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Aga Khan I

Aga Khan I or Hasan Ali Shah was the governor of Kirman, 46th Imam of the Nizari Ismaili Muslims, prominent Muslim leader in Iran and in the Indian subcontinent. He was the first Nizari Iman; the Imam Hasan Ali Shah was born in 1804 in Kahak, Iran to Shah Khalil Allah, the 45th Ismaili Imam, Bibi Sarkara, the daughter of Muhammad Sadiq Mahallati, a poet and a Ni‘mat Allahi Sufi. Shah Khalil Allah moved to Yazd in 1815 out of concern for his Indian followers, who used to travel to Persia to see their Imam and for whom Yazd was a much closer and safer destination than Kahak. Meanwhile, his wife and children continued to live in Kahak off the revenues obtained from the family holdings in the Mahallat region. Two years in 1817, Shah Khalil Allah was killed in Yazd during a brawl between some of his followers and local shopkeepers, he was succeeded by his eldest son Hasan Ali Shah known as Muhammad Hasan, who became the 46th Imam. While Khalil Allah resided in Yazd, his land holdings in Kahak were being managed by his son-in-law, Imani Khan Farahani, husband of his daughter Shah Bibi.

After Khalil Allah's death, a conflict ensued between Imani Khan Farahani and the local Nizaris, as a result of which Khalil Allah's widow and children found themselves left unprovided for. The young Imam and his mother moved to Qumm; the dowager decided to go to the Qajar court in Tehran to obtain justice for her husband's death and was successful. Those, involved in the Shah Khalil Allah's murder were punished. Not only that, but the Persian king Fath Ali Shah gave his own daughter, princess Sarv-i-Jahan Khanum, in marriage to the young Imam Hasan Ali Shah and provided a princely dowry in land holdings in the Mahallat region. King Fath Ali Shah appointed Hasan Ali Shah as governor of Qumm and bestowed upon him the honorific of "Aga Khan." Thus did the title of "Aga Khan" enter the family. Hasan Ali Shah become known as Aga Khan Mahallati, the title of Aga Khan was inherited by his successors. Aga Khan I's mother moved to India where she died in 1851; until Fath Ali Shah's death in 1834, the Imam Hasan Ali Shah enjoyed a quiet life and was held in high esteem at the Qajar court.

Soon after the accession of Muhammad Shah Qajar to the throne of his grandfather, Fath Ali Shah, the Imam Hasan Ali Shah was appointed governor of Kerman in 1835. At the time, Kerman was held by the rebellious sons of Shuja al-Saltana, a pretender to the Qajar throne; the area was frequently raided by the Afghans. Hasan Ali Shah managed to restore order in Kerman, as well as in Bam and Narmashir, which were held by rebellious groups. Hasan Ali Shah sent a report of his success to Tehran, but did not receive any material appreciation for his achievements. Despite the service he rendered to the Qajar government, Hasan Ali Shah was dismissed from the governorship of Kerman in 1837, less than two years after his arrival there, was replaced by Firuz Mirza Nusrat al-Dawla, a younger brother of Muhammad Shah Qajar. Refusing to accept his dismissal, Hasan Ali Shah withdrew with his forces to the citadel at Bam. Along with his two brothers, he made preparations to resist the government forces that were sent against him.

He was besieged at Bam for some fourteen months. When it was clear that continuing the resistance was of little use, Hasan Ali Shah sent one of his brothers to Shiraz in order to speak to the governor of Fars to intervene on his behalf and arrange for safe passage out of Kerman. With the governor having interceded, Hasan Ali Shah surrendered and emerged from the citadel of Bam only to be double-crossed, he was seized and his possessions were plundered by the government troops. Hasan Ali Shah and his dependents were sent to Kerman and remained as prisoners there for eight months, he was allowed to go to Tehran near the end of 1838-39 where he was able to present his case before the Shah. The Shah pardoned him on the condition. Hasan Ali Shah remained in Mahallat for about two years, he managed to gather an army in Mahallat which alarmed Muhammad Shah, who travelled to Delijan near Mahallat to determine the truth of the reports about Hasan Ali Shah. Hasan Ali Shah was on a hunting trip at the time, but he sent a messenger to request permission of the monarch to go to Mecca for the hajj pilgrimage.

Permission was given, Hasan Ali Shah's mother and a few relatives were sent to Najaf and other holy cities in Iraq in which the shrines of his ancestors, the Shiite Imams are found. Prior to leaving Mahallat, Hasan Ali Shah equipped himself with letters appointing him to the governorship of Kerman. Accompanied by his brothers and other relatives, as well as many followers, he left for Yazd, where he intended to meet some of his local followers. Hasan Ali Shah sent the documents reinstating him to the position of governor of Kerman to Bahman Mirza Baha al-Dawla, the governor of Yazd. Bahman Mirza offered Hasan Ali Shah lodging in the city, but Hasan Ali Shah declined, indicating that he wished to visit his followers living around Yazd. Hajji Mirza Aqasi sent a messenger to Bahman Mirza to inform him of the spuriousness of Hasan Ali Shah's documents and a battle between Bahman Mīrzā and Hasan Ali Shah broke out in which Bahman Mirza was defeated. Other minor battles were won by Hasan Ali Shah before he arrived in Shahr-e Babak, which he intended to use as his base for capturing Kerman.

At the time of his arrival in Shahr-e Babak, a formal local governor was engaged in a campaign to

Werner Ingold

Werner Ingold was a Swiss chemist and entrepreneur. He was a pioneer in the field of chemical microanalysis, in particular in the development of glass-based resistive pH electrodes. In 1948, he founded the Dr. W. Ingold AG, producing and selling sensors for process analytical applications, he developed the company to a mid-size international business organization and sold it in 1986 to Ciba Geigy. In 1966, Werner Ingold became an Active Life Member of The New York Academy of Sciences. Werner Ingold was born on 20 February 1919 in Lüterkofen, in the rural area of Solothurn, Switzerland.. He was the youngest of three sons of Ida Ingold to grow up on his father's farm. Werner attended primary and district school in the neighboring village of Hessigkofen and grammar school at Kantonsschule Solothurn. Between 1938 and 1942, Werner Ingold studied chemistry at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich and obtained his diploma as a chemical engineer under Hans Eduard Fierz with his thesis "On the Constitution of Naphtaline-Yellow".

He earned his doctorate at the Institute of Organic Technology under Leopold Ružička in the field of organic microanalysis of triterpene chemistry, completing his PhD in 1945 with the thesis "On Understanding Oleanolacid and Boswellinacid". After his dissertation, he remained at the Institute of Organic Technology at ETH, supported by a scholarship from the Foundation for the Promotion of Young Academics, continued his research in the field of organic microanalysis. During his post-graduate studies, Werner Ingold applied glass electrodes for the titration of organic compounds. Glass electrodes were known to be suitable for measuring acidity at that time. However, the tips of these electrodes were brittle; the inventors estimated the wall thickness of the membrane to be less than 0.001 mm. Furthermore, these electrodes were unavailable in Europe during World War II and therefore had to be manufactured in chemical laboratories. During this time, Werner Ingold acquired a profound knowledge on glass and its manufacturing that allowed him to produce more robust pH electrodes that were suitable for laboratory and industrial applications.

Werner Ingold was dedicated to the development and improvement of glasses for pH measurement until the sale of his company. In 1948, Werner Ingold started to produce glass electrodes for pH measurement as a one-man company operating out of Huttenstrasse 24 in Zurich. Before he devoted himself to the commercialization of pH electrodes, he was contacted by the Imperial Chemical Industries Plastics Division to establish a micro-analytical laboratory in Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, UK. From 1950 onwards, Ingold advanced the manufacturing scale-up of pH sensors in Zurich. In 1952, the first employees joined the company and in the same year he founded Dr. W. Ingold GmbH in Frankfurt, Germany. In 1954, he converted the Zurich sole proprietorship into a stock corporation, Dr. W. Ingold AG. In the early 1950s, the invention of the single-rod measuring cell, a combination of measurement and reference electrode in one construction unit, marked a decisive step towards becoming one of the world's leading companies in the field of pH measurement.

Ingold recognized early on the demand for high quality and robust pH electrodes in the biotech industry – e.g. for the production of penicillin, where all sensors and fittings have to be sterilized at high temperatures and pressures. Therefore, in further development of pH electrodes, much emphasis was given on robustness and responsiveness of the sensors in harsh environments. Subsequently, the brands Argenthal, EQUITHAL and Xerolyt were launched. Robust pH electrodes were used in the chemical industry, micro and surface electrodes were developed and commercialized for food applications. By 1955, the company developed fittings for the introduction of sensors into tank and piping systems, enabling in-line use of sensors for industrial applications. In the 1970s and 1980s, sensors for the measurement of liquefied oxygen and carbon dioxide, as well as ion-selective electrodes were developed on the basis of the glass electrode technology. To complete the product range, measurement electronics produced by third-party suppliers were sold.

The production site in Zurich moved several times. In 1974, the company built and moved into its own production site in Urdorf near Zurich. In 1966, together with Thomas A. Rosse of Instrumentation Laboratory Inc. Werner Ingold founded the joint-venture Ingold Electrode Inc. in Andover, for the production and distribution of sensors in North America. In 1970, the Ingold Technique sales and service branch was opened in Paris, in 1978, the Ingold Industria e Commercio Ltda. production facility in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Werner Ingold, as Head of Technology, Chairman of the Board of Directors and the Executive Board, was responsible for product innovation and developing the group's expanding portfolio, Dr. René Baumann, as Head of Sales, Member of the Board of Directors and Member of the Executive Board, was in charge of commercial development and the build-up of the sales network; the Board of Directors was completed by Dr

Gundagai lore

Gundagai is a place of considerable reputed Aboriginal cultural significance, with both archaeological sites and anthropological associations related to sacred and spiritual beliefs of the local clan group and wider cultural associations. The Gundagai area is part of the traditional lands of the Wiradjuri speaking people before and post European settlement, holds national significance to Indigenous Australians; the floodplains of the Murrumbidgee below the present town of Gundagai were a frequent meeting place of Wiradjuri speaking people from nearby regions. One indication of the ancient, sacred cultural landscape, North Gundagai is the bora ring, identified close to town; the location of Gundagai on a sizeable prehistoric highway, along with the significant and sacred Aboriginal ceremonial ground across all of North Gundagai, other ancient archaeology, indicates it would have been an important ceremonial, mining and trading place for Aboriginal people before the arrival of the Europeans.

As with all ancient sacred places within still continuing Australian Aboriginal culture, the sacredness of Gundagai's amazing Australian Aboriginal cultural landscape continues despite colonial and intrusion. Gundagai Aboriginal Elders, Jimmy Clements and John Noble, attended the 1927 opening of the new Federal Parliament House in Canberra by the Duke of York Jimmy Clements known as King Billy whose traditional name was'Yangar', walked forward to respectfully salute the Duke and Duchess of York, after that the two Elders were formally presented to the Royal couple as prominent citizens of Australia. Aboriginal leaders Pat Dodson and Noel Pearson. Galarrwuy Yunupingu, Northern Territory Indigenous leader, could not be at the gathering of esteemed senior Australians but was kept informed of the progress of talks. A feeling of awe and reverence for that Almighty power that formed the universe was had in Gundagai at the appearance of the comet on Saturday 21 December 1844. In 1859 the'Aurora Australis' interfered with the operation of the Gundagai electric telegraph.

So great can be some rainfall downpours at Gundagai that old mining dams have been known to fill and burst. A meteor seen at Gundagai on New Year's Day, 1876 was reported to have lit up the streets as though with magnesium wire, over four inches of rain fell in two hours during a dreadful storm at Gundagai in 1885. Deep snowfalls and severe weather were experienced in 1899. Similar to other inland areas in Australia, the Gundagai area has been visited by tornadoes in dry times. There has been numerous reports of earth tremors rattling through Gundagai since European settlement. During a thunderstorm near Gundagai in 1876, an electric fire-ball was seen to issue from the clouds, strike the earth, explode with a loud noise, singeing Constable Macalister's hair and whiskers, leaving a blue mark on his side. A terrific thunderstorm at Gundagai in March 1877 set fire to the inside of Armour's house. In November 1899, a man named Caigan was struck by lightning and killed as he sheltered in a hollow log.

A boy, Patrick Vaughan, was struck by lightning in October 1904 and rendered unconscious for a long time. Two horses were struck by lightning in 1904 and one horse died. A few weeks two boys were struck by lightning as they hid under a bullock hide strung over a wire fence; the electric charge travelled along the fence wire. In 1938 two dead drovers were found under a tree south of Gundagai, again the victims of lightning. Lightning killed a horse in 1946 but the rider escaped with her life though somewhat injured. A bushfire that caused a lot of damage was started near Gundagai in February 1906 after lightning hit a tree. John Bloomquist, camped in a hollow tree on the Gundagai Golf links, was horribly burned and died when the tree was struck by lightning in 1932. There has been other victims of lightning in the Gundagai area due to the ferocity of thunderstorms that can happen locally; some believe the name'Gundagai' derives from the word'Gundagair', an 1838 pastoral run in the name of William Hutchinson to the immediate north of current day Gundagai.'Gair' was recorded at Yass in 1836 by George Bennett and means'bird', as in budgerigar or good bird.

In that context'Gundagai' means place of birds but that placename may refer to the area to the north of Gundagai not to Gundagai town. The word'Gundagai' is said to mean cut with a hand-axe behind the knee. Combining the two meanings results in the place of birds near where there is a large bend in the Murrumbidgee River, caused by a cut in the back of the knee; this meaning presupposes that for there to be a knee there is a body which there is. There is a large anthropomorphic figure in the landscape at Gundagai; the figure is several kilometres in length. It has hindquarters similar to that of an emu but with a long tail and it appears to be sitting on a bend in the river that has a box shape; the image faces to the west and its head is near the Dog on the Tuckerbox area at Gundagai. This primary landscape figure marked out by the course of the Murrumbidgee River at Gundagai, is replicated in some Sydney Rock Engravings and recorded in local Aboriginal cultural heritage. The'Gundagai' placename meaning further refers to the reason for the ben