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Afyonkarahisar is a city in western Turkey, the capital of Afyon Province. Afyon is in mountainous countryside inland from the Aegean coast, 250 km south-west of Ankara along the Akarçay River. In Turkey, Afyonkarahisar stands out as a capital city of thermal and spa, an important junction of railway and air traffic in West-Turkey, the grounds where independence had been won. In addition, Afyonkarahisar is one of the top leading provinces in agriculture, globally renowned for its marble and globally largest producer of pharmaceutical opium; the name Afyon Kara Hisar, since opium was grown here and there is a castle on a black rock. Known as Afyon. Older spellings include Afium-Kara-hissar and Afyon Karahisar; the city was known as Afyon, until the name was changed to Afyonkarahisar by the Turkish Parliament in 2004. The top of the rock in Afyon has been fortified for a long time, it was known to the Hittites as Hapanuwa, was occupied by Phrygians and Achaemenid Persians until it was conquered by Alexander the Great.

After the death of Alexander the city, was ruled by the Seleucids and the kings of Pergamon Rome and Byzantium. The Byzantine emperor Leo III after his victory over Arab besiegers in 740 renamed the city Nicopolis; the Seljuq Turks arrived in 1071 and changed its name to Kara Hissar after the ancient fortress situated upon a volcanic rock 201 meters above the town. Following the dispersal of the Seljuqs the town was occupied by the Sâhib Ata and the Germiyanids; the castle was much fought over during the Crusades and was conquered by the Ottoman Sultan Beyazid I in 1392 but was lost after the invasion of Timur Lenk in 1402. It was recaptured in 1428 or 1429; the area thrived during the Ottoman Empire, as the centre of opium production and Afyon became a wealthy city. In 1902, a fire burning for 32 hours destroyed parts of the city. During the 1st World War British prisoners of war, captured at Gallipoli were housed here in an empty Armenian church at the foot of the rock. During the Greco-Turkish War campaign Afyon and the surrounding hills were occupied by Greek forces.

However, it was recovered on 27 August 1922, a key moment in the Turkish counter-attack in the Aegean region. After 1923 Afyon became a part of the Republic of Turkey; the region was a major producer of raw opium until the late 1960s when under international pressure, from the US in particular, the fields were burnt and production ceased. Now poppies are grown under a strict licensing regime, they do not produce raw opium any more but derive Morphine and other opiates using the poppy straw method of extraction. Afyon was depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 50 lira banknote of 1927-1938; the economy of Afyonkarahisar is based on agriculture and thermal tourism. Its agriculture is developed from the fact, a large part of its population living in the countrysides. Which stimulated agricultural activities greatly. Afyonkarahisar produces an important chunk of Turkish processed marbles, it ranks second on processed marble exports and fourth on travertine. Afyon holds an important share of Turkish marble reserves, with some 12,2% of total Turkish reserves.

Afyon has unique marble types and colors, which were very renown and are unique to Afyon. Like "Afyon white" known as "Synnadic white". "Afyon Menekse" known as "Pavonazzetto" and "Afyon kaplan postu", this type was not popular. Marble from Afyon was referred to as "Docimeaen marble". Docimian marble was admired and valued for its unique colors and fine grained quality, by ancients such as Romans; when the Romans took control over Docimian quarries, they were blown away about the beautiful color combinations of Docimian Pavonazzetto, a type of white marble with purple veins. A trend started about it right away. Emperors Augustus, Hadrian, all made extensive use of Docimian marble to all their major building projects. Docimian Pavonazzetto was extensively used in major building projects in the heart of Rome aka Forum Romanum and all over the empire. Pavonazzetto was used on the most eye catching places such as, columns and floor veneer and wall reliefs. Other marbles from all corners of the empire were used in combination, whenever Pavonazzetto was used as floor cover, it was in combination with other decorative marbles.

But, the Pavonazzetto being a white marble was the dominant color and gave the buildings a freshening white color. One of the greatest Roman architectural piece, the Pantheon contains Docimian Pavonazzetto as floor pavement along with other marble types; the dominant white color is the Pavonazzetto some of the interior main columns and pilasters are made from Docimian marble. Other buildings in Roman capital which contains or contained Docimian marble were, Forum of Augustus, Forum of Trajan, Temple of Mars Ultor, Temple of Apollo, Basilica Aemelia, Basilica Julia, Basilica Ulpia, Basilica San Paolo Fuori Le Mura, The eight statues on the Arch of Constantine, The greatest Roman bath, Baths of Caracalla (some of the columns and wall veneer. Other major buildings outside Rome, Italy were: The Hagia Sophia, one of the greatest buildings built, has Docimian marble as veneer on the a

Kosciusko County Jail

The first jail was built in 1837 of 14 inches square logs. It was two stories tall with a trap door from the second story floor to access the ground floor; the next jail was made of brick. Like the first jail, it was located on Courthouse Square. By 1869 this second structure was in serious need of repair. Frequent jail breaks from the second jail, led the county to hire George Garnsey of Chicago to design a new jail; the most notable jailbreak resulted. The "Castellated Gothic" design represents the late 1800s American jail design standards; the massive, rough stone blocks suggest a feeling of permanence. Narrow windows and second story main entrance imply the restrictive function of the structure. To stop future jailbreaks, iron dowel rods pierced the stone blocks; this would prevent the stones from being pushed out. The jail was completed in 1870, one block east of the courthouse square; the cost was $48,000, the builder was Richard Epperson. The second story contained the sheriff's residence, thus the sheriff acted as a live-in warden.

The most notable prisoners held were several Culver bank robbers who were defended in Warsaw by Clarence Darrow. They would be involved in the John Dillinger escape in Lake County, Indiana. Architect George Garnsey said; the building's appearance is of a small castle, with a turret, fenestration with pointed arches, crenellations across the front elevation parapet. The jail is two stories on an elevated basement; the main entrance is up a flight of steps. Two windows flank the stairs on the basement level. All the windows are double-hung sashes with one-over-one lights; the first floor story has three bays with a large door in the center bay. The second floor has four windows; the sides of the main building have three bays on each level. On the north side a one-story garage was added in 1937, it is the only major alteration of the exterior. The stonework matches the original building. In 1964 the garage was made into office space. After 1900 modern plumbing and electricity were installed; the second story served as the sheriff's residence until 1974.

The building is now owned by the Kosciusko County Historical Society and operated as the Kosciusko County Jail Museum. Chinworth Bridge Warsaw Courthouse Square Historic District Winona Lake Historic District Kosciusko County Jail Museum - Kosciusko County Historical Society

Theoderic (bishop of Verdun)

Theoderic, or Thierry, was a royalist bishop of Verdun from 1047 to 1089. He sided with Henry III during the rebellion of Godfrey the Bearded, which led to significant destruction in Verdun by the latter. During the reign of Henry IV if he did not attend the Synod of Worms in 1076, he fled Utrecht that year to avoid witnessing the excommunication of Pope Gregory VII by bishop William of Utrecht, he was identified with the King's side from the beginning of the Investiture Controversy, he acknowledged his rebellion, asked for forgiveness, by sending abbot Rudolf of Saint Vanne to the Pope, with his ring and stole as tokens of submission. However, he attended Henry IV's court in Speyer and he attempted to travel to Italy in his service, early in 1077, but was made prisoner by count Adalbert of Calw, who extracted a ransom from him, he was the King's envoy, plead the King's case with Benno II of Osnabrück, at the Lenten synod of 1078 in Rome and, in 1079, he was the only bishop to support Egilbert, Henry's candidate to the Archbishopric of Trier.

He managed to stay in good relations with both Henry and Gregory until 1079, among other things receiving bishop Hermann of Metz as a guest after his exile by Duke Theodoric of Upper Lotharingia. After Henry's second excommunication, in the Lenten Synod of 1080, Theoderic went decidedly to the king's side, attending the synod of Mainz, where he renounced his obedience to the Pope. Moreover, in a public letter he called for his deposition. In contrast to 1076, he did not petition for papal forgiveness, commissioned a polemical work from Wenrich of Trier; such actions led the clergy in his diocese to deny him their obedience, he was deprived of his episcopal and sacerdotal offices. Forced by these events, by the monks of Saint Vanne, he again sent abbot Rudolf to Rome with his ring and resignation; when the war changed course in 1081, he did not wait to receive the absolution, resumed his offices regardless. In 1084, when Henry entered Rome and Gregory fled into exile, Theoderic could reassert his authority.

He exiled the pro-Gregorian monks from Liège that had taken refuge in the city, subjugated the monks of St. Mihiel, led the monks of St. Vanne into exile, led by their abbot Rudolf, a former friend

Singapore Alliance Party

The Singapore Alliance Party, or sometimes known as just Singapore Alliance, was a coalition of political parties formed in July 1961 that contested several elections in Singapore, notably the 1955 Elections of Singapore and the 1963 Elections of Singapore. It consisted of the local branch of the United Malays National Organisation, the Malay Union, the local chapters of the Malayan Chinese Association and the Malayan Indian Congress, former Chief Minister Lim Yew Hock's Singapore People's Alliance; this alliance was formalized on June 24, 1963 as the Singaporean component of the ruling Alliance Party in Malaya. Its campaign policy during the 1963 elections was similar to what the UMNO used in federal elections in Malaysia, alleged the ruling People's Action Party mistreated the Malays, one of the major races in Singapore. While the Singapore Alliance supported merger within the Federation of Malaysia and was anti-Communist, it sought to extend the same model of communal politics on the mainland to Singapore.

Unlike the then-left-leaning and socialist PAP, it was identified with the political right. Throughout its history, the Singapore Alliance has only held seven seats with the SPA holding four seats and the Singapore United Malay National Organization occupying three seats in Malay-dominated areas like Geylang Serai, Kampung Kembangan, the Southern Islands. During the 1963 general election, the Alliance lost all its seats, its participation in the 1963 election further heightened tensions between UMNO and the PAP as they had earlier agreed neither side would participate in each other's elections until Malaysia, which Singapore was an autonomous state of, was more mature. After the 1963 elections, the Singapore Alliance was left in the political wilderness. While the coalition was reformed and re-registered as the "Alliance Party Singapura" in 1966, it did contest any future elections in Singapore and faded from the political scene. Most of its component parties ceased to operate with the exception of Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Singapura, which subsequently joined the Singapore Democratic Alliance.

Lau, Albert. A Moment of Anguish: Singapore in Malaysia and the Politics of Disengagement. Singapore: Times Academic Press. ISBN 981-210-1349. Background of Singapore Alliance

Randal Burns

Randal Chilton Burns is a Professor and Chair of the computer science department at Johns Hopkins University. He is a member of the Kavli Neuroscience Discovery Institute, Institute for Data-Intensive Science and the Science of Learning Institute and National Academy of Sciences, his research interests lie in building scalable data systems for exploration and analysis of big data. Burns graduated from Stanford University in 1993 with a bachelor's degree in geophysics, he earned his master's and doctorate from University of California, Santa Cruz in 1997 and 2000 respectively. He worked as a research staff member at IBM's Alamden Research Center between 1996-2002. Burns's PhD dissertation is titled'Data Management in a Distributed File System for Storage Area Networks', he has worked on waste management of unused digital data. He was part of a team along with Alex Szalay and Charles Meneveau which built a 350TB turbulence database that provides access to large computational fluid dynamics simulations.

In recent times, his research has focused on neuroscience where he built a cloud based web-service for neuroscience data and enabled better understanding of the human brain

Governor's School

Governor's School may refer to: National Conference of Governor's Schools, a national organization committed to establishing and enriching summer residential governor's school programs. Virginia Governor's Schools Program, a system of state-chartered regional magnet high schools and summer programs for gifted students in the Commonwealth of Virginia, or, one of the schools in the system. Maggie L. Walker Governor's School for Government and International Studies, a high school in Richmond, Virginia. Chesapeake Bay Governor's School, a marine-and-environmental-science-oriented program for students in grades 10-12, with campuses in Warsaw, Bowling Green, Glenns, VA. South Carolina Governor's School For The Arts & Humanities, located in Greenville and opened in 1999. South Carolina Governor's School for Science and Mathematics, a public, two year residential high school in Hartsville. North Carolina has four Governor's School programs. North Carolina School for Science and Mathematics, public two year residential secondary school in Durham, founded by former governor Terry Sanford.

University of North Carolina School for the Arts, public conservatory for arts and humanities, founded by former governor Terry Sanford. Its elementary and secondary school resembles North Carolina State University's Centennial Campus Middle School, it is a university college and graduate school. North Carolina remains the third-largest film-making industry after California and New York, a courtesy of the parents of Evan Rachel Wood. Governor's School of North Carolina — North Carolina's secondary schools participate in summer programs for gifted rising 11th and 12th graders at the private colleges Salem College and Meredith College. Mississippi Governor's School, a two-week tuition free residential honors program for high school students, founded in 1981 and hosted at Mississippi University for Women. Governor's School of New Jersey, unique summer programs committed to meeting the educational needs of academically talented high school students who have completed their junior year; the two programs offered as of 2013 are The Governor's School of Engineering and Technology and The Governor's School in the Sciences.

Governor's School of North Carolina, a summer program for gifted high school students held in Raleigh and Winston-Salem, North Carolina. North Dakota Governor's School a tuition-free, resident honors program in North Dakota. Pennsylvania Governor's Schools of a collection of summer programs in Pennsylvania. Governor's School of Texas, a 3-week summer program for talented high school students in Texas. Governor's Schools of Tennessee, twelve summer programs for gifted and talented high school students, including Arts, International Studies, Science, Prospective Teachers, Scientific Exploration of Tennessee Heritage, Information Technology Leadership, Agricultural Science. Governor's Academy for Teaching Excellence, at Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, is a 3-week summer residential program on the Texas Gulf Coast for gifted and talented high school students who are interesting in the field of teaching science and math. Link to Georgia Governor's Honors Program, at Valdosta State University, is a 4-week summer residential program for Georgia's talented high-school students.

Arkansas Governor's School a six-week, tuition free, resident honors program in Arkansas founded in 1979 by Bill Clinton. Missouri Scholars Academy, a summer program for high schoolers held at the University of Missouri. New York State Summer School of the Arts