Afroasiatic languages

Afroasiatic known as Afrasian and in older sources as Hamito-Semitic or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages that are spoken predominantly in West Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa and parts of the Sahel. Afroasiatic languages have over 495 million native speakers, the fourth largest number of any language family; the phylum has six branches: Berber, Cushitic, Egyptian and Semitic. By far the most spoken Afroasiatic language or dialect continuum is Arabic. A de facto group of distinct language varieties within the Semitic branch, the languages that evolved from Proto-Arabic have around 313 million native speakers, concentrated in West Asia and North Africa. In addition to languages spoken today, Afroasiatic includes several important ancient languages, such as Ancient Egyptian, which forms a distinct branch of the family, Akkadian, Biblical Hebrew and Old Aramaic, all of which are from the Semitic branch; the original homeland of the Afroasiatic family, when the parent language was spoken, are yet to be agreed upon by historical linguists.

Proposed locations include the Horn of Africa, the Eastern Sahara and the Levant. In the early 19th century, linguists grouped the Berber and Egyptian languages within a "Hamitic" phylum, in acknowledgement of these languages' genetic relation with each other and with those in the Semitic phylum; the terms "Hamitic" and "Semitic" were etymologically derived from the Book of Genesis, which describes various Biblical tribes descended from Ham and Shem, two sons of Noah. By the 1860s, the main constituent elements within the broader Afroasiatic family had been worked out. Friedrich Müller introduced the name "Hamito-Semitic" for the entire family in his Grundriss der Sprachwissenschaft. Maurice Delafosse coined the term "Afroasiatic". However, it did not come into general use. In doing so, Greenberg sought to emphasize the fact that'Hamitic' was not a valid group and that language cladistics did not reflect race. Individual scholars have called the family "Erythraean" and "Lisramic". In lieu of "Hamito-Semitic", the Russian linguist Igor Diakonoff suggested the term "Afrasian", meaning "half African, half Asiatic", in reference to the geographic distribution of the family's constituent languages.

The term "Hamito-Semitic" remains in use in the academic traditions of some European countries, as well as in the official census of the government of India. Scholars treat the Afroasiatic language family as including the following branches: Berber Chadic Cushitic Egyptian Omotic SemiticAlthough there is general agreement on these six families, linguists who study Afroasiatic raise some points of disagreement, in particular: The Omotic language branch is the most controversial member of Afroasiatic, because the grammatical formatives to which most linguists have given the greatest weight in classifying languages in the family "are either absent or distinctly wobbly". Greenberg and others considered it a subgroup of Cushitic, whereas others have raised doubts about its being part of Afroasiatic at all; the Afroasiatic identity of Ongota is broadly questioned, as is its position within Afroasiatic among those who accept it, due to the "mixed" appearance of the language and a paucity of research and data.

Harold Fleming proposes. Bonny Sands finds the proposal by Savà and Tosco the most convincing: namely that Ongota is an East Cushitic language with a Nilo-Saharan substratum. In other words, it would appear that the Ongota people once spoke a Nilo-Saharan language but shifted to speaking a Cushitic language but retained some characteristics of their earlier Nilo-Saharan language. Beja, sometimes listed as a separate branch of Afroasiatic, is more included in the Cushitic branch, which has a substantial degree of internal diversity. Whether the various branches of Cushitic form a language family is sometimes questioned, but not their inclusion in Afroasiatic itself. There is no consensus on the interrelationships of the five non-Omotic branches of Afroasiatic; this situation is not unusual among long-established language families: scholars frequently disagree on the internal classification of the Indo-European languages, for instance. The extinct Meroitic language has been proposed as an unclassified Afroasiatic language, because it shares the phonotactics characteristic of the family, but there is not enough evidence to secure a classification.

The classification of Kujargé within Afroasiatic is not agreed upon. Blench notes that much of the basic vocabulary looks Cushitic, speculates that Kujarge could be a conservative language transitional between Chadic and Cushitic. Arabic, the most widely-spoken Afroasiatic language, has over 300 million native speakers. Other widely-spoken Afroasiatic languages include: Hausa, the dominant language of northern Nigeria and southern Niger, spoken as a first language by over 40 million people and used as a lingua franca by another 20 million across West Africa and the Sahel. Oromo, spoken in Ethiopia and Kenya by around 34 million people Amharic, spoken in Ethiopia, with over 25 million native speakers in addition to millions of other Ethiopians speaking it as a second language. Somali, spoken by 16 million people in Somalia, eastern Ethiopia and northeastern Ke

Japan–Malaysia relations

Japan–Malaysia relations refers to bilateral foreign relations between the two countries and Malaysia. The earliest recorded historical relation between the two nations are the trade relations between the Malacca Sultanate and the Ryūkyū Kingdom in the 15th century. Small numbers of Japanese settlers migrated to various parts of present-day Malaysia throughout the 19th century; this continued well into the 20th century, until relations reached an abrupt nadir with the rise of the Empire of Japan and its subsequent invasion and occupation of British Malaya and Borneo during World War II. Relations improved after the war, culminating in Malaysia's "Look East" policy during the first premiership of Mahathir Mohamad in the 1980s. Japan maintains an embassy in the capital city of Kuala Lumpur, a consulate-general office in George Town, Penang and a consular office in Kota Kinabalu. Malaysia has an embassy in Tokyo; the two countries enjoy warm diplomatic relations. According to a 2013 Pew survey, 80 % of Malaysians hold a positive view of its influence.

Leaders of the two countries Leaders of the two countries Leaders of the two countries The Ryūkyū Kingdom held trade relations with the Malacca Sultanate in the 15th century. Its maritime trade with kingdoms in Southeast Asia included Japanese products—silver, fans, folding screens—and Chinese products—medicinal herbs, minted coins, glazed ceramics, textiles—were traded for Southeast Asian sappanwood, rhino horn, sugar, ambergris, Indian ivory and Arabian frankincense. Altogether, 150 voyages between the kingdom and Southeast Asia on Ryūkyūan ships were recorded in the Rekidai Hōan, an official record of diplomatic documents compiled by the kingdom, as having taken place between 1424 and the 1630s, with 61 of them bound for Siam, 10 for Malacca, 10 for Pattani and 8 for Java, among others. In the 20th century, Japan has established itself as an imperial superpower and launched offensives throughout Southeast Asia, including Malaya occupied by the British at the time; the Malayan Campaign from 8 December 1941 saw the Imperial Japanese Army overwhelming British and Commonwealth troops.

The Japanese occupation saw an emerging Anti-Japanese movement in Malaya, fuelled by their contempt for the Japanese invasion of China, within the Chinese community which resulted in the establishment of the Malayan Peoples' Anti-Japanese Army. The movement did not find enough support from the Malays and Indians with whom the Imperial Japanese Army has engaged in a propaganda of "Asia untuk Orang Asia", portraying the Japanese as the locals' saviours from British rule; the local population found inspiration for independence from witnessing the ability of Imperial Japan driving away the European colonialists in Southeast Asia. The Kesatuan Melayu Muda worked with the Japanese to spread ideologies against British imperialists. However, the Japanese authorities had not entertained requests of independence by the local population. Significant support for the Japanese deteriorated and the British was able to regain Malaya, Singapore as well as North Borneo at the end of World War II. With its defeat and subsequent occupation at the hands of the United States, Japan has sought to re-establish diplomatic relations with its neighbouring countries.

The Malayan independence from the British on 31 August 1957 was followed by an establishment of diplomatic relations with Japan. The Japanese embassy was established in Kuala Lumpur on 9 September 1957; the "Look East Policy" was an economic policy announced by the fourth and seventh Prime Minister of Malaysia, Mahathir Mohamad during the "5th Joint Annual Conference of MAJECA/JAMECA" at the Hilton Hotel, Kuala Lumpur on 8 February 1982. The policy was established as a follow-up to the "Buy British Last" policy, announced by the prime minister on October 1981; the policy sought to learn from Japan and South Korea, regarded as superpowers of the East, the work ethics and policies that have helped the two nations advance in various industrial and economic sectors at times much more than its Western counterparts. Students and civil servants have been sent to study courses in industrial, technical and commercial sectors. Official figures have estimated as much as 15,000–16,000 Malaysian citizens benefited from the policy since the inception in 1982, the current Malaysian government has sought to revise the policy to include green technology and biotechnology.

Since Mahathir return to become the Prime Minister in 2019, he has revived the "Look East" policy and urge more Malaysians to study in Japan while at the same time welcoming any Japanese universities headed by Japanese nationals to open up their branches in Malaysia for Malaysian students who are unable to afford cost to lived in Japan. Total trade between Malaysia and Japan in 2011 was at RM145.3 billion with RM80 billion contributed by exports from Malaysia to Japan, while imports from Japan amounted to RM65.3 billion. There are about 1,400 Japanese companies operating in Malaysia, creating more than 11,000 job opportunities. Japan has increased its import of liquefied natural gas to about 34%. Before 2007, the bilateral rate between both countries were at a deficit. In the halal industry, halal certification endorsement by the Malaysian government has allowed Malaysian companies in the halal food industry to compete well in the Japanese market; the building of a halal park in Japan is considered.

In 2016, around 413,000 Japanese tourists have visited Malaysia, while 394,000 Malaysian tourists visited Japan. Until 2017, there is around 1,500 Japanese companies operating in Malaysia. To encourage more Japanese companies to invest in Malaysia, Sumitomo Mitsui B

George Ansbro

George Ansbro was a radio announcer for NBC and ABC for six decades, working with soap operas, big bands, quiz shows and other programs. Ansbro was born January 1915, in Brooklyn, New York, his first experience of the radio "showbiz" came on a family trip to Massachusetts. His family went to the B. F. Keith saw Singer's Midgets; the group sang “A Kiss in the Dark”. Ansbro’s mom signed him up for singing lessons with a man named Thomas Hannom; the lessons didn’t last long, but the one thing that Hannom left him was a connection with someone at the station WNYC. The station decided one day to open their microphones to newcomers to show off their singing ability. Hannom took George the station, he began at NBC in 1928 as a boy soprano on Children's Hour. Three years he was hired as an NBC page in 1931, but he was soon employed as an announcer at NBC. On Friday, May 18, 1934, radio columns in New York newspapers noted that Bert Parks of CBS would be “relinquishing his status as New York’s youngest network staff announcer to the newly appointed George Ansbro on the NBC announcing staff.”

Ansbro’s radio career included announcing for The Avenger, FBI Washington, Chaplain Jim and Albert, When a Girl Marries, Treasury Salute, Wake Up, Young Widder Brown, the popular Dr. I. Q. quiz show. He announced for Across the Board and other television shows. During these years, he lived in Manhattan at 50 East 10th Street and thus could be at an NBC microphone in a matter of minutes. By 1948, with NBC Radio's Blue Network subsidiary having led to the formation of the ABC Television Network, Ansbro had moved into television announcing as well, he would become one of ABC's longest-lasting and principal live voice-overs, in most of the network's weekday and weekend dayparts, along with the rotating staff of announcers. In the early 1950s, Ansbro had a Monday-Friday 4:30-5 p.m. disc jockey program in New York. A Billboard review noted an unusual aspect of the program: "Manhattan Maharajah features a tongue-in-cheek East Indian poet spinning pop platter favorites of the new West." The reviewer cited "the maharajah's deliberate, sonorous-voiced reading of mystic couplets, complete with college humor-type punch lines."Come the 1980s, the majority of Ansbro's announcing was during the ABC daytime lineup, handling sponsor plugs for their daytime soap operas mid-break bumpers and the show preview announcements that were run during end credits.

However, in prime time, Ansbro would still be heard occasionally. During the 1970s, he appeared on two shows looking back at vintage radio, beginning with ABC's Return To Studio 1A. Radio's Golden Age which aired July 16, 1976, on WMUK-FM, featured an interview with Ansbro about early radio soap operas, it was produced by Eli Segal for Western Michigan University. In a letter dated October 1, 1986, Ansbro was acknowledged by ABC's then-parent owner Capital Cities for not only being the oldest employee of ABC and its derivatives, but for being the longest-tenured employee of any network in the history of American broadcasting. Ansbro continues to hold the record to this day, having served fifty-eight years, three months and twelve days with ABC upon his retirement on January 14, 1990, his 75th birthday, his retirement heralded turnover in ABC's on-air voiceover staff in 1990. In August, the daytime shifts once covered by Ansbro and Parker were taken over by Ken Lamb, who in 2008 became ABC's chief booth announcer.

Ansbro wrote a book about his radio experiences, I Have a Lady in the Balcony: Memoirs of a Broadcaster in Radio and Television. The title is taken from the once familiar catch phrase heard weekly on Dr. I. Q. Leonard Maltin did the foreword for the book. Ansbro was a resident of New Jersey, he died on November 5, 2011 in Bloomfield, aged 96. I Have a Lady in the Balcony: Memoirs of a Broadcaster in Radio and Television George Ansbro radio credits