Falling in love
Falling in love is the development of strong feelings of attachment and love towards another person. The term is metaphorical, emphasising that the process, like the physical act of falling, is sudden and leaves the lover in a vulnerable state, similar to "fall ill" or "fall into a trap", it may reflect the importance of the lower brain centers in the process, which can lead the rational, accounting brain to conclude that "this falling in love routine is bizarre.... It borders on the occult". "Factors known to contribute to falling in love include proximity, similarity and physical attractiveness", while at the same time, the process involves a re-activation of old childhood patterns of attachment. Deep-set psychological parallels between two people may underpin their pairing-bonding, which can thus border on mere narcissistic identification". Jungians view the process of falling in love as one of projecting the anima or animus onto the other person, with all the potential for misunderstanding that can involve.
Two chemical reactions associated with falling in love are increases in vasopressin. With regard to sociobiology, it is stressed that mate selection cannot be left to the head alone and must require complex neurochemical support. Critics of such Neo-Darwinism point out that over-simplistic physical arguments obscure the way sexual passion leads not to secure attachment but to attachments thwarted, as well as the sheer frightening difficulties of all falling in love. Biologist Jeremy Griffith suggests that people fall in love in order to abandon themselves to the dream of an ideal state. Stendhal charted the timing of falling in love in terms of what he called crystallization—a first period of crystallization which involves obsessive brooding and the idealisation of the other via a coating of desire. Empirical studies suggest that men fall in love earlier than women and women are quicker to fall out of love than men. While some consider falling in love to be the nearest approach to a spiritual experience possible for the non-religious, others say its loss of ego boundaries is a temporary phenomenon which has little to do with, or may block, spiritual development.
Robert J Sternberg and Karen Sternberg, editors. The New Psychology of Love. Yale University Press, 2008. Denis de Rougemont, Love in the Western World. Pantheon Books, 1956. Eric Fromm, The Art of Loving Francesco Alberoni, Falling in Love Roland Barthes, A Lover's Discourse
The Septuagint is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures from the original Hebrew. It is estimated that the first five books of the Old Testament, known as the Torah or Pentateuch, were translated in the mid-3rd century BCE and the remaining texts were translated in the 2nd century BCE. Considered the primary Greek translation of the Old Testament, it is quoted a number of times in the New Testament,particularly in the Pauline epistles,by the Apostolic Fathers, by the Greek Church Fathers; the full title in Ancient Greek: Ἡ τῶν Ἑβδομήκοντα μετάφρασις "The Translation of the Seventy", derives from the story recorded in the Letter of Aristeas that the Septuagint was translated at the request of Ptolemy II Philadelphus by 70 Jewish scholars who independently produced identical translations. The miraculous character of the Aristeas legend is indicative of the esteem in which the translation was held in the ancient Jewish diaspora and early Christian circles, it is clear that a Greek translation was in circulation among the Alexandrian Jews who were not fluent in Hebrew, but in Greek.
The evidence of Egyptian papyri from the period have led most scholars to view as probable Aristeas's dating of the translation of the Pentateuch to the third century BCE. Whatever share the Ptolemaic court may have had in the translation, it satisfied a need felt by the Jewish community, among whom a knowledge of Hebrew was waning before the demands of every-day life." While there are other contemporaneous Greek versions of the Old Testament, most did not survive except as fragments. Modern critical editions of the Septuagint are based on the Codices Vaticanus and Alexandrinus; the Septuagint derives its name from the Latin versio septuaginta interpretum, "translation of the seventy interpreters", Greek: ἡ μετάφρασις τῶν ἑβδομήκοντα, hē metáphrasis tōn hebdomḗkonta, "translation of the seventy". However, it was not until the time of Augustine of Hippo that the Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures came to be called by the Latin term Septuaginta; the Roman numeral LXX is used as an abbreviation G or G. Seventy-two Jewish scholars were asked by the Greek King of Egypt Ptolemy II Philadelphus to translate the Torah from Biblical Hebrew into Greek, for inclusion in the Library of Alexandria.
This narrative is found in the pseudepigraphic Letter of Aristeas to his brother Philocrates, is repeated by Philo of Alexandria, Josephus and by various sources, including St. Augustine; the story is found in the Tractate Megillah of the Babylonian Talmud: King Ptolemy once gathered 72 Elders. He placed them in 72 chambers, each of them in a separate one, without revealing to them why they were summoned, he entered each one's room and said: "Write for me the Torah of Moshe, your teacher". God put it in the heart of each one to translate identically. Philo of Alexandria, who relied extensively on the Septuagint, says that the number of scholars was chosen by selecting six scholars from each of the twelve tribes of Israel. According to rabbinic tradition, the Septuagint was handed in to Ptolemy on the date of an annual fast and mourning for the Jewish people; the date of the 3rd century BCE is supported by a number of factors, including the Greek being representative of early Koine, citations beginning as early as the 2nd century BCE, early manuscripts datable to the 2nd century.
After the Torah, other books were translated over the next two to three centuries. It is not altogether clear, translated when, or where; the quality and style of the different translators varied from book to book, from the literal to paraphrasing to interpretative. The translation process of the Septuagint itself and from the Septuagint into other versions can be broken down into several distinct stages, during which the social milieu of the translators shifted from Hellenistic Judaism to Early Christianity; the translation of the Septuagint itself began in the 3rd century BCE and was completed by 132 BCE in Alexandria, but in time elsewhere as well. The Septuagint is the basis for the Old Latin, Syriac, Old Armenian, Old Georgian and Coptic versions of the Christian Old Testament; the Septuagint is written in Koine Greek. Some sections of the Septuagint may show Semiticisms, or idioms and phrases based on Semitic languages like Hebrew and Aramaic. Other books, such as Daniel and Proverbs, show Greek influence more strongly.
The Septuagint may elucidate pronunciation of pre-Masoretic Hebrew: many proper nouns are spelled out with Greek vowels in the translation, while contemporary Hebrew texts lacked vowel pointing. However, it is unlikely; as the work of translation progressed, the canon of the Greek Bible expanded. The Hebrew bible called Tanakh, has three divisions: the Torah, the Neviʾim, the Ketuvim; the Septuagint has four: law, history and prophets, with the books of the Apocrypha inserted where appropriate. The Torah has held pre-eminence as the basis of the canon.
Romance is an emotional feeling of love for, or a strong attraction towards, another person, the courtship behaviors undertaken by an individual to express those overall feelings and resultant emotions. Although the emotions and sensations of romantic love are associated with sexual attraction, romantic feelings can exist without expectation of physical consummation and be subsequently expressed; the term romance originates with the medieval ideal of chivalry as set out in the literature of chivalric romance. Romantic love is a relative term that distinguishes moments and situations within intimate relationships as contributing to a deepened relational connection; the addition of "drama" to relationships of close and strong love. Anthropologist Charles Lindholm defined love as "an intense attraction that involves the idealization of the other, within an erotic context, with expectation of enduring sometime into the future"; the word "romance" comes from the French vernacular where it indicated a verse narrative.
The word was an adverb of Latin origin, "romanicus," meaning "of the Roman style". European medieval vernacular tales and ballads dealt with chivalric adventure, not bringing in the concept of love until late into the seventeenth century; the word romance developed other meanings, such as the early nineteenth century Spanish and Italian definitions of "adventurous" and "passionate," which could intimate both "love affair" and "idealistic quality." Anthropologists such as Claude Lévi-Strauss show that there were complex forms of courtship in ancient as well as contemporary primitive societies. There may not be evidence, that members of such societies formed loving relationships distinct from their established customs in a way that would parallel modern romance. Before the 18th century, many marriages were not arranged, but rather developed out of more or less spontaneous relationships. After the 18th century, illicit relationships took on a more independent role. In bourgeois marriage, illicitness may have become more formidable and to cause tension.
In Ladies of the Leisure Class, Rutgers University professor Bonnie G. Smith depicts courtship and marriage rituals that may be viewed as oppressive to modern people, she writes "When the young women of the Nord married, they did so without illusions of love and romance. They acted within a framework of concern for the reproduction of bloodlines according to financial and sometimes political interests." Subsequent sexual revolution has lessened the conflicts arising out of liberalism, but not eliminated them. Anthony Giddens, in The Transformation of Intimacy: Sexuality and Eroticism in Modern Society, states that romantic love introduced the idea of a narrative to an individual's life, telling a story is a root meaning of the term romance. According to Giddens, the rise of romantic love more or less coincided with the emergence of the novel, it was that romantic love, associated with freedom and therefore the ideals of romantic love, created the ties between freedom and self-realization. David R. Shumway states that "the discourse of intimacy" emerged in the last third of the 20th century, intended to explain how marriage and other relationships worked, making the specific case that emotional closeness is much more important than passion, with intimacy and romance coexisting.
One example of the changes experienced in relationships in the early 21st century was explored by Giddens regarding homosexual relationships. According to Giddens, since homosexuals were not able to marry they were forced to pioneer more open and negotiated relationships; these kinds of relationships permeated the heterosexual population. The conception of romantic love was popularized in Western culture by the concept of courtly love. Chevaliers, or knights in the Middle Ages, engaged in what were non-physical and non-marital relationships with women of nobility whom they served; these relations were elaborate and ritualized in a complexity, steeped in a framework of tradition, which stemmed from theories of etiquette derived out of chivalry as a moral code of conduct. Courtly love and the notion of domnei were the subjects of troubadours, could be found in artistic endeavors such as lyrical narratives and poetic prose of the time. Since marriage was nothing more than a formal arrangement, courtly love sometimes permitted expressions of emotional closeness that may have been lacking from the union between husband and wife.
In terms of courtly love, "lovers" did not refer to those engaging in sexual acts, but rather, to the act of caring and to emotional intimacy. The bond between a knight and his Lady, or the woman of high stature of whom he served, may have escalated psychologically but ever physically. For knighthood during the Middle Ages, the intrinsic importance of a code of conduct was in large part as a value system of rules codified as a guide to aid a knight in his capacity as champion of the downtrodden, but in his service to the Lord. In the context of dutiful service to a woman of high social standing, ethics designated as a code were established as an institution to provide a firm moral foundation by which to combat the idea that unfit attentions and affections were to be tolerated as "a secret game of trysts" behind closed doors. Therefore, a knight trained in the substance of "chivalry" was instructed, with especial emphasis, to serve a lady most honorably, with purity of heart and mind. To that end, he committed himself to the welfare of both Lord and Lady with unwavering discipline and devotion, while at the same time, presuming to uphold core principles set forth in the code by the religion by which he followed.
Affection, infatuation, or fondness is a "disposition or state of mind or body", associated with a feeling or type of love. It has given rise to a number of branches of philosophy and psychology concerning emotion, disease and state of being. "Affection" is popularly used to denote a feeling or type of love, amounting to more than goodwill or friendship. Writers on ethics use the word to refer to distinct states of feeling, both lasting and spasmodic; some contrast it with passion as being free from the distinctively sensual element. A simple demonstration of affection can have a broad variety of emotional reactions, from embarrassment to disgust to pleasure and annoyance, it has a different physical effect on the giver and the receiver. More the word has been restricted to emotional states, the object of, a living thing such as a human or animal. Affection is compared with passion, from the Greek "pathos"; as such it appears in the writings of French philosopher René Descartes, Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza, most of the writings of early British ethicists.
However, on various grounds, it is and usefully distinguished from passion. In this narrower sense, the word has played a great part in ethical systems, which have spoken of the social or parental affections as in some sense a part of moral obligations. For a consideration of these and similar problems, which depend on the degree in which the affections are regarded as voluntary. Affection can be communicated by looks, gestures, or touches, it conveys social connection. Affectionate behavior may have evolved from parental nurturing behavior due to its associations with hormonal rewards; such affection has been shown to influence brain development in infants. Expressions of affection can be unwelcome. If welcomed, affectionate behavior may be associated with various health benefits, it has been proposed that positive sentiments increase the propensity of people to interact and that familiarity gained through affection increases positive sentiments among them. Affection exchange is seen as an adaptive human behavior that contributes to greater physical and mental well-being.
The expression of affection mediates emotional and relational benefits for the individual and significant counterparts. The communication of positive feelings towards others has shown health benefits. Affection Expression Benefits are internally noticed when the emotion is expressed and not felt, if affection is not reciprocated through the receiver, effects of the affection are still felt through the giver. Affectionate behavior is regarded as the result of parental nurturing behavior due to its associations with hormonal rewards. Positive and negative parental behaviors can be linked to life health problems. Abuse is a common attribute to poor health in life, as the lack of affection leads to poorer well-being and mental health. A 2013 study, UCLA affection showed the effects of early child abuse and the outcome between lack of affection and the strong biological link for how these negative early-life experiences affect physical health. Janice Raymond. 2001. A Passion for Friends. Publisher. Spinifex Press, ISBN 187675608X, 9781876756086 Elizabeth Sibthorpe Pinchard.2012.
Family Affection: A Tale for Youth. Publisher- Hardpress Publishing, 2012 ISBN 1290006709, 9781290006705 Joshua Hordern. 2013. Political Affections: Civic Participation and Moral Theology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199646813 Robin Becker. 2006. Domain of Perfect Affection. Publisher University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0822959313, 9780822959311 Kory Floyd. 2006. Communicating Affection: Interpersonal Behavior and Social Context. Advances in Personal Relationships. Publisher Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521832055, 9780521832052 Tuan Yi-fu. 1984. Dominance & affection: The making of pets. Publisher-Yale University Press. ISBN 0300032226 International Journal of Infant Observation and Its Applications. 2011. ISSN 1369-8036 Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences. 2006. Infant Observation: International Journal of Infant Observation and Its Applications. Why love matters: How affection shapes a baby's brain.2006. Gustav Moritz. 1850. Duty and Affection. Publisher-Oxford University Sue Gerhardt. 2004.
Why Love Matters: How Affection Shapes a Baby's Brain. Publisher-Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1583918175, 9781583918173 Gretchen Reydams-Schils. 2005. The Roman Stoics: Self and Affection. Publisher University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226308375, 9780226308371 Ariel Knafo & Robert Plomin. 2006. Parental Discipline and Affection and Children’s Prosocial Behavior:Genetic and Environmental Links MAURICE A. FELDMAN, LAURIE CASE ET AL. 1989. PARENT EDUCATION PROJECT III: INCREASING AFFECTION AND RESPONSIVITY IN DEVELOPMENTALLY HANDICAPPED MOTHERS: COMPONENT ANALYSIS, GENERALIZATION, AND EFFECTS ON CHILD LANGUAGE Halliday, James L. 1953. Concept of a Psychosomatic Affection. Publisher- Ronald Press Company Kory Floyd & Mark T. Morman. Affection received from fathers as a predictor of men's affection with their own sons: Tests of the modeling and compensation hypotheses. 2009. Floyd, K.. Elements of an affection exchange theory: Socioevolutionary paradigm for understanding affectionate communication. Paper presented to Western States Communication Association, Coeur d’Alene, ID.
PNAS published ahead of print September 23, 2013 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.13
Eros is one of the four ancient Greco-Christian terms which can be rendered into English as "love". The other three are storge and agape. Eros refers to romantic love; the term erotic is derived from eros. Eros has been used in philosophy and psychology in a much wider sense as an equivalent to "life energy". In the classical world, erotic love was referred to as a kind of madness or theia mania; this love passion was described through an elaborate metaphoric and mythological schema involving "love's arrows" or "love darts", the source of, the personified figure of Eros, or another deity. At times the source of the arrows was said to be the image of the beautiful love object itself. If these arrows were to arrive at the lover's eyes, they would travel to and'pierce' or'wound' his or her heart and overwhelm him/her with desire and longing; the image of the "arrow's wound" was sometimes used to create oxymorons and rhetorical antithesis concerning its pleasure and pain. "Love at first sight" was explained as a sudden and immediate beguiling of the lover through the action of these processes, but this was not the only mode of entering into passionate love in classical texts.
At times the passion could occur after the initial meeting, as, for example, in Phaedra's letter to Hippolytus in Ovid's Heroides: "That time I went to Eleusis... it was most of all that piercing love lodged in my deepest bones." At times, the passion could precede the first glimpse, as in Paris' letter to Helen of Troy in the same work, where Paris says that his love for Helen came upon him before he had set eyes on her: "...you were my heart's desire before you were known to me. I beheld your features with my soul ere I saw them with my eyes. In the event that the loved one was cruel or uninterested, this desire was shown to drive the lover into a state of depression, causing lamentation and illness; the loved one was depicted as an unwitting ensnarer of the lover, because of her sublime beauty—a "divine curse" which inspires men to kidnap her or try to rape her. Stories in which unwitting men catch sight of the naked body of Artemis the huntress lead to similar ravages; the classical conception of love's arrows was developed further by the troubadour poets of Provence during the medieval period, became part of the European courtly love tradition.
The role of a woman's eyes in eliciting erotic desire was emphasized by the Provençal poets, as N. E. Griffin points out: According to this description, love originates upon the eyes of the lady when encountered by those of her future lover; the love thus generated is conveyed on bright beams of light from her eyes to his, through which it passes to take up its abode in his heart. In some medieval texts, the gaze of a beautiful woman is compared to the sight of a basilisk—a legendary reptile said to have the power to cause death with a single glance; these images continued to be circulated and elaborated upon in the literature and iconography of the Renaissance and Baroque periods. Boccaccio for example, in his Il Filostrato, mixes the tradition of Cupid's arrow with the Provençal emphasis on the eyes as the birthplace of love: "Nor did he, so wise shortly before... perceive that Love with his darts dwelt within the rays of those lovely eyes... nor notice the arrow that sped to his heart."The rhetorical antithesis between the pleasure and pain from love's dart continued through the 17th century, as for example, in these classically inspired images from The Fairy-Queen: If Love's a Sweet Passion, why does it torment?
If a Bitter, oh tell me whence comes my content? Since I suffer with pleasure, why should I complain,Or grieve at my Fate, when I know'tis in vain? Yet so pleasing the Pain is, so soft is the Dart,That at once it both wounds me, Tickles my Heart; the ancient philosopher Plato developed an idealistic concept of eros which would prove to be influential in modern times. In general, Plato did not consider physical attraction to be a necessary part of eros. "Platonic love" in this original sense can be attained by the intellectual purification of eros from carnal into ideal form. This process is examined in Plato's dialogue the Symposium. Plato argues there that eros is felt for a person, but with contemplation it can become an appreciation for the beauty within that person, or an appreciation for beauty itself in an ideal sense; as Plato expresses it, eros can help the soul to "remember" beauty in its pure form. It follows from this, for Plato. Eros, understood in this sense, differed from the common meaning of the word in the Greek language of Plato's time.
It differed from the meaning of the word in contemporary literature and poetry. For Plato, eros is neither purely human nor purely divine: it is something intermediate which he calls a daimon, its main characteristic is permanent desire. When it seems to give, eros continues to be a "desire to possess", but it is different from a purely sensual love in being the love that tends towards the sublime. According to Plato, the gods do not love, be