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Aga Khan III

Sir Sultan Mahomed Shah, Aga Khan III was the 48th Imam of the Nizari Ismaili religion. He was the first president of the All-India Muslim League, his goal was protection of Muslim rights in India. The League, until the late 1930s, was not a large organisation but represented the landed and commercial Muslim interests of the British-ruled'United Provinces', he shared Sir Syed Ahmad Khan's belief that Muslims should first build up their social capital through advanced education before engaging in politics. Aga Khan called on the British Raj to consider Muslims to be a separate nation within India, the so-called'Two Nation Theory'. After he resigned as president of the AIML in 1912, he still exerted major influence on its policies and agendas, he was nominated to represent India to the League of Nations in 1932 and served as President of the League of Nations from 1937–38. Sir Sultan Mahomed Shah was born in Karachi, the capital of Sindh province in British India, to Aga Khan II and his third wife, Nawab A'lia Shamsul-Muluk, a granddaughter of Fath Ali Shah of Persia.

Under the care of his mother, he was given not only that religious and Oriental education which his position as the religious leader of the Ismailis made indispensable, but sound European training, an opportunity denied to his father and paternal grandfather. He attended Eton and the University of Cambridge. In 1885, at the age of eight, he succeeded his father as Imam of the Shi'a Isma'ili Muslims; the Aga Khan travelled in distant parts of the world to receive the homage of his followers, with the objective either of settling differences or of advancing their welfare by financial help and personal advice and guidance. The distinction of a Knight Commander of the Indian Empire was conferred upon him by Queen Victoria in 1897, he was made a Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India by George V, appointed a GCMG in 1923. He received like recognition for his public services from the German Emperor, the Sultan of Turkey, the Shah of Persia and other potentates. In 1906, the Aga Khan was a founding member and first president of the All India Muslim League, a political party which pushed for the creation of an independent Muslim nation in the north west regions of India under British colonial rule, established the country of Pakistan in 1947.

During the three Round Table Conferences in London from 1930–32, he played an important role to bring about Indian constitutional reforms. In 1934, he was made a member of the Privy Council and served as a member of the League of Nations, becoming the President of the League of Nations in 1937. Under the leadership of Sir Sultan Mahomed Shah, Aga Khan III, the first half of the 20th century was a period of significant development for the Ismā'īlī community. Numerous institutions for social and economic development were established in the Indian Subcontinent and in East Africa. Ismailis have marked the Jubilees of their Imāms with public celebrations, which are symbolic affirmations of the ties that link the Ismāʿīlī Imām and his followers. Although the Jubilees have no religious significance, they serve to reaffirm the Imamat's worldwide commitment to the improvement of the quality of human life in the developing countries; the Jubilees of Sir Sultan Mahomed Shah, Aga Khan III, are well remembered.

During his 72 years of Imamat, the community celebrated his Golden and Platinum Jubilees. To show their appreciation and affection, the Ismā'īliyya weighed their Imam in gold, diamonds and, symbolically, in platinum the proceeds of which were used to further develop major social welfare and development institutions in Asia and Africa. In India and in Pakistan, social development institutions were established, in the words of Aga Khan III, "for the relief of humanity", they included institutions such as the Diamond Jubilee Trust and the Platinum Jubilee Investments Limited which in turn assisted the growth of various types of cooperative societies. Diamond Jubilee High School for Girls were established throughout the remote Northern Areas of what is now Pakistan. In addition, scholarship programs, established at the time of the Golden Jubilee to give assistance to needy students, were progressively expanded. In East Africa, major social welfare and economic development institutions were established.

Those involved in social welfare included the accelerated development of schools and community centres, a modern equipped hospital in Nairobi. Among the economic development institutions established in East Africa were companies such as the Diamond Jubilee Investment Trust and the Jubilee Insurance Company, which are quoted on the Nairobi Stock Exchange and have become major players in national development. Sir Sultan Mahomed Shah introduced organizational forms that gave Ismāʿīlī communities the means to structure and regulate their own affairs; these were built on the Muslim tradition of a communitarian ethic on the one hand, responsible individual conscience with freedom to negotiate one's own moral commitment and destiny on the other. In 1905 he ordained the first Ismā'īlī Constitution for the social governance of the community in East Africa; the new administration for the Community's affairs was organised into a hierarchy of councils at the local and regional levels. The constitution set out rules in such matters as marriage, divorce

St. Quintin's Church, Mainz

The Catholic church of St. Quintin is the parish church of the oldest proven parish in the city of Mainz. Today, St. Quintin together with the cathedral community of St. Martin forms the parish of St. Martin's Cathedral and St. Quintin, thus the cathedral priest is therefore always the priest of St. Quintin as well; the origins of the parish date back to the time of the Merovingian dynasty, as evidenced by the patronage of Saint Quintin, almost forgotten. The second patron saint of the church is Saint Blaise. St. Quintin was first mentioned in a document in 774; the first inner-city parish cemetery was located near the church. It is regarded as certain that St. Quintin existed in the 8th century. Today's construction was completed around 1330 in Gothic art; as early as 1348, this building suffered severe damage when a fire, set during a plague pogrom, spread from the nearby Jewish quarter to the church, which destroyed the windows of the nave and melted down the city bell in the tower. Starting 1425 the damage could be repaired.

The chapel extension south of the choir with the old sacristy was built as well. During the Thirty Years' War the church served as a barracks for the Swedish troops. At times evangelical church services were held there. In 1721 the church was redesigned baroque and re-equipped. In 1813 the church served again as barracks, this time for the French troops after the Battle of Leipzig; the church underwent a fundamental renovation and repair from 1869 to 1888, after it had been rescued by master builder Eduard Kreyßig from imminent demolition due to dilapidation. The church was furnished in neo-Gothic style. Only the neo-Gothic choir barriers on both sides of the nave have survived from this phase. During the Second World War, the church was damaged during the air raids on Mainz in 1942, but the walls were preserved; the valuable arm relic of Saint Quintin was burnt. The reconstruction and renovation began immediately. A provisional roof was put on during the war and in 1948 the church could be used again.

After the war, it served as a church room for the French garrison. A new relic of Quintin could be worshipped again since 4 November 1950 at the mediation of the bishop of Soisson Pierre Auguste Marie Joseph Douillard. At the end of the 1960s, work was carried out on the exterior and on the bell tower, whereby the church building was given its medieval colouring again in 1970 on the basis of original findings. However, the tower continued to have an provisional roof, it was not until 1995 that the Renaissance tower helmet, reconstructed by hand true to the original, was reattached. The Gothic new building of St. Quintin was built in place of a predecessor, whose shape is unknown and of which no visible remains of construction have survived; the present church consists of an square three-nave hall longhouse with three bays. The southwesternmost bay carries the massive bell tower of the church. To create an square ground plan for the tower, the southern side aisle is only about half as wide as the central nave.

In the tower there is a tower apartment, built in 1489 under Elector Berthold von Henneberg. From here the entire city area of the old "wooden" Mainz could be overlooked; until the 20th century it served as a fire observation station for the city. The windows of the apartment of the tower watch guard are fitted with green shutters; the oldest part of the building, as can be seen from the tracery figures, is the single-nave choir, on the south side of which there is the sacristy. On the north side there is a two-bay Chapel of the Holy Cross; the entrance portal is on the south side. The building on the west wall of the church, which emerged from medieval booths, is of great urban significance; the exterior is brick-red with painted joints. The former churchyard, today part of the grounds of the municipal old people's home, can no longer be experienced as such. On the north wall of the church there are several gravestones which were discovered in 1883 in the floor of the church and placed there, leading to severe weathering damage.

Until the Second World War, a baroque cemetery portal adorned the entrance link to Schusterstraße. The sandstone portal with the both patrons and Maria together was destroyed by a direct bomb hit. Since 2012, the gallery has housed an English-romantic organ from the renowned Nelson organ workshop in Northwest England. Built in Durham, England, in 1906 for the now suspended Wooley Terrace Chapel at Stanley Crook and restored and expanded by the organ builder Elmar Krawinkel & Sohn, the organ now has 23 stops, divided into two manuals and pedal. With its simple neo-Gothic oak facade, the historic instrument manages with a small footprint on the newly erected wooden gallery from 2003. During the restoration, the Nelson organ was extended by seven stops in two new side prospectuses, whereby historical English pipes were used and no historical substance was destroyed on the organ; the organ has the following disposition: *new stop J. Baum: Drei Mainzer Hallenkirchen. Freiburg, 1906 August Schuchert: Die Mainzer Kirchen und Kapellen.

Verlag Johann Falk 3. Söhne, Mainz 1931

Tisquesusa

Tisquesusa spelled Thisquesuza, Thysquesuca or Thisquesusha was the fourth and last independent ruler of Bacatá, main settlement of the southern Muisca between 1514 and his death in 1537. The name brought about the Colombian capital Bogotá. Tisquesusa was the ruler of the southern Muisca Confederation at the time of the Spanish conquest of the Muisca, when the troops led by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada and his brother entered the central Colombian highlands, his zaque counterpart in the northern area of the Muisca was Quemuenchatocha. Tisquesusa was cacique of Chía and following the Muisca heritage rules, he as nephew of the previous ruler Nemequene succeeded his uncle in 1514. At the start of his reign, Tisquesusa fought against the Panche in the west of the Muisca Confederation; the brother of Tisquesusa and -according to Muisca heritage rule illegal- successor Sagipa was the general in the southern Muisca army. Early on in his reign Tisquesusa went to war with the northern Muisca ruled by Quemuenchatocha.

Forty thousands guecha warriors of the southern Muisca fought against fifty thousand northern Muisca. Earlier, support of the iraca Sugamuxi of the Iraca Valley helped the northern troops in their battles, but this time the third party helped settling a truce between both parties which lasted until the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores in 1537; the arrival of the Spanish conquerors was revealed to Tisquesusa by the mohan Popón, from the village of Ubaque. He told the Muisca ruler that foreigners were coming and Tisquesusa would die "bathing in his own blood"; when Tisquesusa was informed of the advancing invasion of the Spanish soldiers, he sent a spy to Suesca to find out more about their army strength and with how many warriors they could be beaten. The zipa left the capital Bacatá and took shelter in Nemocón which directed the Spanish troops to there, during this march attacked by more than 600 Muisca warriors; when Tisquesusa retreated in his fortified place in Cajicá he told his men he would not be able to combat against the strong Spanish army in possession of weapons that produced "thunder and lightning".

He chose to return to Bacatá and ordered the capital to be evacuated, resulting in an abandoned site when the Spanish arrived. In search for the Muisca ruler the conquistadores went north to find Tisquesusa in the surroundings of Facatativá where they attacked him at night. Tisquesusa was thrusted by the sword of one of De Quesada's soldiers but without knowing he was the zipa he let him go, after taking the expensive mantle of the ruler. Tisquesusa died of his wounds there, his body was only discovered a year because of the black vultures circling over it. At the death of Tisquesusa, his son Hama and daughter Machinza hid the sister of the zipa, Usaca, in one of the settlements on the Bogotá savanna; when one of the conquistadors, Juan María Cortés, found out about this, he prepared a battle to gain control over the area. At that moment, Usaca resisted against the Spanish conqueror. Legend tells that he dropped his weapons and fell in love with her marrying the sister of Tisquesusa and they were baptised in Usaquén, meaning "Land of the Sun" in Muysccubun.

This formed the start of the construction of a colonial village, today part of the capital and known for its colonial architecture and parks. Contrary to Muisca tradition, where the eldest son of the oldest sister of the previous ruler would become the next zipa, the reign was taken over by Tisquesusa's brother; this would be the last ruler of the southern Muisca, defeated in 1538 and died of Spanish torture in early 1539. In investigations in the 21st century about the existence of Tisquesusa, doubt has been cast on his name; the name Tisquesusa originates from the work Elegías de varones ilustres de Indias written by poet Juan de Castellanos decades after the events of the conquest. In his work he names Tisquesusa as the zipa, while other researchers, such as Jorge Gamboa Mendoza, maintain the name was "Bogotá". Scholars, such as Pedro Simón took the names from earlier sources without verifying them. Spanish conquest of the Muisca Muisca rulers, history of Bogotá Jiménez de Quesada, Gonzalo.

1576. Memoria de los descubridores, que entraron conmigo a descubrir y conquistar el Reino de Granada. Accessed 2016-07-08. De Castellanos, Juan. 1857. Elegías de varones ilustres de Indias, 1–567. Accessed 2016-07-08. Simón, Pedro. 1892. Noticias historiales de las conquistas de Tierra Firme en las Indias occidentales vol.1-5. Accessed 2016-07-08. Rodríguez Freyle and Darío Achury Valenzuela. 1979. El Carnero - Conquista i descubrimiento del nuevo reino de Granada de las Indias Occidentales del mar oceano, i fundacion de la ciudad de Santa Fe de Bogota, 1-598. Fundacion Biblioteca Ayacuch. Accessed 2016-11-21. Fernández de Piedrahita, Lucas. 1688. Historia general de las conquistas del Nuevo Reino de Granada. Accessed 2016-07-08. Caro Molina, Fernando. 1967. Epítome de la Conquista del Nuevo Reino de Granada - Reseña, 116-130. Cervantes Institute. Accessed 2016-12-21. Friede, Juan. 1960. Descubrimiento del Nuevo Reino de Granada y Fundación de Bogotá, 1-342. Banco de la República. Accessed 2016-12-26. Millán de Benavides, Carmen.

2014. Epítome de la conquista del Nuevo Reino de Granada. Universitas Humanística 48. 11-17. Accessed 2016-12-21. Millán de Benavides, Carmen. 2001. Epítome de la conquista del Nuevo Reino de Granada la cosmografía española del siglo XVI y el conocimiento por cuestionario, 1-139. Centro Editorial Javeriano. Accessed 2016-12-21. Ramos Pérez, Demetrio. 1972. Ximénez de Quesada en su relación con los cronistas: y el Epítome de la conquista del Nuevo Reino de Granada, 1-329. CSIC. Accessed