world sometimes refers to Europe and to areas whose populations originate from Europe, through the Age of Discovery. Western culture was influenced by many older great civilizations of the ancient Near East, such as Phoenicia, Ancient Israel, Minoan Crete, Sumer and Ancient Egypt, it originated in its vicinity.
Over time, their associated empires grew first to the east and west to include the rest of Mediterranean and Black Sea coastal areas and absorbing. They expanded to the north of the Mediterranean Sea to include Western and Southeastern Europe. Christianization of Ireland, Christianization of Bulgaria, Christianization of Kievan Rus', Christianization of Scandinavia and Christianization of Lithuania brought the rest of present-day European territory into Western civilization. Historians, such as Carroll Quigley in "The Evolution of Civilizations", contend that Western civilization was born around AD 500, after the total collapse of the Western Roman Empire, leaving a vacuum for new ideas to flourish that were impossible in Classical societies. In either view, between the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the Renaissance, the West experienced a period of first, considerable decline, readaptation and considerable renewed material and political development; this whole period of a millennium is known as the Middle Ages, its early part forming the "Dark Ages", designations that were created during the Renaissance and reflect the perspective on history, the self-image, of the latter period.
The knowledge of the ancient Western world was preserved during this period due to the survival of the Eastern Roman Empire and the introduction of the Catholic Church. Since the Renaissance, the West evolved beyond the influence of the ancient Greeks and Romans and the Islamic world, due to the successful Second Agricultural, Commercial and Industrial revolutions peaked with the 18th century's Age of enlightenment, through the Age of exploration's expansion of peoples of Western and Central European empires the globe-spanning colonial empires of 18th and 19th centuries. Numerous times, this expansion was accompanied by Catholic missionaries, who attempted to proselytize Christianity. There is debate among some as to. Whether Russia should be categorized as "East" or "West" has been "an ongoing discussion" for centuries; the term "Western culture" is used broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, religious beliefs, political systems, specific artifacts and technologies.
Western culture may imply: a Biblical Christian cultural influence in spiritual thinking and either ethic or moral traditions, around the Post-Classical Era and after. European cultural influences concerning artistic, folkloric and oral traditions, whose themes have been further developed by Romanticism. A Graeco-Roman Classical and Renaissance cultural influence, concerning artistic, philosophic and legal themes and traditions, the cultural social effec