Willem van de Velde the Elder
Willem van de Velde the Elder was a Dutch Golden Age seascape painter. Willem van de Velde, known as the Elder, a marine draughtsman and painter, was born in Leiden, the son of a Flemish skipper, Willem Willemsz. Van de Velde, is said to have been bred to the sea. In 1706 Bainbrigg Buckeridge noted that he “understood navigation well”, he married Judith Adriaensdochter van Leeuwen in Leiden, the Netherlands, in 1631. His three known legitimate children were named Magdalena, born 1632, his marriage was stormy, at least in its years. David Cordingly relates that Willem the Elder fathered two children out of wedlock in 1653, one “by his maidservant, the other by her friend. Nine years the Elder and his wife went through a legal separation, ‘on account of legal disputes and the most violent quarrels’; the immediate cause of the dispute was his affair with a married woman.” Michael S. Robinson noted that "on 17/27 he and his wife agreed to part. A condition of the separation was that the Elder could recover from his son Adriaen ‘two royal gifts’ gifts from Charles II for work done in England.”
Cordingly’s account further relates that the dispute was still continuing after another ten years, since “in the autumn of 1672 Judith complained to the woman’s husband.” Robinson adds that by 1674 the couple “must have been reconciled”, for at a chance meeting with Pieter Blaeu in Amsterdam in July the Elder explained that he was only visiting for a few days “in order to fetch his wife”. His son, had died in Amsterdam in 1672, Willem the Elder was fetching his grandson named Adriaen, aged two. After his move to England, the exact date of, uncertain, but at the end of 1672 or beginning of 1673, he is said to have lived with his family in East Lane, to have used the Queen’s House, now part of the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich, as a studio. Following the accession of William III and Mary II as King and Queen of England, it appears that this facility was no longer provided, by 1691 he was living in Sackville Street, now close to Piccadilly Circus, he died in London, was buried in St James's Church, Piccadilly, at the south end of the street.
A memorial to him and his son lies with in the church. He was the official artist of the Dutch fleet for a period, being present at the Four Days Battle, 1–4 June 1666, the St James's Day Battle, 25 July 1666, to make sketches. In his work on the biographies of artists, Arnold Houbraken quotes Gerard Brandt's biography of Admiral Michiel de Ruyter, relating the anecdote where Willem van de Velde asked Admiral de Ruyter permission to have a galley row him around for a good view of the proceedings on the evening of the Four Days battle in 1666, he wasn't the only artist to paint the scenes of this battle, his son, Ludolf Bakhuysen and Pieter Cornelisz van Soest made paintings of it. This act was the reason that van Velde gained his marine commission in London; the date, 1672 given for his entry into the service of Charles II of England, was at a time when the Dutch Republic was at war with England. Piles, R. de & Buckeridge, B. The Art of Painting. S. Van de Velde Drawings. S; the Paintings of the Willem van de Veldes.
Dictionary of National Biography. 58. 1899. P. 103. National Maritime Museum biography National Maritime Museum portal for their van de Velde drawings on line one of the largest collections, 1500 items of which 837 are illustrated. ArtCyclopedia list of his paintings on line National Portrait Gallery: Bainbrigg Buckeridge
A galley is a type of ship, propelled by rowing. The galley is characterized by shallow draft and low freeboard. All types of galleys had sails that could be used in favorable winds, but human strength was always the primary method of propulsion; this allowed galleys to navigate independently of currents. The galley originated among the seafaring civilizations around the Mediterranean Sea in the late second millennium BC and remained in use in various forms until the early 19th century in warfare and piracy. Galleys were the warships used by the early Mediterranean naval powers, including the Greeks and Romans, they remained the dominant types of vessels used for war and piracy in the Mediterranean Sea until the last decades of the 16th century. As warships, galleys carried various types of weapons throughout their long existence, including rams and cannons, but relied on their large crews to overpower enemy vessels in boarding actions, they were the first ships to use heavy cannons as anti-ship weapons.
As efficient gun platforms they forced changes in the design of medieval seaside fortresses as well as refinement of sailing warships. The zenith of galley usage in warfare came in the late 16th century with battles like that at Lepanto in 1571, one of the largest naval battles fought. By the 17th century, sailing ships and hybrid ships like the xebec displaced galleys in naval warfare, they were the most common warships in the Atlantic Ocean during the Middle Ages, saw limited use in the Caribbean, the Philippines and the Indian Ocean in the early modern period as patrol craft to combat pirates. From the mid-16th century galleys were in intermittent use in the Baltic Sea, with its short distances and extensive archipelagoes. There was a minor revival of galley warfare in the 18th century in the wars among Russia and Denmark; the term "galley" derives from the medieval Greek galea, a smaller version of the dromon, the prime warship of the Byzantine navy. The origin of the Greek word is unclear but could be related to galeos, dogfish shark.
The word "galley" has been attested in English from c. 1300 and has been used in most European languages from around 1500 both as a general term for oared warships, from the Middle Ages and onwards more for the Mediterranean-style vessel. It was only from the 16th century. Before that in antiquity, there was a wide variety of terms used for different types of galleys. In modern historical literature, "galley" is used as a general term for various types of oared vessels larger than boats, though the "true" galley is defined as the ships belonging to the Mediterranean tradition. Ancient galleys were named according to the number of oars, the number of banks of oars or lines of rowers; the terms are based on contemporary language use combined with more recent compounds of Greek and Latin words. The earliest Greek single-banked galleys are called penteconters. For galleys with more than one row of oars, the terminology is based on Latin numerals with the suffix -reme from rēmus, "oar". A monoreme has one bank of a bireme two and a trireme three.
Since the maximum banks of oars was three, any expansion above that did not refer to additional banks of oars, but of additional rowers for every oar. Quinquereme was a "five-oar", but meant that there were several rowers to certain banks of oars which made up five lines of oar handlers. For simplicity, they have by many modern scholars been referred to as "fives", "sixes", "eights", "elevens", etc. Anything above six or seven rows of rowers was not common, though a exceptional "forty" is attested in contemporary source. Any galley with more than three or four lines of rowers is referred to as a "polyreme". Archaeologist Lionel Casson has used the term "galley" to describe all North European shipping in the early and high Middle Ages, including Viking merchants and their famous longships, though this is rare. Oared military vessels built on the British Isles in the 11th to 13th centuries were based on Scandinavian designs, but were referred to as "galleys". Many of them were similar to close relatives of longship types like the snekkja.
By the 14th century, they were replaced with balingers in southern Britain while longship-type "Irish galleys" remained in use throughout the Middle Ages in northern Britain. Medieval and early modern galleys used a different terminology than their ancient predecessors. Names were based on the changing designs that evolved after the ancient rowing schemes were forgotten. Among the most important is the Byzantine dromon, the predecessor to the Italian galea sottila; this was the first step toward the final form of the Mediterranean war galley. As galleys became an integral part of an advanced, early modern system of warfare and state administration, they were divided into a number of ranked grades based on the size of the vessel and the number of its crew; the most basic types were the following: large commander "lantern galleys", half-galleys, fustas and fregatas. Naval historian Jan Glete has described as a sort of predecessor of the rating system of the Royal Navy and other sailing fleets in Northern Europe.
The French navy and the British Royal Navy built a series of "galley frigates" from c. 1670–1690 that were small two-decked sailing cruisers with a set of oarports on the lower deck. The three British galley frigates had distinctive names - James Galley, Charles Galley and Mary Galley. In the late
A merchant ship, merchant vessel, trading vessel, or merchantman is a watercraft that transports cargo or carries passengers for hire. This is in contrast to pleasure craft, which are used for personal recreation, naval ships, which are used for military purposes, they come in myriad sizes and shapes, from twenty-foot inflatable dive boats in Hawaii, to 5,000 passenger casino vessels on the Mississippi River, to tugboats plying New York Harbor, to 1,000 foot oil tankers and container ships at major ports, to a passenger carrying submarine in the U. S. Virgin Islands. Most countries of the world operate fleets of merchant ships. However, due to the high costs of operations, today these fleets are in many cases sailing under the flags of nations that specialize in providing manpower and services at favourable terms; such flags are known as "flags of convenience". Liberia and Panama are favoured. Ownership of the vessels can be by any country, however; the Greek-owned fleet is the largest in the world.
Today, the Greek fleet accounts for some 16 per cent of the world's tonnage. During wars, merchant ships may be used as auxiliaries to the navies of their respective countries, are called upon to deliver military personnel and materiel; the term "commercial vessel" is defined by the United States Coast Guard as any vessel engaged in commercial trade or that carries passengers for hire. In English, "Merchant Navy" without further clarification is used to refer to the British Merchant Navy. Merchant ships names are prefixed by which kind of vessel they are: CS = Cable Ship or Cable layer MS = Motorship MV = Motor Vessel / Merchant Vessel MFV = Motor Fishing Vessel SS = Steam Ship MT = Motor Tanker or Motor Tug Boat MSV = Motor Stand-by Vessel MY = Motor Yacht RMS = Royal Mail Ship RRS = Royal Research Ship SV = Sailing Vessel LPG = Gas carrier transporting liquefied petroleum gas LNG = Gas carrier transporting liquefied natural gas RV = Research VesselFor more detailed information see ship prefix The UNCTAD review of maritime transport categorizes ships as: oil tankers, bulk carriers, general cargo ships, container ships, "other ships", which includes "liquefied petroleum gas carriers, liquefied natural gas carriers, parcel tankers, specialized tankers, offshore supply, dredgers, ferries, other non-cargo".
General cargo ships include "multi-purpose and project vessels and roll-on/roll-off cargo". A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo and materials from one port to another. Thousands of cargo carriers ply the world's oceans each year. Cargo ships are specially designed for the task being equipped with cranes and other mechanisms to load and unload, come in all sizes. Dry cargo ships today are bulk carriers and container ships. Bulk carriers or bulkers are used for the transportation of homogeneous cargo such as coal, copra and wheat. Container ships are used for the carriage of miscellaneous goods. A bulk carrier is a ship used to transport bulk cargo items such as iron ore, coal, cement and similar cargo. Bulk carriers can be recognized by large box-like hatches on deck, designed to slide outboard or fold fore-and-aft to enable access for loading or discharging cargo; the dimensions of bulk carriers are determined by the ports and sea routes that they need to serve, by the maximum width of the Panama Canal.
Most lakes are too small to accommodate bulk carriers, but a large fleet of lake freighters has been plying the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway of North America for over a century. Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers, in a technique called containerization, they form a common means of commercial intermodal freight transport. A tanker is a ship designed to transport liquids in bulk. Oil tankers for the transport of fluids, such as crude oil, petroleum products, liquefied petroleum gas, liquefied natural gas and chemicals vegetable oils and other food - the tanker sector comprises one third of the world tonnage. Tankers can range in size from several hundred tons, designed to serve small harbours and coastal settlements, to several hundred thousand tons, with these being designed for long-range haulage. A wide range of products are carried by tankers, including: hydrocarbon products such as oil, LPG, LNG Chemicals, such as ammonia and styrene monomer fresh water wineDifferent products require different handling and transport, thus special types of tankers have been built, such as "chemical tankers" and "oil tankers".
Gas Carriers such as "LNG carriers" as they are known, are a rare tanker designed to carry liquefied natural gas. Among oil tankers, supertankers were designed for carrying oil around the Horn of Africa from the Middle East, it has a deadweight of length of about 458 meters. The use of such large ships is in fact unprofitable, due to the inability to operate them at full cargo capacity. Today's largest oil tankers in comparison by gross tonnage are TI Europe, TI Asia, TI Oceania, which are the largest sailing vessels today, but with their deadweight of 441,585 metric tons, sailing as VLCC most of the time, they do not use more than 70%
SS Delphine (1921)
SS Delphine is a yacht commissioned by Horace Dodge, co-founder of Dodge Brothers. The yacht was launched on 2 April 1921, spans 258 feet. Power was supplied from three Babcock & Wilcox boilers powering two 1,500-horsepower quadruple-expansion engines. In her 2003 refit Delphine was re-equipped with two modern water-tube boilers operating at 20 bars, the larger of which has an evaporation capacity of 14 metric tons of steam per hour while the smaller can evaporate 4 metric tons per hour. "Of all the large American-built steam yachts built between 1893 and 1930, the Delphine is the only one left in her original condition with her original steam engines still in service."The Delphine caught fire and sank in New York in 1926, to be recovered and restored. She suffered further damage in 1940 when she ran aground in the Great Lakes, was repaired, she was acquired by the United States Navy in January 1942 and rechristened USS Dauntless, to serve as the flagship for Admiral Ernest King, Commander in Chief of the U.
S. Fleet and Chief of Naval Operations, she was sold back to Anna Dodge after the conclusion of World War II and restored to civilian standards and service, including her original name. Delphine changed hands in 1967 and again in 1968, changing names again to Dauntless, only to be sold again in 1986, 1989, in 1997 – at scrap metal prices to her next owners – who proceeded to restore her for $60 million to the original 1921 condition including interior decor and the original steam engines, she was rechristened Delphine by Princess Stéphanie of Monaco on 10 September 2003. She was acquired by its current owners in 2015 and has returned to its home port of Monaco for the 2017 charter season; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. Photo gallery of USS Dauntless at NavSource Naval History Official site 360degree Panoramas of The SS Delphine Steamy superyacht has impressive pedigree, Melbourne Age 23 Jun 2010
Maritime Museum of the Atlantic
The Maritime Museum of the Atlantic is a maritime museum located in downtown Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. The museum is a member institution of the Nova Scotia Museum and is the oldest and largest maritime museum in Canada with a collection of over 30,000 artifacts including 70 small craft and a steamship: the CSS Acadia, a 180-foot steam-powered hydrographic survey ship launched in 1913; the museum was founded in 1948. It was first known as the Maritime Museum of Canada and located at HMC Dockyard, the naval base on Halifax Harbour. Several naval officers served as volunteer chairs of the museum until 1959 when Niels Jannasch was hired as the museum's founding director, serving until 1985; the museum moved through several locations over the next three decades before its current building was constructed in 1981 as part of a waterfront redevelopment program. The museum received the CSS Acadia in 1982. Today the museum is part of the Nova Scotia Museum system; the museum was one of the first attractions to open on the redeveloped Halifax Waterfront.
Its location provides the museum with several piers and boatsheds, as well as a strategic view of the Halifax Harbour looking seaward towards the Harbourmaster office and Georges Island and across to Dartmouth. Among its facilities is the restored 1880s Robertson Store ship chandler building, as well as modern exhibit galleries in the Devonian Wing. HMCS Sackville, a World War II Flower-class corvette is docked adjacent to the museum in the summer months but is not owned or administered by the museum. In addition to the over 30,000 artifacts, the museum has a collection of 30,000 photographs as well as a large collection of charts and rare books. A reference library, open to the public, is named after the Museum's founding director, The Niels Jannasch Library; the museum has Canada's largest collection of ship portraits including the oldest ship portrait in Canada as well as a large collection of ship models including the original production models of the television show Theodore Tugboat. Ongoing restoration of Whim, a 1937 C-Class sloop can be found in one of the boatsheds on the wharf behind the museum.
In addition to this current restoration project, the boatsheds house some of the museum's small craft collection. During the summer months three boats in the working small craft collection can be found moored next to the CSS Acadia. In July 2017 the museum completed restoration of the small schooner Hebridee II. Public galleries include the Days of Sail, the Age of Steam, Small Craft, the Canadian Navy, the Halifax Explosion, Shipwrecks. A special permanent exhibit explores the sinking of RMS Titanic with an emphasis on Nova Scotia's connection to recovering the bodies of Titanic victims; the museum has the world's foremost collection of wooden artifacts from Titanic, including one of the few surviving deck chairs. The Titanic exhibit includes a child's pair of shoes which helped identify Titanic's "unknown child" as Sidney Leslie Goodwin; the adjacent exhibit "Shipwreck Treasures of Nova Scotia" explores the many other shipwrecks off the coast of Nova Scotia including archaeological discoveries on naval shipwrecks in Louisbourg Harbour and an unknown 1750s schooner at Lower Prospect, Nova Scotia.
The results of treasure hunting are featured in a section on Cape Breton treasure wrecks which has displays of weapons, instruments and silver from wrecks such as the 1711 HMS Feversham, the 1725 wreck of Chameau and the 1761 wreck of the ship Auguste. The Age of Steam gallery includes a special display on Samuel Cunard, the Nova Scotian who created the Cunard Line; the restored 1880s Robertson building includes the restored Robertson ship chandlerly which features hands on foghorns and ship fittings. The Navy gallery includes the "Convoy Exhibit" about the Battle of the Atlantic which includes the Canadian Merchant Navy Book of Remembrance. Monuments to the Canadian and Norwegian Merchant Navy are located just outside the museum along with a unique children's playground in the shape of a submarine; the museum has a changing exhibits gallery. A 2009 exhibit Ship of Fate: The Tragic Voyage of the St. Louis was the first Canadian exhibit to explore the 1939 voyage of the Jewish refugee ship MS St. Louis.
The Museum became the first museum in North America to present an exhibit about the lives of gay seafarers in 2011 when it presented Hello Sailor: Gay Life on the Ocean Waves, adapted from an exhibit developed at the Merseyside Maritime Museum in Liverpool, England. The 2012 exhibit explores the experiences of the cable ships based in Halifax who recovered most of the victims of the RMS Titanic sinking. CSS Acadia, served as research from 1913 to 1968 and as a WWI and WWII patrol ship 70 small craft displayed in a Small Craft Gallery and boat sheds Working collection vessels which sail from the museum wharves include the ketch Elson Perry, the sloop Windekilda; the museum's location on the Halifax waterfront has made the Museum the site of several significant public events. In addition to being a stop on most Canadian federal election campaigns, the museum hosted meetings from the 1995 G7 Summit, as well a September 11 commemorative event in 2006 attended by Canada's Minister of Foreign Affairs, Peter MacKay and United States Secretary of State, Condoleezza Rice.
The Museum hosts an annual commemoration of the Battle of the Atlantic on the first Sunday of every May and Canadian Merchant Navy day every September 3. History of the Royal Canadian Navy List of museum ships Marine Museum of the Great Lakes Military history of Can
STS Sedov Magdalene Vinnen II and Kommodore Johnsen, is a four-masted steel barque that for 80 years was the largest traditional sailing ship in operation. Built as a German cargo ship, Sedov is today a sail training vessel, training cadets from the universities of Murmansk, Saint Petersburg and Arkhangelsk, she participates in the big maritime international events as a privileged host and has been a regular participant in The Tall Ships' Races. Sedov named Magdalene Vinnen II, was launched at Kiel, Germany in 1921 by the Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft for the shipping company F. A. Vinnen & Co. of Bremen, one of the largest German shipping companies at the beginning of the 20th century. The shipping company objected to have an engine installed in the ship, but the ship yard argued for an engine, making the ship the first sailing ship with auxiliary engine designed to modern principles. Magdalene Vinnen II was at the time the world’s largest auxiliary barque and used as a cargo ship with a crew, made up of cadets.
She sailed on her maiden voyage on 1 September 1921. Her voyage took her from Bremen via Cardiff, where she took to Buenos Aires. Despite bad weather, the journey from England to Argentina with holds full of coal took just 30 days. Magdalene Vinnen II carried all sorts of cargo: apart from coal, she took timber from Finland, wheat from Australia, pyrite from Italy and unit load from Belgium; the four-masted barque made two voyages around Cape Horn to Chile. Until her last voyage as Magdalene Vinnen II in 1936, the ship sailed to Argentina, South Africa, Australia and the Seychelles. On 9 August 1936, Magdalene Vinnen II was sold to Norddeutscher Lloyd of Bremen and renamed Kommodore Johnsen; the new owner modified her to a cargo-carrying training ship. More accommodation was provided, as the ship, apart from her permanent crew, was to have a complement of 50 to 60 trainee officers on each journey, she came under Russian state ownership after the surrender of Germany — on 20 December 1945, the British handed over the ship to the Soviet Union as war reparation.
In the Soviet Union, she was converted into a sail training vessel of the Soviet Navy. Renamed Sedov after the Arctic explorer Georgy Sedov who died during an investigation in the Arctic in 1914, she was used as a training ship of the Navy from 1952 to 1957, she made several friendly visits to South Africa during this period. From 1957 to 1966 she was used as an oceanographic research ship in the North Atlantic. During these voyages, the Soviet Navy used her for training of young cadets. In 1966 when she was transferred to the reserve in Kronstadt, formally under the civil ownership of the Ministry of Fisheries. In the 1970s, she was only infrequently used as a training ship. In 1981, Sedov reappeared after renovation which had new features added such as a glass-domed banquet hall with a stage and a movie theater. Based at the Baltic Division of Training Ships in Riga she embarked cadets from schools of navigation of Kaliningrad and Murmansk. After the declaration of independence of Latvia in 1991, she left Riga for Murmansk, transferred to the Murmansk naval school with the city of Murmansk ensuring her management and maintenance.
On 20 June 2013, Sedov was in collision with the caravel Lisa von Lübeck off Texel, North Holland, Netherlands. Both vessels put into Den Helder. In 2017, Sedov changed her home port to Kaliningrad and she is managed by the Kaliningrad State Technical University. Sedov has been targeted by unpaid creditors of the Russian Federation such as Nissim Gaon and by French holders of defaulted Russian bonds. For over a year French holders of defaulted Russian bonds were warning they were going to reorganize and export their claim to Anglo-Saxon jurisdictions, more friendly to private citizens than the French. In May 2008, in the wake of British-Russian tension, Sedov was instructed by Moscow not to dock as planned at Southend-on-Sea; the September 2008 visit to Falmouth, the starting point of FUNCHAL 500 race to Madeira seemed to be in jeopardy. In 2011 Sedov celebrated her 90th anniversary. In 2012 Sedov started her first voyage around the world of more than 13 months; the voyage ended on 20 July 2013 at Russia.
List of large sailing vessels Windjammer Official website Tall ship Sedov Murmansk State Technical University. Sedov in The Tall Ships Blog Барк "Седов" во Владивостоке_2013. On YouTube
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. The steam engine uses the force produced by steam pressure to push a piston back and forth inside a cylinder; this pushing force is transformed, into rotational force for work. The term "steam engine" is applied only to reciprocating engines as just described, not to the steam turbine. Steam engines are external combustion engines, where the working fluid is separated from the combustion products; the ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this process is called the Rankine cycle. In general usage, the term steam engine can refer to either complete steam plants such as railway steam locomotives and portable engines, or may refer to the piston or turbine machinery alone, as in the beam engine and stationary steam engine. Steam-driven devices were known as early as the aeliopile in the first century AD, with a few other uses recorded in the 16th and 17th century. Thomas Savery's dewatering pump used steam pressure operating directly on water.
The first commercially-successful engine that could transmit continuous power to a machine was developed in 1712 by Thomas Newcomen. James Watt made a critical improvement by removing spent steam to a separate vessel for condensation improving the amount of work obtained per unit of fuel consumed. By the 19th century, stationary steam engines powered the factories of the Industrial Revolution. Steam engines replaced sail for ships, steam locomotives operated on the railways. Reciprocating piston type steam engines were the dominant source of power until the early 20th century, when advances in the design of electric motors and internal combustion engines resulted in the replacement of reciprocating steam engines in commercial usage. Steam turbines replaced reciprocating engines in power generation, due to lower cost, higher operating speed, higher efficiency; the first recorded rudimentary steam-powered "engine" was the aeolipile described by Hero of Alexandria, a mathematician and engineer in Roman Egypt in the first century AD.
In the following centuries, the few steam-powered "engines" known were, like the aeolipile experimental devices used by inventors to demonstrate the properties of steam. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in Ottoman Egypt in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in Italy in 1629. Jerónimo de Ayanz y Beaumont received patents in 1606 for 50 steam powered inventions, including a water pump for draining inundated mines. Denis Papin, a Huguenot refugee, did some useful work on the steam digester in 1679, first used a piston to raise weights in 1690; the first commercial steam-powered device was a water pump, developed in 1698 by Thomas Savery. It used condensing steam to create a vacuum which raised water from below and used steam pressure to raise it higher. Small engines were effective, they were prone to boiler explosions. Savery's engine was used in mines, pumping stations and supplying water to water wheels that powered textile machinery. Savery engine was of low cost. Bento de Moura Portugal introduced an improvement of Savery's construction "to render it capable of working itself", as described by John Smeaton in the Philosophical Transactions published in 1751.
It continued to be manufactured until the late 18th century. One engine was still known to be operating in 1820; the first commercially-successful engine that could transmit continuous power to a machine, was the atmospheric engine, invented by Thomas Newcomen around 1712. It improved on Savery's steam pump. Newcomen's engine was inefficient, used for pumping water, it worked by creating a partial vacuum by condensing steam under a piston within a cylinder. It was employed for draining mine workings at depths hitherto impossible, for providing reusable water for driving waterwheels at factories sited away from a suitable "head". Water that passed over the wheel was pumped up into a storage reservoir above the wheel. In 1720 Jacob Leupold described a two-cylinder high-pressure steam engine; the invention was published in his major work "Theatri Machinarum Hydraulicarum". The engine used two heavy pistons to provide motion to a water pump; each piston was returned to its original position by gravity.
The two pistons shared a common four way rotary valve connected directly to a steam boiler. The next major step occurred when James Watt developed an improved version of Newcomen's engine, with a separate condenser. Boulton and Watt's early engines used half as much coal as John Smeaton's improved version of Newcomen's. Newcomen's and Watt's early engines were "atmospheric", they were powered by air pressure pushing a piston into the partial vacuum generated by condensing steam, instead of the pressure of expanding steam. The engine cylinders had to be large because the only usable force acting on them was atmospheric pressure. Watt developed his engine further, modifying it to provide a rotary motion suitable for driving machinery; this enabled factories to be sited away from rivers, accelerated the pace of the Industrial Revolution. The meaning of high pressure, together with an actual value above ambient, depends on the era in which the term was used. For early use of the term Van Reimsdijk refers to steam being at a sufficiently high pressure that it could be exhausted to atmosphere without reliance on a vacuum to enable it to perform useful work.
Ewing states that Watt's condensing engines were known, at the time, as low pressure compared to high pressure, non-condensing engines of the same period. Watt's patent prevented others from making high pres