An afterburner is a component present on some jet engines those used on military supersonic aircraft. Its purpose is to provide an increase in thrust for supersonic flight and combat situations. Afterburning is achieved by injecting additional fuel into the jet pipe downstream of the turbine. Afterburning increases thrust without the weight of an additional engine, but at the cost of high fuel consumption and decreased fuel efficiency, limiting its practical use to short bursts. Pilots can activate and deactivate afterburners in-flight, jet engines are referred to as operating wet when afterburning is being used and dry when not. An engine producing maximum thrust wet is at maximum power, while an engine producing maximum thrust dry is at military power. Jet-engine thrust is governed by the general principle of mass flow rate. Thrust depends on two things: the mass of that gas. A jet engine can produce more thrust by either accelerating the gas to a higher velocity or ejecting a greater mass of gas from the engine.
Designing a basic turbojet engine around the second principle produces the turbofan engine, which creates slower gas, but more of it. Turbofans are fuel-efficient and can deliver high thrust for long periods, but the design tradeoff is a large size relative to the power output. Generating increased power with a more compact engine for short periods can be achieved using an afterburner; the afterburner increases thrust by accelerating the exhaust gas to a higher velocity. The temperature of the gas in the engine is highest just before the turbine, the ability for the turbine to withstand these temperatures is one of the primary restrictions on total dry engine thrust; this temperature is known as the Turbine Entry Temperature, one of the critical engine operating parameters. Because a combustion rate high enough to consume all the intake oxygen would create temperatures high enough to overheat the turbine, the flow of fuel must be restricted to an extent that fuel rather than oxygen becomes the limiting factor in the reaction, leaving some oxygen to flow past the turbine.
After passing the turbine, the gas expands at a near constant entropy, thus losing temperature. The afterburner injects fuel downstream of the turbine and reheats the gas; as a result of the temperature rise in the tailpipe, the gas is ejected through the nozzle at a higher velocity. The mass flow is slightly increased by the addition of the fuel. Afterburners produce markedly enhanced thrust as well as a visible flame at the back of the engine; this exhaust flame may show shock diamonds, which are caused by shock waves formed due to slight differences between ambient pressure and the exhaust pressure. These imbalances cause oscillations in the exhaust jet diameter over a short distance and cause visible banding where the pressure and temperature is highest. A similar type of thrust augmentation but using additional fuel burnt in a turbofan's cold bypass air only, instead of the combined cold and hot gas flows as in a conventional afterburning engine, is Plenum chamber burning, developed for the vectored thrust Bristol Siddeley BS100 engine for the Hawker Siddeley P.1154.
In this engine, where the cold bypass and hot core turbine airflows are split between two sets of nozzles and rear, in the same manner as the Rolls-Royce Pegasus, additional fuel and afterburning was applied to the front cold air nozzles only. This technique was developed to give greater thrust for take-off and supersonic performance in an aircraft similar to, but of higher weight, than the Hawker Siddeley Harrier. A jet engine afterburner is an extended exhaust section containing extra fuel injectors. Since the jet engine upstream will use little of the oxygen it ingests, additional fuel can be burned after the gas flow has left the turbines; when the afterburner is turned on, fuel is injected and igniters are fired. The resulting combustion process increases the afterburner exit temperature resulting in a steep increase in engine net thrust. In addition to the increase in afterburner exit stagnation temperature, there is an increase in nozzle mass flow, but a decrease in afterburner exit stagnation pressure.
The resulting increase in afterburner exit volume flow is accommodated by increasing the throat area of the propulsion nozzle. Otherwise, the upstream turbomachinery rematches; the first designs, e.g. Solar afterburners used on the F7U Cutlass, F-94 Starfire and F-89 Scorpion, had 2-position eyelid nozzles. Modern designs incorporate not only VG nozzles but multiple stages of augmentation via separate spray bars. To a first order, the gross thrust ratio is directly proportional to the root of the stagnation temperature ratio across the afterburner. Due to their high fuel consumption, afterburners are used as little as possible, they are used only when it is important to have as much thrust as possible. This includes during takeoff from short runways, assisting catapult launches from aircraft carriers, during air combat situations. A notable exception is the Whitney J58 engine used in the SR-71 Blackbird. In heat engines such as jet engines, efficiency is highest when combustion occurs at the highest pressure and temperature possible, expanded down to ambient pressure.
Since the exhaust gas has reduced oxygen owing to previous combustion, since the fuel is not burning in a highly
North West Coastal Highway is a north-south Western Australian highway which links the coastal city of Geraldton with the town of Port Hedland. The 1,300-kilometre-long road, constructed as a sealed two-lane single carriageway, travels through remote and arid landscapes. Carnarvon is the only large settlement on the highway, is an oasis within the harsh surrounding environment; the entire highway is allocated National Route 1, part of Australia's Highway 1, parts of the highway are included in tourist routes Batavia Coast Tourist Way and Cossack Tourist Way. Economically, North West Coastal Highway is an important link to the Mid West and Pilbara regions, supporting the agricultural, pastoral and tourism industries, as well as mining and offshore oil and gas production. In Geraldton, the highway begins at a grade separated interchange with Brand Highway and roads providing access to the port and town centre. Two major roads link the North West Coastal Highway to the inland Great Northern Highway: Geraldton–Mount Magnet Road in Geraldton, Nanutarra Munjina Road at Nanutarra, 845 kilometres further north.
Several roads link provide access to coastal towns and attractions, including Shark Bay Road, Onslow Road and Karratha Road. With few towns on the highway, roadhouses are the only settlements for long stretches. North West Coastal Highway ends at Great Northern Highway, 30 kilometres out from Port Hedland. North West Coastal Highway was created in 1944 from existing roads and tracks through remote pastoral areas. However, it was a hazardous route that could be dusty in the dry season, boggy or washed away in the wet season. Economic growth and development in northern Western Australia prompted initial improvement efforts in the late 1940s, a sealed road was constructed from Geraldton to Carnarvon by 1962; the impact of cyclones and seasonal flooding resulted in a realignment inland of the Carnarvon to Port Hedland section, constructed and sealed between 1966 and 1973, required thirty new bridges. Various upgrades have been carried out in sections across the length of the highway, including the Geraldton Southern Transport Corridor project which grade-separated the highway's junction with Brand Highway.
North West Coastal Highway is the coastal route through Western Australia's remote north-west. From the Mid West city of Geraldton, the highway heads north 50 kilometres to the small town of Northampton, another 425 kilometres to Carnarvon, the only large settlement along the route, it continues north-east for 660 kilometres to Roebourne, 30 kilometres beyond the turnoff to Karratha, ends 160 kilometres further east at Great Northern Highway, 30 kilometres out from Port Hedland. Apart from Whim Creek, between Roeburn and Port Hedland, roadhouses serving the highway are the only settlements on the long stretches of rangeland expanses between these towns; the highway provides access to tourist destinations including Shark Bay, Coral Bay, Exmouth. North West Coastal Highway supports the diversified economies of the Mid West and Gascoyne regions, including mining, agriculture and tourism, transitioning to mining, pastoral stations and offshore oil and gas production in the Pilbara; the entire highway is allocated National Route 1, part of Australia's Highway 1, parts of the highway are included in the tourist routes Batavia Coast Tourist Way and Cossack Tourist Way.
The vast majority of the highway is a two-lane single carriageway with a speed limit of 110 kilometres per hour, except in and around built up areas where it drops down to 50, 60, or 70 kilometres per hour. Main Roads Western Australia monitors traffic volume across the state's road network, including various locations along North West Coastal Highway. In the 2012/13 financial year, the recorded traffic volumes ranged from 13,350 vehicles per day west of Geraldton–Mount Magnet Road down to 370 north of Minilya–Exmouth Road; the highest percentage of heavy vehicles was 45.5%, west of Karratha Road. Reports commissioned by the Royal Automobile Club of Western Australia in 2006 and 2008 gave most of the highway a four-star safety rating out of five, but with a significant proportion rated at a three-star level; the overall highway network was rated as three-star or four-star, with around 10% in 2006 and 5% in 2008 receiving a two-star rating. North West Coastal Highway commences at a diamond interchange at the northern end of Brand Highway.
It heads east from the interchange and curves round to the north, past a traffic-light intersection with Geraldton–Mount Magnet Road. The highway continues north through Geraldton's outer suburbs for eight kilometres before the landscape transitions to scrubland. Between Geraldton and Carnarvon, the highway passes through dry semi-desert areas. Apart from Northampton, 50 kilometres out from Geraldton, the only settlements over this 475-kilometre stretch are four roadhouses. Binnu Roadhouse is 11 kilometres south of the turnoff to Kalbarri. Carnarvon, at the mouth of the Gascoyne River, is the only large town between Geraldton and Karratha, is an oasis within an arid region. East of the town, the landscape near the river features banana and other horticultural plantations, while the vegetation in the surrounding region is shrublands; the highway skirts east of Carnarvon, crosses the Gascoyne River nine kilometres north-east of Robinson Street, the main road into the town. No
Darya Viktorovna Parshina is a Russian former swimmer, who specialized in long-distance freestyle events. She set a junior European record of 4:10.79 to claim the 400 m freestyle title at the 2004 European Junior Swimming Championships in Lisbon, Portugal. She is a member of the Penza Army Sports Club, is trained by her long-time coach and mentor Natalia Kozlova. Parshina qualified for the women's 400 m freestyle, as a 16-year-old, at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, she eclipsed a FINA B-standard entry time of 4:14.41 from the Russian Championships in Moscow. She challenged seven other swimmers on the fourth heat, including top medal favorites Otylia Jędrzejczak of Poland and Kaitlin Sandeno of the United States, she rounded out the field to last place by a 5.21-second margin behind Spain's Erika Villaécija García in 4:18.24. Parshina failed to advance into the final. Four months after the Olympics, Parshina earned a silver medal in the same program at the 2004 European Short Course Swimming Championships in Vienna, Austria.
Pastoral farming is aimed at producing livestock, rather than growing crops. Examples include dairy farming, raising beef cattle, raising sheep for wool. In contrast, arable farming concentrates on crops rather than livestock. Mixed farming incorporates livestock and crops on a single farm; some mixed farmers grow crops purely as fodder for their livestock. Pastoral farming is a non-nomadic form of pastoralism in which the livestock farmer has some form of ownership of the land used, giving the farmer more economic incentive to improve the land. Unlike other pastoral systems, pastoral farmers are sedentary and do not change locations in search for fresh resources. Rather, pastoral farmers adjust their pastures to fit the needs of their animals. Improvements include drainage, stock tanks and sowing clover. Pastoral farming is common in Argentina, Brazil, Great Britain, New Zealand, the Western United States and Canada, among other places. There are many factors that are taken into account to decide what type of farming should take place on a certain area of land including, altitude and rainfall.
Soil plays a large role in determining. Mollisol lands are described as semi-arid to semi- humid areas that are grassy; this is where most intensive cattle operations occur which produce dairy. Although a majority of pastoral farming is conducted in Mollisol lands, pastoral farming can be found in areas with soil made up of Entisol, Aridisol or Alfisol. Aside from soil order, pastoral farming is more to be found than arable farming in areas with steep slopes, cold strong winds and a wet climate. All of these conditions are more advantageous to raising live stock than crops. Raising of sheep is found in cooler regions with steep hills and above average rain fall; the wetness of the area and incline would make it unsuitable to grow crops. A similar conclusion is drawn by looking at dairy farms which are found in warm wet climates; the first settlers of Argentina arrived twelve thousand years ago and survived by hunting and gathering. During the 16th century, the Incan Empire dominated the area; the Incas were advanced for their time and were able to domesticate llamas and alpacas.
In 1532, the Spaniards arrived and found open grasslands perfect for their cattle and horses to graze. These herds grew and changed the environment making it more nutritious and fertile; the large cattle population was hunted and used for economic prosperity. This marked the beginning of pastoral farming in Argentina as land began to be used for raising cattle; these farms became known as "estancias" meaning, "stay."The estancias were spread around 200 square kilometers could support about 20,000 cattle. And at the 19th century, sheep were added to the estancias; the Pampas saw a shocking growth in livestock population. The main animal products of the time became hides, fat and salted meat. Today, Argentina's livestock production is divided into two sectors- a modernized commercial part and a communal part. Pastoralism is still a prominent figure in the communal sector of Argentina's livestock production. Communal agriculture face disadvantages compared to their commercial counterparts as they have limited access to new technology and external inputs.
In 2001, the country's stock included 48 million cattle, 13.5 million sheep and 1.5 million horses. The number of sheep was reduced recently because of a dramatic decrease in the price of wool; as of 2001, the majority of beef and milk production in Argentina was domestically consumed. Pastoral farming arrived in Australia in 1836 with the importation of sheep and cattle from New South Wales. Australia faces a tough climate with 70% of its landmass being classified as arid or semi-arid; this made South Australia a perfect candidate for grazing since its climate was not suitable for arable farming such as wheat production. In the 1840s South Australian farmers began to focus on wool prospered. In the 1860s South Australia faced serious droughts. To prevent future instances from occurring, the agricultural industry underwent serious specialization measures and focused on improving the pastures of pastoral farmers; the system they developed included low- density grazing of sheep and cattle. In addition, water was pumped from under ground sources by wind power.
These improvements helped to better satisfy the livestock's needs. Bronze Age people first introduced pastoral farming to Ireland; the Burren area was popular for settlers because of its fertile soils. The first pastoral farmers were known for herding cattle and goats. Pastoral farming could be found in the uplands such as Turlough Hill. Dating back to mediaeval times, farmers used the hill as a tool during winter months. Cattle grazed there; the lime-rich soil would provide animals with calcium and other minerals to help increase their fat levels. In the early 19th century, sheep herding was most popular in the Burren. By the 20th century however, there was a shift in importance from sheep to cattle. Trends in livestock units show that goats were just under 4% of cattle livestock units in the 1930s but had decreased to just over 0.5% by 1980. Today in Ireland, farm sizes have increased, the number of full-time farmers have decreased and heavier continental breeds have become more popular in comparison to the past.
The Near Future is a Canadian short drama film, directed by Sophie Goyette and released in 2012. The film stars Patrice Berthomier as Robin, a pilot for a small Quebec airline who learns of his mother's death, but goes through his day ambivalent about the news due to their complicated relationship; the film premiered at the Saguenay International Short Film Festival in March 2012. It was subsequently screened at the 2012 Toronto International Film Festival, at the 2013 Sundance Film Festival; the film was a Canadian Screen Award nominee for Best Live Action Short Drama at the 1st Canadian Screen Awards, a Prix Jutra nominee for Best Live Action Short Drama at the 15th Jutra Awards. The Near Future on IMDb
Belle may refer to: Belle Belle, a list of people and fictional characters Belle, a list of people Belle Air, a former airline with headquarters in Tirana, Albania Belle Air Europe, a subsidiary of Belle Air in the Kosovo Belle Baby Carriers, a U. S. baby carrier manufacturer Belle International, a Chinese footwear retailer Belle, a Belgian-French drama film by André Delvaux Belle, a British film by Amma Asante Belle's, an American comedy TV series that premiered in 2013 Belle, a 2011 album by Bic Runga "Belle", a song from the 1998 musical adaptation of Victor Hugo's novel Notre Dame de Paris "Belle", a song written for Disney's 1991 film Beauty and the Beast Belle, a 1961 musical by Wolf Mankowitz "Belle", a 1977 song written by Al Green, Fred Jordan and Reuben Fairfax, Jr. Belle, Flanders or Bailleul, Nord, a commune in France Belle, Udupi, a village in India Belle, Missouri, a town in the United States Belle Township, Holt County, United States Belle, West Virginia, a town in the United States Bournemouth Belle, a named train run by the Southern Railway from 1931 until 1948 Brighton Belle, a passenger train operated by the London and South Coast Railway Devon Belle, a passenger train operated by the Southern Railway and British Railways from 1947 to 1954 Belle, an early chess computer Belle experiment, an accelerator-based particle physics experiment Belle, the current version of Nokia's Symbian mobile operating system La Belle, a ship lost in 1686 during a French colonization attempt in Texas USCS Belle, a survey ship in service with the United Coast Survey from 1848 to 1857 USS Belle, a Union Navy steamer in the American Civil War Belle of Louisville, a passenger steamer in the Kentucky, U.
S. Belle of Temagami, a passenger steamer in Ontario, Canada Battle Creek Belles, part of the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League Doncaster Belles, now Doncaster Rovers Belles L. F. C. an English semi-professional women's football club Memphis Belles, member of the Independent Women's Football League Muskegon Belles, part of the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League Racine Belles, a team of the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League Belle, a 17th-century gambling card game Belle, an Australian design magazine Hurricane Belle, a storm of the 1976 Atlantic hurricane season Bel BEL Bell La Belle Belle Isle Belle River Belles belles belles, a 2003 musical by Redha Southern belle, a stock character representing a young woman of the American South's upper socioeconomic class