A poppy is a flowering plant in the subfamily Papaveroideae of the family Papaveraceae. Poppies are herbaceous plants, often grown for their colorful flowers, following the trench warfare which took place in the poppy fields of Flanders during World War I, poppies have become a symbol of remembrance of soldiers who have died during wartime. Poppies are herbaceous annual, biennial or short-lived perennial plants, some species are monocarpic, dying after flowering. Poppies can be over 4 feet tall with flowers up to six inches across, flowers of species have 4 to 6 petals, many stamens forming a conspicuous whorl in the center of the flower and an ovary of from 2 to many fused carpels. The petals are showy, may be of almost any color in the, the petals are crumpled in the bud and as blooming finishes, the petals often lie flat before falling away. In the temperate zones, poppies bloom from spring into early summer, most species secrete latex when injured. Bees use poppies as a pollen source, the pollen of the oriental poppy, Papaver orientale, is dark blue, that of the field or corn poppy is grey to dark green.
The opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, grows wild in eastern and southern Asia and it is believed that it originated in the Mediterranean region. Poppies of several genera are cultivated in gardens. A few species have uses, principally as sources of drugs. The opium poppy is widely cultivated and its production is monitored by international agencies. It is used for production of dried latex and opium, the precursor of narcotic and analgesic opiates such as morphine, heroin. Poppy seeds are rich in oil, carbohydrates and protein, Poppy oil is often used as cooking oil, salad dressing oil, or in products such as margarine. Poppy oil can be added to spices for cakes, or breads, Poppy products are used in different paints and some cosmetics. In Greek and Roman myths, poppies were used as offerings to the dead, poppies used as emblems on tombstones symbolize eternal sleep. This symbolism was evoked in the childrens novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, a second interpretation of poppies in Classical mythology is that the bright scarlet color signifies a promise of resurrection after death.
The poppy of wartime remembrance is Papaver rhoeas, the corn poppy. This poppy is a weed in Europe and is found in many locations, including Flanders
Harpocrates was the god of silence and confidentiality in the Hellenistic religion developed in Ptolemaic Alexandria. Harpocrates was adapted by the Greeks from the Egyptian child god Horus, to the ancient Egyptians, Horus represented the newborn sun, rising each day at dawn. In Egyptian mythology, Horus was the child of Isis and Osiris, Osiris was the original divine pharaoh of Egypt, who had been murdered by his brother Set and thus became the god of the underworld. The Greeks melded Osiris with their underworldly Hades to produce the essentially Alexandrian syncretism known as Serapis, among the Egyptians, the full-grown Horus was considered the victorious god of the sun who each day overcomes darkness. He is often represented with the head of a Eurasian sparrowhawk, Horus fought battles against Set, until he finally achieved victory and became the ruler of Egypt. Thereafter, the pharaohs of Egypt were seen as reincarnations of the victorious Horus, in this way Harpocrates, the child Horus, personifies the newborn sun each day, the first strength of the winter sun, and the image of early vegetation.
These gods are the same as those who in Egypt are called Serapis and Isis, the same first gods were in Latium called Saturn and Ops. One other tale relates the story about the Greek gods, aphrodite gave a rose to her son Eros, the god of love, he, in turn, gave it to Harpocrates to ensure that his mothers indiscretions were kept under wraps. This gave rose the connotation of secrecy, which continued through the Middle Ages, inexpensive cast terracotta images of Harpocrates, suitable for house shrines, are found scattered throughout the Roman Empire. The boy was identified, however, as Cupid in glosses, plutarch wrote that Harpocrates was the second son of Isis and that he was born prematurely with lame legs. Horus the Child became the protector of children and their mothers. As he was healed of a snake bite by Ra he became a symbol of hope in the gods looking after suffering humanity. Another solar cult, not directly connected with Harpocrates, was that of Sol Invictus the Unconquered Sun, from the 1920s through the 1950s, Harpo Marx performed pantomime and wore either a curly red or curly blonde wig in character.
His brother Groucho jokingly said he named himself in honour of Harpocrates, in truth he was named Harpo because he played the harp. Modern occultists display his image, loosely connected now with Hermetic gnosticism, Harpocrates is the Babe in the Egg of Blue that sits upon the lotus flower in the Nile. He may be termed the god of silence and said to represent the self and be the holy guardian angel and more in similar vein. Many Discordians consider Harpo Marx to have been a contemporary avatar of Harpocrates, because of this, Discordians often invoke Harpocrates as a trickster god or god of humor in addition to his classical attribution of god of silence. Pour une terminologie et une analyse des cultes isiaques, Roman goddess of trust and confidentiality
Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often divided into the Archaic period, Classical period. It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek, the language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine. Koine is regarded as a historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects, Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers. It has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article primarily contains information about the Epic and Classical phases of the language, Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects. The main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Arcadocypriot, some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions.
There are several historical forms, homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the Iliad and Odyssey, and in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic, the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period and they have the same general outline, but differ in some of the detail. The invasion would not be Dorian unless the invaders had some relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects.
Often non-west is called East Greek, Arcadocypriot apparently descended more closely from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age. Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, and can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect, thessalian likewise had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions, generally equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, and Northern Peloponnesus Doric. The Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek and this dialect slowly replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, which is spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek, by about the 6th century AD, the Koine had slowly metamorphosized into Medieval Greek
New Palace (Potsdam)
The New Palace is a palace situated on the western side of the Sanssouci park in Potsdam, Germany. The building was begun in 1763, after the end of the Seven Years War and it is considered to be the last great Prussian baroque palace. The building of the palace commenced at the end of the Seven Years War, the war is variably referred to as the Third Silesian War, owing to the dispute over Silesia. In an architectural form, Frederick the Great sought to demonstrate the power and glories of Prussia attributing it as fanfaronade, for the King, the New Palace was not a principal residence, but a display for the reception of important royals and dignitaries. Of the over 200 rooms, four principal gathering rooms and a theater were available for functions, balls. After the death of Frederick the Great in 1786, the New Palace fell into disuse and was occupied as a residence or entertainment venue. However, starting in 1859 it became the residence of the German Crown Prince, Frederick William. The palace was the residence of Frederick and his empress, Victoria.
During the short reign of Frederick III, the palace was renamed Friedrichskron Palace, until 1918, it remained the preferred residence of Wilhelm II and the Empress Augusta. After the November Revolution and the abdication of Wilhelm II, the New Palace became a museum, much of its furniture had been removed and taken to the residence of the exiled Wilhelm II at Huis Doorn in the Netherlands. Some of the treasures were looted by Soviet Army at the end of the Second World War. The majority of the furnishings were discovered by the Dutch in the 1970s, still in their original packing crates, because of this, and because it escaped bombing in the Second World War, the palace today looks much as it did in 1918. While Frederician Rococo was established at Sanssouci, Frederick the Great had the New Palace built in varying forms of architecture and decoration. The King preferred rococo and baroque to the Neoclassical style that was taking hold of Europe at the time as the preference of many monarchs.
After disagreements over the design of the palace, in 1764 the design of the palace was vested in the architect Carl von Gontard. The three-story façade had already begun to rise around unfinished interiors, with 220 metre east and west façades, the centre portion of the palace was crowned with an enormous dome, at the top of which were placed the Three Graces supporting the Prussian royal crown. The dome is not only architectural, it provides an area under the supporting timbers which carry it. Additionally, the north and south wings are crowned with domes surmounted by gilded eagles
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East. The development of the periodization has generally been accredited to historian Peter Brown, precise boundaries for the period are a continuing matter of debate, but Brown proposes a period between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Generally, it can be thought of as from the end of the Roman Empires Crisis of the Third Century to, in the East, the early Islamic period, following the Muslim conquests in the mid–7th century. In the West the end was earlier, with the start of the Early Medieval period typically placed in the 6th century, beginning with Constantine the Great, Christianity was made legal in the Empire, and a new capital was founded at Constantinople. The resultant cultural fusion of Greco-Roman and Christian traditions formed the foundations of the subsequent culture of Europe, the term Spätantike, literally late antiquity, has been used by German-speaking historians since its popularization by Alois Riegl in the early 20th century.
Concurrently, some migrating Germanic tribes such as the Ostrogoths and Visigoths saw themselves as perpetuating the Roman tradition, Constantine confirmed the legalization of the religion through the so-called Edict of Milan in 313, jointly issued with his rival in the East, Licinius. Monasticism was not the only new Christian movement to appear in Late Antiquity, notable in this regard is the topic of the Fifty Bibles of Constantine. Within the recently legitimized Christian community of the 4th century, a division could be distinctly seen between the laity and an increasingly celibate male leadership. Celibate and detached, the clergy became an elite equal in prestige to urban notables. The Late Antique period saw a transformation of the political and social basis of life in. The Roman Empire was in a sense a network of cities, archaeology now supplements literary sources to document the transformation followed by collapse of cities in the Mediterranean basin. Burials within the urban precincts mark another stage in dissolution of traditional urbanistic discipline, overpowered by the attraction of saintly shrines, in Roman Britain, the typical 4th- and 5th-century layer of black earth within cities seems to be a result of increased gardening in formerly urban spaces.
A similar though less marked decline in population occurred in Constantinople. In Europe there was a decline in urban populations. As a whole, the period of antiquity was accompanied by an overall population decline in almost all Europe. Long-distance markets disappeared, and there was a reversion to a degree of local production and consumption, rather than webs of commerce. The degree and extent of discontinuity in the cities of the Greek East is a moot subject among historians. In the western Mediterranean, the new cities known to be founded in Europe between the 5th and 8th centuries were the four or five Visigothic victory cities
Apollo is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The ideal of the kouros, Apollo has been recognized as a god of music and prophecy, the sun and light, poetry. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto, and has a twin sister, Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu. As the patron of Delphi, Apollo was an oracular god—the prophetic deity of the Delphic Oracle. Medicine and healing are associated with Apollo, whether through the god himself or mediated through his son Asclepius, yet Apollo was seen as a god who could bring ill-health and deadly plague. Amongst the gods custodial charges, Apollo became associated with dominion over colonists, as the leader of the Muses and director of their choir, Apollo functioned as the patron god of music and poetry. Hermes created the lyre for him, and the instrument became an attribute of Apollo. Hymns sung to Apollo were called paeans and Helios/Sol remained separate beings in literary and mythological texts until the 3rd century CE.
The name Apollo—unlike the related older name Paean—is generally not found in the Linear B texts, the etymology of the name is uncertain. The spelling Ἀπόλλων had almost superseded all other forms by the beginning of the common era and it probably is a cognate to the Doric month Apellaios, and the offerings apellaia at the initiation of the young men during the family-festival apellai. According to some scholars the words are derived from the Doric word apella, apella is the name of the popular assembly in Sparta, corresponding to the ecclesia. R. S. P. Beekes rejected the connection of the theonym with the noun apellai, several instances of popular etymology are attested from ancient authors. Thus, the Greeks most often associated Apollos name with the Greek verb ἀπόλλυμι, in the ancient Macedonian language πέλλα means stone, and some toponyms may be derived from this word, Πέλλα and Πελλήνη. The role of Apollo as god of plague is evident in the invocation of Apollo Smintheus by Chryses, the Hittite testimony reflects an early form *Apeljōn, which may be surmised from comparison of Cypriot Ἀπείλων with Doric Ἀπέλλων.
A Luwian etymology suggested for Apaliunas makes Apollo The One of Entrapment, Apollos chief epithet was Phoebus, literally bright. It was very commonly used by both the Greeks and Romans for Apollos role as the god of light, like other Greek deities, he had a number of others applied to him, reflecting the variety of roles and aspects ascribed to the god. However, while Apollo has a number of appellations in Greek myth. Aegletes, from αἴγλη, light of the sun Helius, literally sun Lyceus light, the meaning of the epithet Lyceus became associated with Apollos mother Leto, who was the patron goddess of Lycia and who was identified with the wolf
Health is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt, other definitions have been proposed, among which a recent definition that correlates health and personal satisfaction. The definition of health has evolved over time, although this definition was welcomed by some as being innovative, it was criticized as being vague, excessively broad, and was not construed as measurable. For a long time it was set aside as an impractical ideal, just as there was a shift from viewing disease as a state to thinking of it as a process, the same shift happened in definitions of health. Again, the WHO played a role when it fostered the development of the health promotion movement in the 1980s. This brought in a new conception of health, not as a state, the 1984 WHO revised definition of health defined it as the extent to which an individual or group is able to realize aspirations and satisfy needs, and to change or cope with the environment.
Health is a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living, it is a concept, emphasizing social and personal resources. Thus, health referred to the ability to maintain homeostasis and recover from insults, since the late 1970s, the federal Healthy People Initiative has been a visible component of the United States’ approach to improving population health. Progress has been limited for many objectives, leading to concerns about the effectiveness of Healthy People in shaping outcomes in the context of a decentralized and uncoordinated US health system. Healthy People 2020 gives more prominence to health promotion and preventive approaches, a new expanded digital interface facilitates use and dissemination rather than bulky printed books as produced in the past. The impact of changes to Healthy People will be determined in the coming years. Systematic activities to prevent or cure health problems and promote health in humans are undertaken by health care providers. Applications with regard to animal health are covered by the veterinary sciences, studies have shown that high levels of stress can affect human health.
Generally, the context in which an individual lives is of importance for both his health status and quality of their life. The concept of the field, as distinct from medical care. The report identified three interdependent fields as key determinants of an individuals health, the maintenance and promotion of health is achieved through different combination of physical and social well-being, together sometimes referred to as the health triangle. The WHOs 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion further stated that health is not just a state, Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities. Health and illness can co-exist, as people with multiple chronic diseases or terminal illnesses can consider themselves healthy
Serapis or Sarapis is a Graeco-Egyptian god. The cult of Serapis was introduced during the 3rd century BC on the orders of Ptolemy I of Egypt as a means to unify the Greeks and Egyptians in his realm. The god was depicted as Greek in appearance, but with Egyptian trappings, a serapeum was any temple or religious precinct devoted to Serapis. The cultus of Serapis was spread as a matter of policy by the Ptolemaic kings. Serapis continued to increase in popularity during the Roman period, often replacing Osiris as the consort of Isis in temples outside Egypt. Serapis is the form used in Latin, but both Σάραπις, Sárapis and Σέραπις, Sérapis appear in Greek, as well as Σαραπo Sarapo in Bactrian. His most renowned temple was the Serapeum of Alexandria, under Ptolemy Soter, efforts were made to integrate Egyptian religion with that of their Hellenic rulers. Ptolemys policy was to find a deity that should win the reverence alike of both groups, despite the curses of the Egyptian priests against the gods of the foreign rulers.
Alexander the Great had attempted to use Amun for this purpose, but he was prominent in Upper Egypt, and not as popular with those in Lower Egypt. The Greeks had little respect for animal-headed figures, and so a Greek-style anthropomorphic statue was chosen as the idol and it was named Aser-hapi, which became Serapis, and was said to be Osiris in full, rather than just his Ka. The earliest mention of a Serapis occurs in the death scene of Alexander. Here, Serapis has a temple at Babylon, and is of importance that he alone is named as being consulted on behalf of the dying king. The significance of this Serapsi in the Hellenic psyche, due to its involvement in Alexanders death, may have contributed to the choice of Osiris-Apis as the chief Ptolemaic god. Plutarch may not be correct, however, as some Egyptologists allege that the Sinope in the tale is really the hill of Sinopeion, according to Tacitus, Serapis had been the god of the village of Rhakotis before it expanded into the great capital of Alexandria.
He held a sceptre in his hand indicating his rulership, with Cerberus, gatekeeper of the underworld, the statue had what appeared to be a serpent at its base, fitting the Egyptian symbol of rulership, the uraeus. With his wife Isis, and their son Horus, Serapis won an important place in the Greek world, in his 2nd-century AD Description of Greece, Pausanias notes two Serapeia on the slopes of Acrocorinth, above the rebuilt Roman city of Corinth and one at Copae in Boeotia. Serapis figured among the deities whose cult was received and disseminated throughout the Roman Empire. At Rome, Serapis was worshiped in the Iseum Campense, the sanctuary of Isis built during the Second Triumvirate in the Campus Martius, from the Flavian Dynasty on, Serapis was one of the deities who might appear on imperial coinage with the reigning emperor
A drink or beverage is a liquid intended for human consumption. In addition to their function of satisfying thirst, drinks play important roles in human culture. Common types of drinks include plain water, juices, tea, in addition, alcoholic drinks such as wine and liquor, which contain the drug ethanol, have been part of human culture and development for 8,000 years. Non-alcoholic drinks often signify drinks that would normally contain alcohol, such as beer, the category includes drinks that have undergone an alcohol removal process such as non-alcoholic beers and de-alcoholized wines. When the human body becomes dehydrated it experiences the sensation of thirst and this craving of fluids results in an instinctive need to drink. Thirst is regulated by the hypothalamus in response to changes in the bodys electrolyte levels. The complete elimination of drinks, i. e. water and milk have been basic drinks throughout history. As water is essential for life, it has been the carrier of many diseases, as mankind evolved, new techniques were discovered to create drinks from the plants that were native to their areas.
The earliest archaeological evidence of wine production yet found has been at sites in Georgia, beer may have been known in Neolithic Europe as far back as 3000 BCE, and was mainly brewed on a domestic scale. The invention of beer has been argued to be responsible for humanitys ability to develop technology, tea likely originated in Yunnan, China during the Shang Dynasty as a medicinal drink. Drinking has been a part of socialising throughout the centuries. In Ancient Greece, a gathering for the purpose of drinking was known as a symposium. The purpose of these gatherings could be anything from serious discussions to direct indulgence, in Ancient Rome, a similar concept of a convivium took place regularly. Many early societies considered alcohol a gift from the gods, leading to the creation of such as Dionysus. Other religions forbid, discourage, or restrict the drinking of alcoholic drinks for various reasons, in some regions with a dominant religion the production and consumption of alcoholic drinks is forbidden to everybody, regardless of religion.
Toasting is a method of honouring a person or wishing good will by taking a drink, another tradition is that of the loving cup, at weddings or other celebrations such as sports victories a group will share a drink in a large receptacle, shared by everyone until empty. In East Africa and Yemen, coffee was used in religious ceremonies. As these ceremonies conflicted with the beliefs of the Christian church, the drink was banned in Ottoman Turkey during the 17th century for political reasons and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe
A libation is a ritual pouring of a liquid as an offering to a god or spirit, or in memory of those who have passed on. It was common in many religions of antiquity and continues to be offered in various cultures today, various substances have been used for libations, most commonly wine or olive oil, and in India, ghee. The vessels used in the ritual, including the patera, often had a significant form which differentiated them from secular vessels, the libation could be poured onto something of religious significance, such as an altar, or into the earth. In East Asia, pouring an offering of rice into a stream, symbolises the unattachment from karma. Libation was part of ancient Egyptian society where it was an offering to honor and please the various divinities, sacred ancestors, humans present and not present. It is suggested that libation originated somewhere in the upper Nile Valley and spread out to other regions of Africa, isaiah uses libation as a metaphor when describing the end of the Suffering Servant figure who poured out his life unto death.
Libation was a central and vital aspect of ancient Greek religion and it is one of the basic religious acts that define piety in ancient Greece, dating back to the Bronze Age and even prehistoric Greece. Libations were a part of life, and the pious might perform them every day in the morning and evening. A libation most often consisted of mixed wine and water, but could be unmixed wine, oil, the form of libation called spondē is typically the ritualized pouring of wine from a jug or bowl held in the hand. The most common ritual was to pour the liquid from an oinochoē into a phiale, after wine was poured from the phiale, the remainder of the contents was drunk by the celebrant. A libation is poured any time wine is to be drunk, the etiquette of the symposium required that when the first bowl of wine was served, a libation was made to Zeus and the Olympian gods. Heroes received a libation from the second krater served, and Zeus the Finisher from the third, an alternative was to offer a libation from the first bowl to the Agathos Daimon and from the third bowl to Hermes.
An individual at the symposium could make an invocation of, the Greeks stood when they prayed, either with their arms uplifted, or in the act of libation with the right arm extended to hold the phiale. In conducting animal sacrifice, wine is poured onto the victim as part of its ritual slaughter and preparation and this scene is commonly depicted in Greek art, which often shows sacrificers or the gods themselves holding the phiale. The Greek verb spendō, pour a libation, conclude a pact, derives from the Indo-European root *spend-, make an offering, perform a rite, the noun is spondē or spondai, libation. In the middle voice, the verb means enter into an agreement, blood sacrifice was performed to begin a war, spondai marked the conclusion of hostilities, and is often thus used in the sense of armistice, treaty. Libations poured onto the earth are meant for the dead and for the chthonic gods, in the Book of the Dead in the Odyssey, Odysseus digs an offering pit around which he pours in order honey and water.
For the form of libation called choē, a vessel is tipped over and emptied onto the ground for the chthonic gods
Berlin State Museums
The Berlin State Museums are a group of institutions in Berlin, comprising seventeen museums in five clusters, several research institutes and supporting facilities. They are overseen by the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation and funded by the German federal government in collaboration with Germanys federal states, the central complex on Museum Island was added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites in 1999. By 2007 the Berlin State Museums had grown into the largest complex of museums in Europe, director-general of the Berlin State Museums is Michael Eissenhauer. Museum Island Altes Museum and Greek Classical Antiquities Alte Nationalgalerie, 19th century sculptures and paintings
Livadeia is a town in central Greece. It is the capital of the Boeotia regional district, Livadeia lies 90 km north-west of Athens,64 km west of Chalkida,63 km south-east of Lamia,44 km east-south-east of Amfissa, and 91 km east-north-east of Nafpaktos. The town lies five kilometres west of Greek National Road 3. The area around Livadeia is mountainous, with farming activities mainly confined to the valleys, the area has traditionally been associated with the production and processing of cotton and tobacco, as well as the cultivation of cereal crops and the raising of livestock. Livadeia is home to Levadiakos FC, members of the Greek Superleague, the municipality of Livadeia covers an area of 694.016 km2, the municipal unit of Livadeia 166.691 km2 and the community 139.614 km2. The sacred protector of the city was the hero/god Trophonios, whose oracle, at the springs of the Herkyna river are shallow grottos with niches and marble remnants said to be the site of the oracle. On the hill above is a medieval castle, mostly the work of the Catalan Company during the 14th century.
Further west, commanding a view from the hill of Profitis Ilias, are the remains of a large temple of Zeus Basileus, perhaps begun in the 3rd century BC. The cathedral church of St. George houses an important relic, in medieval times the river was lined by a series of water mills, one of which is preserved. During the Byzantine times Livadeia, enters a period of decline, during the Frankish Livadeia came back on track, it passes in Catalan sovereignty. An important source for the economy is the tourism, Livadeia hosts two sports club with presence in the higher national divisions, Levadiakos F. C. a football club and Livadeia B. C. a basketball club. Livadiya, Crimea University of Central Greece Livadiya, Ukraine Municipality of Livadeia official website The Castle of Levadia Greek Ministry of Culture Public Central Library of Livadeia