The Paropamisadae, known by other names, were a people who lived in the area of Afghanistan and northern Pakistan during classical antiquity. The name was used to refer to the lands these people inhabited. Paropamisadae is the form of the Greek name Paropamisádai, used to refer to the inhabitants of the land of Paropamisus in the Hindu Kush. They appeared frequently as Parapamisadae and Parapamīsus, Paropamīsii. The name was applied to a nearby river, probably the Obi. In the ancient Buddhist texts, the Mahajanapada kingdom of Kamboja compassed the territories of Paropamisus, the region came under Achaemenid Persian control in the late 6th century BC, either during the reign of Cyrus the Great or Darius I. In the 320s BC, Alexander the Great conquered the entire Persian Empire, after Alexanders death in 323 BC, the area came under control of the Seleucid Empire, which gave the region to the Mauryan Dynasty of India in 305 BC. The Eucratidians seized the area soon after the death of Menander I, Paropamisus was located north of Arachosia and Drangiana, east of Aria, south of Bactria, and west of Kashmir.
There were two rivers flowing through the land, the Coas or Cophen and the Dorgamanes or Orgomanes farther north. The major cities of the land were the city of Ortospana or Carura, probably identifiable with Kabul, probably modern Ghazni, Capissa in the northeast, and Parsia, indo-Greek kingdom Greco-Bactrian kingdom The Greeks in Bactria and India by W. W. Tarn, Cambridge University Press Ptolemys section on the Paropanisadae in English translation John Watson McCrindles Ancient India as Described in Ptolemy
Alexander the Great
Alexander III of Macedon, commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. He was born in Pella in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of twenty and he was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of historys most successful military commanders. During his youth, Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until the age of 16, after Philips assassination in 336 BC, he succeeded his father to the throne and inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. Alexander was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his fathers Panhellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest of Persia, in 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid Empire and began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years. Following the conquest of Anatolia, Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of battles, most notably the battles of Issus. He subsequently overthrew Persian King Darius III and conquered the Achaemenid Empire in its entirety, at that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River.
He sought to reach the ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea and invaded India in 326 BC and he eventually turned back at the demand of his homesick troops. Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC, the city that he planned to establish as his capital, without executing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia. In the years following his death, a series of civil wars tore his empire apart, resulting in the establishment of several states ruled by the Diadochi, Alexanders surviving generals, Alexanders legacy includes the cultural diffusion which his conquests engendered, such as Greco-Buddhism. He founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most notably Alexandria in Egypt, Alexander became legendary as a classical hero in the mold of Achilles, and he features prominently in the history and mythic traditions of both Greek and non-Greek cultures. He became the measure against which military leaders compared themselves, and he is often ranked among the most influential people in human history.
He was the son of the king of Macedon, Philip II, and his wife, Olympias. Although Philip had seven or eight wives, Olympias was his wife for some time. Several legends surround Alexanders birth and childhood, sometime after the wedding, Philip is said to have seen himself, in a dream, securing his wifes womb with a seal engraved with a lions image. Plutarch offered a variety of interpretations of dreams, that Olympias was pregnant before her marriage, indicated by the sealing of her womb. On the day Alexander was born, Philip was preparing a siege on the city of Potidea on the peninsula of Chalcidice. That same day, Philip received news that his general Parmenion had defeated the combined Illyrian and Paeonian armies, and it was said that on this day, the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, burnt down. This led Hegesias of Magnesia to say that it had burnt down because Artemis was away, such legends may have emerged when Alexander was king, and possibly at his own instigation, to show that he was superhuman and destined for greatness from conception
Dionysus is the god of the grape harvest and wine, of ritual madness, fertility and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth. Wine played an important role in Greek culture, and the cult of Dionysus was the religious focus for its unrestrained consumption. He may have been worshipped as early as c, 1500–1100 BC by Mycenean Greeks, traces of Dionysian-type cult have been found in ancient Minoan Crete. His origins are uncertain, and his cults took many forms, some are described by ancient sources as Thracian, in some cults, he arrives from the east, as an Asiatic foreigner, in others, from Ethiopia in the South. He is a god of epiphany, the god that comes and his festivals were the driving force behind the development of Greek theatre. The earliest cult images of Dionysus show a male and robed. He holds a staff, tipped with a pine-cone and known as a thyrsus. Later images show him as a beardless, naked or half-naked androgynous youth, in its fully developed form, his central cult imagery shows his triumphant, disorderly arrival or return, as if from some place beyond the borders of the known and civilized.
His procession is made up of female followers and bearded satyrs with erect penises, some are armed with the thyrsus. The god himself is drawn in a chariot, usually by exotic beasts such as lions or tigers and this procession is presumed to be the cult model for the followers of his Dionysian Mysteries. He is known as Bacchus, the adopted by the Romans. His thyrsus, sometimes wound with ivy and dripping with honey, is both a beneficent wand and a used to destroy those who oppose his cult and the freedoms he represents. As Eleutherios, his wine and ecstatic dance free his followers from self-conscious fear and care and those who partake of his mysteries are possessed and empowered by the god himself. The cult of Dionysus is a cult of the souls, his maenads feed the dead through blood-offerings and he is sometimes categorised as a dying-and-rising god. Some scholars believe that Dionysus is a syncretism of a local Greek nature deity, Dionysus had a strange birth that evokes the difficulty in fitting him into the Olympian pantheon.
His mother was a woman, the daughter of king Cadmus of Thebes, and his father was Zeus. Zeus wife, discovered the affair while Semele was pregnant, appearing as an old crone, Hera befriended Semele, who confided in her that Zeus was the actual father of the baby in her womb. Hera pretended not to believe her, and planted seeds of doubt in Semeles mind, Semele demanded of Zeus that he reveal himself in all his glory as proof of his godhood
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
Anthimachus I Theos was one of the Greco-Bactrian kings, generally dated from around 185 BC to 170 BC. Tarn and numismatist Robert Senior place Antimachus as a member of the Euthydemid dynasty and probably as a son of Euthydemus, other historians, like Narain, mark him as independent of Euthydemid authority, and probably a scion of some relation to the Diodotid dynasty. He was king of an area covering parts of Bactria and probably Arachosia in southern Afghanistan, Antimachus I was either defeated during his resistance to the usurper Eucratides, or his main territory was absorbed by the latter upon his death. Apparently adding to the argument against direct Euthydemid familial connections, is a unique tax-receipt that states, In the reign of Antimachos Theos and Eumenes, the fourth year, month of Olous, in Asangorna, the guardian of the law being. The tax collector Menodotus, in the presence of, who was sent out by Demonax, the former. By the agency of Diodorus, controller of revenues, acknowledges receipt from, the son of Dataes from the priests.
The dues relating to the purchase, a tax receipt from Hellenistic Bactria. Eumenes and Antimachus could be his heirs, it was standard by Ptolemaic and Seleucid kings to include their sons as joint regents, while Eumenes never issued any coins, a king named Antimachus II Nikephoros appeared in India. It seems plausible that the Indian Antimachus was identical with the son of Antimachus I, Antimachus I issued a numerous silver coinage on the Attic standard, with his own image in a flat Macedonian kausia hat, and on the reverse Poseidon with his trident. On his coinage, Antimachus called himself Theos, The God, just like his colleague Agathocles, he issued commemorative coinage, in his case silver tetradrachms honouring Euthydemus I, called The God, and Diodotus I, called The Saviour. This indicates that Antimachus I might have been instrumental in creating a state cult. Antimachus I issued round bronzes depicting an elephant on the obverse, the elephant could be a Buddhist symbol. These coins are reminiscent of those of Demetrius I, as well as Apollodotus I, other bronzes and rather crude, portray a walking elephant, but with a reverse of a thunderbolt.
These have been attributed by Bopearachchi to Arachosia and they are Indian in their design, but the legend is only in Greek. The Greek in Bactria and India, W. W. Tarn, Cambridge University Press The Decline of the Indo-Greeks, Senior and D. MacDonald, Hellenistic Numismatic Society The Indo-Greeks, A. K. Narain, B. R. Publications Coins of Antimachus More coins of Antimachus
A thyrsus or thyrsos was a wand or staff of giant fennel covered with ivy vines and leaves, sometimes wound with taeniae and always topped with a pine cone. The thyrsus, associated with Dionysus and his followers, the Satyrs and Maenads, is a symbol of prosperity, fertility and pleasure/enjoyment in general. It has been suggested that this was specifically a fertility phallus, with the representing the shaft of the penis. The thyrsus was tossed in the Bacchic dance, The thyrsus— in my hand shall I hold it. Or thus am I more like a Bacchanal, Dionysus, In thy right hand, and with thy right foot raise it. Sometimes the thyrsus was displayed in conjunction with a wine cup, another symbol of Dionysus, forming a male-and-female combination like that of the royal scepter. In Greek religion, the staff was carried by the votaries of Dionysus, euripides wrote that honey dripped from the thyrsos staves that the Bacchic maenads carried. The thyrsus was an instrument at religious rituals and fêtes. The fabulous history of Bacchus relates that he converted the thyrsi carried by himself and his followers into dangerous weapons, hence his thyrsus is called a spear enveloped in vine-leaves, and its point was thought to incite to madness.
Euripides writes, Theres a brute wildness in the fennel-wands—Reverence it well, for many, as they say in the mysteries, are the thyrsus bearers, but few are the mystics, --meaning, as I interpret the words, the true philosophers. The bas-relief in bronze ye promised me, /Those Pans and nymphs ye wot of, Thrysus at Encyclopædia Britannica Online Thrysus at The Ancient Library Thyrsus at Perseus Project
Antiochus III the Great
Antiochus III the Great /ænˈtaɪəkəs/ was a Hellenistic Greek king and the 6th ruler of the Seleucid Empire. He ruled over the region of Syria and large parts of the rest of western Asia towards the end of the 3rd century BC and his traditional designation, the Great, reflects an epithet he assumed. He assumed the title Basileus Megas, the title of the Persian kings. A militarily active ruler, Antiochus restored much of the territory of the Seleucid Empire, before suffering a setback, towards the end of his reign. He died three years on campaign in the east, Antiochus III was a member of the Hellenistic Greek Seleucid dynasty. He was the son of king Seleucus II Callinicus and Laodice II and was born around 242 BC near Susa in Persia and he may have borne a non-dynastic name, according to a Babylonian chronicle. He succeeded, under the name Antiochus, his brother Seleucus III Ceraunus, upon the murder in Anatolia. Antiochus III inherited a disorganized state, not only had Asia Minor become detached, but the easternmost provinces had broken away, Bactria under the Greek Diodotus of Bactria, and Parthia under the nomad chieftain Arsaces.
Soon after Antiochuss accession and Persis revolted under their governors, the young king, under the influence of the minister Hermeias, headed an attack on Ptolemaic Syria instead of going in person to face the rebels. The attack against the Ptolemaic empire proved a fiasco, and the generals sent against Molon, only in Asia Minor, where the kings cousin, represented the Seleucid cause, did its prestige recover, driving the Pergamene power back to its earlier limits. In 221 BC Antiochus at last went east, and the rebellion of Molon, the submission of Lesser Media, which had asserted its independence under Artabazanes, followed. Antiochus rid himself of Hermeias by assassination and returned to Syria, Achaeus himself had revolted and assumed the title of king in Asia Minor. Since, his power was not well grounded to allow an attack on Syria, Antiochus considered that he might leave Achaeus for the present. The campaigns of 219 BC and 218 BC carried the Seleucid armies almost to the confines of Ptolemaic Kingdom and this defeat nullified all Antiochuss successes and compelled him to withdraw north of the Lebanon.
Despite the military defeat, Antiochus was able to control of Seleucia pieria. In 216 BC Antiochus army marched into western Anatolia to suppress the rebellion led by Antiochus own cousin Achaeus. Capturing Achaeus, Antiochus had him executed, the citadel managed to hold out until 213 BC under Achaeus widow Laodice who surrendered later. Having thus recovered the central part of Asia Minor Antiochus turned to recovering the outlying provinces of the north and he obliged Xerxes of Armenia to acknowledge his supremacy in 212 BC
The kingdom was founded when the Graeco-Bactrian king Demetrius invaded the subcontinent early in the 2nd century BC. The Greeks in South Asia were eventually divided from the Graeco-Bactrians centered in Bactria, but the Greeks failed to establish united rule in present-day north-western South Asia. The most famous Indo-Greek ruler was Menander and he had his capital at Sakala in the Punjab. The expression Indo-Greek Kingdom loosely describes a number of various polities, traditionally associated with a number of regional capitals like Taxila, Pushkalavati. Euthydemus I was, according to Polybius a Magnesian Greek and his son, founder of the Indo-Greek kingdom, was therefore of Greek descent from his father at minimum. A marriage treaty was arranged for Demetrius with a daughter of Antiochus III the Great, the ethnicity of Indo-Greek rulers is less clear. The diffusion of Indo-Greek culture had consequences which are still felt today, after 321 BC Eudemus toppled Taxiles, until he left India in 316 BC.
To the south, another general ruled over the Greek colonies of the Indus, son of Agenor, in 305 BC, Seleucus I led an army to the Indus, where he encountered Chandragupta. The confrontation ended with a treaty, and an intermarriage agreement. But Seleucus Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus in consequence of a marriage contract, several Greeks, such as the historian Megasthenes, followed by Deimachus and Dionysius, were sent to reside at the Mauryan court. Presents continued to be exchanged between the two rulers, on these occasions, Greek populations apparently remained in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent under Mauryan rule. It is thought that Greeks contributed to the work of the Pillars of Ashoka. 1 That is the Caucasus Indicus or Paropamisus, Alexander had established several colonies in neighbouring Bactria, such as Alexandria on the Oxus and Alexandria of the Caucasus. After Alexanders death in 323 BC, Bactria came under the control of Seleucus I Nicator, the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom was founded when Diodotus I, the satrap of Bactria seceded from the Seleucid Empire around 250 BC.
The preserved ancient sources are contradictory and the exact date of Bactrian independence has not been settled. Somewhat simplified, there is a chronology and a low chronology for Diodotos’ secession. The high chronology has the advantage of explaining why the Seleucid king Antiochus II issued very few coins in Bactria, as Diodotos would have become independent there early in Antiochus reign. On the other hand, the low chronology, from the mid-240s BC, has the advantage of connecting the secession of Diodotus I with the Third Syrian War, a catastrophic conflict for the Seleucid Empire
Antiochus II Theos
Antiochus II Theos was a Greek king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire who reigned from 261 to 246 BC. He succeeded his father Antiochus I Soter in the winter of 262–61 BC and he was the younger son of Antiochus I and princess Stratonice, the daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes. Antiochus made some attempt to get a footing in Thrace, during the war he was given the title Theos, being such to the Milesians in slaying the tyrant Timarchus. During the time Antiochus was occupied with the war against Egypt, his satrap in Parthia, about 238 BC, Arsaces led a revolt of the Parthians against Andragoras, leading to the foundation of the Parthian Empire. These events would have cut off communications with India, phylarchus relays current scandals regarding his drunken banquets and liaisons with unsuitable young men. About this time, Antiochus made peace with Ptolemy II Philadelphus, Antiochus repudiated his wife Laodice I and exiled her to Ephesus. To seal the treaty, he married Ptolemys daughter Berenice and received an enormous dowry, during her stay in Ephesus, Laodice I continued numerous intrigues to become queen again.
By 246 BC Antiochus had left Berenice and their infant son Antiochus, Laodice I took the occasion to poison Antiochus while her partisans at Antioch murdered Berenice and their infant son. Antiochus was buried in the Belevi Mausoleum, Laodice I proclaimed Seleucus II as King. With his cousin-wife Laodice I, Antiochus had two sons, Seleucus II Callinicus, Antiochus Hierax and three daughters, Stratonice of Cappadocia and Laodice, wherever medical herbs suitable for humans or animals are not available, I have had them imported and grown. Wherever medical roots or fruits are not available I have had them imported, along roads I have had wells dug and trees planted for the benefit of humans and animals. Antiochus II entry in Seleucid Genealogy This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
Alexander I Balas, ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom in 150–146 BC. Alexander defeated his brother Demetrius Soter for the crown in 150 BC, ruling briefly, he lost the crown to his brother during his defeat at the battle of Antioch in Syria, dying shortly after. He was a native of Smyrna of humble origin, but gave out to be the son of Antiochus IV Epiphanes and Laodice IV. Alexanders claims were recognized by the Roman Senate, Ptolemy Philometor of Egypt and he married Cleopatra Thea, a daughter of the Ptolemaic dynasty. At first unsuccessful, Alexander finally defeated Demetrius Soter in 150 BC, being now master of the empire, he is said to have abandoned himself to a life of debauchery. Whatever the truth behind this, the king was forced to depend heavily on his Ptolemaic support. Demetrius Soters son Demetrius II profited by the opportunity to regain the throne, Ptolemy Philometor, who was Alexanders father-in-law, went over to his side, and Alexander was defeated in the battle of Antioch in Syria, sometimes known as the battle of the Oenoparus.
He fled for refuge to a Nabataean prince, who murdered him and sent his head to Ptolemy Philometor, list of Syrian monarchs Timeline of Syrian history Maas, Anthony John. 1 and 2 Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews Appian, Syrian Wars,67 Polybius, Alexander Balas, article in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith
Demetrius I of Bactria
Demetrius I was a Greek king of Gandhara. He was never defeated in battle and was qualified as the Invincible on the pedigree coins of his successor Agathocles. Demetrius I may have been the initiator of the Yavana era, starting in 186-185 BC, Demetrius was the name of at least two and probably three Greek kings of Bactria. The much debated Demetrius II was a relative, whereas Demetrius III, is known only from numismatic evidence. Demetrius I was known as the second Alexander, the father of Demetrius, was attacked by the Seleucid ruler Antiochus III around 210 BC. Although he commanded 10,000 horsemen, Euthydemus initially lost a battle on the Arius and had to retreat and he successfully resisted a three-year siege in the fortified city of Bactra, before Antiochus finally decided to recognize the new ruler. The final negotiations were made between Antiochus III and Demetrius, polybius 11.34 The term used for young prince is neaniskos, suggesting an age around 16, which in turn gives a birth date for Demetrius around 222 BC.
Demetrius started the invasion of northwestern India in 180 BC, following the destruction of the Mauryan dynasty by the general Pushyamitra Shunga, the Mauryans had diplomatic alliances with the Greeks, and they may have been considered as allies by the Greco-Bactrians. The Greco-Bactrians may have invaded India in order to protect Greek populations in the subcontinent, in his Parthian stations, Isidorus of Charax mentions a colony named Demetrias, supposedly founded by Demetrius himself, Beyond is Arachosia. As far as this place the land is under the rule of the Parthians and it is generally considered that Demetrius ruled in Taxila. The Indian records describes Greek attacks on Saketa, however, the campaigns to Pataliputra are generally attested to the king Menander I and Demetrius I probably only invaded areas in Pakistan. Other kings may have expanded the territory as well, by c.175 BC, the Indo-Greeks ruled parts of northwestern India, while the Shungas remained in the Gangetic and Eastern India.
The Hathigumpha inscription of the Kalinga king Kharavela mentions that fearing him, the name of the Yavana king is not clear, but it contains three letters, and the middle letter can be read as ma or mi. Some historians, such as R. D. Banerji and K. P, jayaswal reconstructed the name of the Yavana king as Dimita, and identified him with Demetrius. However, several historians, such as Ramaprasad Chanda, Sailendra Nath Sen. At the same time coinage technology evolved, as double-die coins started to appear, the archaeological excavations of coins have shown that these coins, as well as the new double die coins, were contemporary with those of the Indo-Greeks. According to Osmund Bopearachchi these coins, and particularly those depicting the goddess Lakshmi, were minted by Demetrius I following his invasion of Gandhara. Demetrius I died of unknown reasons, and the date 180 BC is merely a suggestion aimed to allow suitable regnal periods for subsequent kings, even if some of them were co-regents, civil wars and temporary divisions of the empire are most likely