The garden strawberry is a grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria, collectively known as the strawberries. It is cultivated worldwide for its fruit; the fruit is appreciated for its characteristic aroma, bright red color, juicy texture, sweetness. It is consumed in large quantities, either fresh or in such prepared foods as preserves, pies, ice creams and chocolates. Artificial strawberry flavorings and aromas are widely used in many products like lip gloss, hand sanitizers and many others; the garden strawberry was first bred in Brittany, France, in the 1750s via a cross of Fragaria virginiana from eastern North America and Fragaria chiloensis, brought from Chile by Amédée-François Frézier in 1714. Cultivars of Fragaria × ananassa have replaced, in commercial production, the woodland strawberry, the first strawberry species cultivated in the early 17th century; the strawberry is not, from a botanical point of view, a berry. Technically, it is an aggregate accessory fruit, meaning that the fleshy part is derived not from the plant's ovaries but from the receptacle that holds the ovaries.
Each apparent "seed" on the outside of the fruit is one of the ovaries of the flower, with a seed inside it. In 2016, world production of strawberries was 9.2 million tonnes, led by China with 41% of the total. The first garden strawberry was grown in Brittany, during the late 18th century. Prior to this, wild strawberries and cultivated selections from wild strawberry species were the common source of the fruit; the strawberry fruit was mentioned in ancient Roman literature in reference to its medicinal use. The French began taking the strawberry from the forest to their gardens for harvest in the 14th century. Charles V, France's king from 1364 to 1380, had 1,200 strawberry plants in his royal garden. In the early 15th century western European monks were using the wild strawberry in their illuminated manuscripts; the strawberry is found in Italian and German art, in English miniatures. The entire strawberry plant was used to treat depressive illnesses. By the 16th century, references of cultivation of the strawberry became more common.
People began using it for its supposed medicinal properties and botanists began naming the different species. In England the demand for regular strawberry farming had increased by the mid-16th century; the combination of strawberries and cream was created by Thomas Wolsey in the court of King Henry VIII. Instructions for growing and harvesting strawberries showed up in writing in 1578. By the end of the 16th century three European species had been cited: F. vesca, F. moschata, F. viridis. The garden strawberry was transplanted from the forests and the plants would be propagated asexually by cutting off the runners. Two subspecies of F. vesca were identified: F. sylvestris alba and F. sylvestris semperflorens. The introduction of F. virginiana from Eastern North America to Europe in the 17th century is an important part of history because this species gave rise to the modern strawberry. The new species spread through the continent and did not become appreciated until the end of the 18th century.
When a French excursion journeyed to Chile in 1712, it introduced the North American strawberry plant with female flowers that resulted in the common strawberry that we have today. The Mapuche and Huilliche Indians of Chile cultivated the female strawberry species until 1551, when the Spanish came to conquer the land. In 1765, a European explorer recorded the cultivation of the Chilean strawberry. At first introduction to Europe, the plants produced no fruit, it was discovered in 1766 that the female plants could only be pollinated by plants that produced large fruit: F. moschata, F. virginiana, F. ananassa. This is when the Europeans became aware that plants had the ability to produce male-only or female-only flowers; as more large-fruit producing plants were cultivated the Chilean strawberry decreased in population in Europe, except for around Brest where the Chilean strawberry thrived. The decline of the Chilean strawberry was caused by F. ananassa. Strawberry cultivars vary in size, flavor, degree of fertility, season of ripening, liability to disease and constitution of plant.
On average, a strawberry has about 200 seeds on its external membrane. Some vary in foliage, some vary materially in the relative development of their sexual organs. In most cases, the flowers appear hermaphroditic in structure, but function as either male or female. For purposes of commercial production, plants are propagated from runners and, in general, distributed as either bare root plants or plugs. Cultivation follows one of two general models—annual plasticulture, or a perennial system of matted rows or mounds. Greenhouses produce a small amount of strawberries during the off season; the bulk of modern commercial production uses the plasticulture system. In this method, raised beds are formed each year and covered with plastic to prevent weed growth and erosion. Plants obtained from northern nurseries, are planted through holes punched in this covering, irrigation tubing is run underneath. Runners are removed from the plants as they appear, in order to encourage the plants to put most of their energy into fruit development.
At the end of the harvest season, the plastic is removed and the plants are plowed into the ground. Because strawberry plants more than a year or two old begin to decline in productivity and fruit quality, this system of replacing the plants each year allows for improved yields and denser plantings. However, because it requires a longer growing season to allow for estab
Aquilegia is a genus of about 60–70 species of perennial plants that are found in meadows, at higher altitudes throughout the Northern Hemisphere, known for the spurred petals of their flowers. The genus name Aquilegia is derived from the Latin word for eagle, because of the shape of the flower petals, which are said to resemble an eagle's claw; the common name "columbine" comes from the Latin for "dove", due to the resemblance of the inverted flower to five doves clustered together. The leaves of this plant are compound and the flowers contain five sepals, five petals and five pistils; the fruit is a follicle, formed at the end of the pistils. Underneath the flower are spurs which contain nectar consumed by long-beaked birds such as hummingbirds. Columbines are related to plants in the genera Actaea and Aconitum, which like Aquilegia produce cardiogenic toxins, they are used as food plants by some Lepidoptera caterpillars. These are of noctuid moths – noted for feeding on many poisonous plants without harm – such as cabbage moth, dot moth and mouse moth. the engrailed, a geometer moth uses columbine as a larval food plant.
The larvae of the Papaipema leucostigma feed on columbine. Plants in the genus Aquilegia are a major food source for a species of bumblebee, they have been found to forage on species of Aquilegia vulgaris in Belgium and Aquilegia chrysantha in North America and Belgium. The bees do not show any preference in color of the flowers. Columbine is a hardy perennial, it will grow to a height of 15 to 20 inches. It will grow in full sun. Columbine is rated at hardiness zone 3 in the United States so does not require mulching or protection in the winter. Large numbers of hybrids are available for the garden, since the European A. vulgaris was hybridized with other European and North American varieties. Aquilegia species are interfertile, will self-sow; some varieties are short-lived so. The following hybrid cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit: The British National Collection of Aquilegias is held by Mrs Carrie Thomas at Killay near Swansea; the flowers of various species of columbine were consumed in moderation by Native Americans as a condiment with other fresh greens, are reported to be sweet, safe if consumed in small quantities.
The plant's seeds and roots are poisonous however, contain cardiogenic toxins which cause both severe gastroenteritis and heart palpitations if consumed as food. Native Americans used small amounts of Aquilegia root as a treatment for ulcers. However, the medical use of this plant is better avoided due to its high toxicity. An acute toxicity test in mice has demonstrated that ethanol extract mixed with isocytisoside, the main flavonoid compound from the leaves and stems of Aquilegia vulgaris, can be classified as non-toxic, since a dose of 3000 mg/kg did not cause mortality; the Colorado blue columbine is the official state flower of Colorado. Columbines have been important in the study of evolution, it was found that the Sierra columbine and crimson columbine each has adapted to a pollinator. Bees and hummingbirds are the visitors to A. formosa, while hawkmoths would only visit A. pubescens when given a choice. Such a "pollination syndrome", being due to flower color and orientation controlled by their genetics, ensures reproductive isolation and can be a cause of speciation.
Aquilegia petals show an enormous range of petal spur length diversity ranging from a centimeter to the 15 cm spurs of Aquilegia longissima. Selection from pollinator shifts is suggested to have driven these changes in nectar spur length, it was shown that this spur length diversity is achieved through changing cell shape, not cell number or cell size. This suggests that a simple microscopic change can result in a dramatic evolutionarily relevant morphological change. Columbine species include: Columbine cup Nora Barlow Allan M. Armitage: Armitage's Native Plants for North American Gardens. Timber Press, 2006 ISBN 0-88192-760-0 ISBN 978-0-88192-760-3 Dezhi, Fu. Aquilegia. In: Wu, Z. Y.. Science Press, Beijing & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis. ISBN 1-930723-25-3 HTML fulltext Fulton, M.. A.. "Floral isolation between Aquilegia formosa and Aquilegia pubescens". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 266: 2247–2252. Doi:10.1098/rspb.1999.0915. PMC 1690454. Hodges, S. A.. "Genetics of Floral Traits Influencing Reproductive Isolation between Aquilegia formosa and Aquilegia pubescens".
The American Naturalist. 159: S51–S60. Doi:10.1086/338372. PMID 18707369. Nold, Robert: Columbines: Aquilegia and Semiaquilegia. Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-588-8 Preview at Google Books Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh: Digital Flora Europaea: Aquilegia species list. Retrieved 2008-NOV-25. Tilford, Gregory L.: Edible and Medicinal Plants of the West. Mountain Press Pub. Missoula, Montana. ISBN 0-87842-359-1 United States Department of Agriculture: USDA Plants Profile: Aquilegia. Retrieved 2008-NOV-
A schizocarp is a dry fruit that, when mature, splits up into mericarps. There are different definitions: Any dry fruit composed of multiple carpels. Under this definition the mericarps can contain one or more seeds and each mericarp can be either: Indehiscent, such as in the carrot and other Umbelliferae or in members of the genus Malva, or Dehiscent, for example members of the genus Geranium; this is similar to what happens with an extra stage. Any fruit that separates into indehiscent one-seeded segments, such as a loment, Malva and Sida. Wayne's Word: Schizocarps of Filaree and Cheeseweed
Gynoecium is most used as a collective term for the parts of a flower that produce ovules and develop into the fruit and seeds. The gynoecium is the innermost whorl of a flower; the gynoecium is referred to as the "female" portion of the flower, although rather than directly producing female gametes, the gynoecium produces megaspores, each of which develops into a female gametophyte which produces egg cells. The term gynoecium is used by botanists to refer to a cluster of archegonia and any associated modified leaves or stems present on a gametophyte shoot in mosses and hornworts; the corresponding terms for the male parts of those plants are clusters of antheridia within the androecium. Flowers that bear a gynoecium but no stamens are called carpellate. Flowers lacking a gynoecium are called staminate; the gynoecium is referred to as female because it gives rise to female gametophytes. Gynoecium development and arrangement is important in systematic research and identification of angiosperms, but can be the most challenging of the floral parts to interpret.
The gynoecium may consist of one or more separate pistils. A pistil consists of an expanded basal portion called the ovary, an elongated section called a style and an apical structure that receives pollen called a stigma; the ovary, is the enlarged basal portion which contains placentas, ridges of tissue bearing one or more ovules. The placentas and/or ovule may be born on the gynoecial appendages or less on the floral apex; the chamber in which the ovules develop is called a locule. The style, is a pillar-like stalk; some flowers such as Tulipa do not have a distinct style, the stigma sits directly on the ovary. The style is a hollow tube in some plants such as lilies, or has transmitting tissue through which the pollen tubes grow; the stigma, is found at the tip of the style, the portion of the carpel that receives pollen. It is sticky or feathery to capture pollen; the word "pistil" comes from Latin pistillum meaning pestle. A sterile pistil in a male flower is referred to as a pistillode; the pistils of a flower are considered to be composed of carpels.
A carpel is the female reproductive part of the flower, interpreted as modified leaves bearing structures called ovules, inside which the egg cells form. A pistil may consist of one carpel, with its ovary and stigma, or several carpels may be joined together with a single ovary, the whole unit called a pistil; the gynoecium may consist of one multi-carpellate pistil. The number of carpels is described by terms such as tricarpellate. Carpels are thought to be phylogenetically derived from ovule-bearing leaves or leaf homologues, which evolved to form a closed structure containing the ovules; this structure is rolled and fused along the margin. Although many flowers satisfy the above definition of a carpel, there are flowers that do not have carpels according to this definition because in these flowers the ovule, although enclosed, are borne directly on the shoot apex, only become enclosed by the carpel. Different remedies have been suggested for this problem. An easy remedy that applies to most cases is to redefine the carpel as an appendage that encloses ovule and may or may not bear them.
If a gynoecium has a single carpel, it is called monocarpous. If a gynoecium has multiple, distinct carpels, it is apocarpous. If a gynoecium has multiple carpels "fused" into a single structure, it is syncarpous. A syncarpous gynoecium can sometimes appear much like a monocarpous gynoecium; the degree of connation in a syncarpous gynoecium can vary. The carpels retain separate styles and stigmas; the carpels may be "fused" except for retaining separate stigmas. Sometimes carpels possess distinct ovaries. In a syncarpous gynoecium, the "fused" ovaries of the constituent carpels may be referred to collectively as a single compound ovary, it can be a challenge to determine. If the styles and stigmas are distinct, they can be counted to determine the number of carpels. Within the compound ovary, the carpels may have distinct locules divided by walls called septa. If a syncarpous gynoecium has a single style and stigma and a single locule in the ovary, it may be necessary to examine how the ovules are attached.
Each carpel will have a distinct line of placentation where the ovules are attached. Pistils begin as small primordia on a floral apical meristem, forming than, closer to the apex than sepal and stamen primordia. Morphological and molecular studies of pistil ontogeny reveal that carpels are most homologous to leaves. A carpel has a similar function to a megasporophyll, but includes a stigma, is fused, with ovules enclosed in the enlarged lower portion, the ovary. In some basal angiosperm lineages and Winteraceae, a carpel begins as a shallow cup where the ovules de
The dewberries are a group of species in the genus Rubus, section Rubus related to the blackberries. They are small trailing brambles with aggregate fruits, reminiscent of the raspberry, but are purple to black instead of red. Unlike many other Rubus species, dewberries are dioecious, having separate female plants. Dewberries are common throughout most of the Northern Hemisphere and are thought of as a beneficial weed; the leaves can be used to make a tisane, the berries are edible and taste sweet. They can be used to make cobbler, jam, or pie. Alternatively, they are sometimes referred to as ground berries. Around March and April, the plants start to grow white flowers that develop into small green berries; the tiny green berries grow red and a deep purple-blue as they ripen. When the berries are ripe, they are tender and difficult to pick in any quantity without squashing them; the plants do not have upright canes like some other Rubus species, but have stems that trail along the ground, putting forth new roots along the length of the stem.
The stems are covered with fine stickers. The berries are sweet and, for many, less seedy than blackberries and worth the scratches and stains that come from picking them. In the winter the leaves remain on the stems, but may turn dark red; the leaves are sometimes eaten by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including peach blossom moths. The European dewberry, Rubus caesius, grows more upright like other brambles, but is restricted to coastal communities sand dune systems, its fruits are a deep black and are coated with a thin layer or'dew' of waxy droplets. Thus, they appear sky-blue, it is less sought after, because its fruits are small and retain a markedly tart taste when ripe. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the town of Cameron, North Carolina was known as the "dewberry capital of the world" for large scale cultivation of this berry, shipped out for wide spread consumption. Local growers made extensive use of the railroads, in the area, to ship them nationally and internationally.
Rubus Section Caesii, European dewberry European dewberry, Rubus caesius L. Rubus Section Flagellares, American dewberries Rubus aboriginum Rydb. Synonyms:Rubus almus L. H. Bailey Rubus austrinus L. H. Bailey Rubus bollianus L. H. Bailey Rubus clair-brownii' L. H. Bailey Rubus decor L. H. Bailey Rubus flagellaris Willd. Var. almus L. H. Bailey Rubus foliaceus L. H. Bailey Rubus ignarus L. H. Bailey Rubus ricei L. H. Bailey Aberdeen dewberry, Rubus depavitus L. H. Bailey Northern dewberry, Rubus flagellaris Willd. Swamp dewberry, Rubus hispidus L. Upland dewberry, Rubus invisus Britton Pacific blackberry, Rubus ursinus Cham. & Schltdl. Black raspberry Boysenberry, a cross between a dewberry and a Loganberry Cloudberry, another dioecious Rubus species Youngberry
Dehiscence is the splitting along a built-in line of weakness in a plant structure in order to release its contents, is common among fruits and sporangia. Sometimes this involves the complete detachment of a part. Structures that open in this way are said to be dehiscent. Structures that do not open in this way are called indehiscent, rely on other mechanisms such as decay or predation to release the contents. A similar process to dehiscence occurs in some flower buds, but this is referred to as dehiscence unless circumscissile dehiscence is involved. Dehiscence may not involve the loss of a structure through the process of abscission; the lost structures are said to be caducous. Manipulation of dehiscence can improve crop yield since a trait that causes seed dispersal is a disadvantage for farmers whose goal is to collect the seed. Many of the agronomically important plants have been bred for reduced shattering. Explosive dehiscence is a ballistic form of dispersal that flings seeds or spores far from the parent plant.
This rapid plant movement can achieve limited dispersal without the assistance of animals. A notable example is the sandbox tree, which can fling seeds 100 meters and has been called the "Dynamite tree" due to the loud sound of its explosive dehiscence. Another example is Impatiens, whose explosive dehiscence is triggered by being touched, leading it to be called the "touch-me-not." Ecballium elaterium, the'squirting cucumber', uses explosive dehiscence to disperse its seeds, ejecting them from matured fruit in a stream of mucilaginous liquid. Explosive dehiscence of sporangia is a characteristic of Sphagnum. Septicidal and loculicidal dehiscence may not be distinct. Dehiscence occurs through breakage of various parts of the enclosing structure. Dehiscence through a small hole is referred to as poricidal dehiscence; the pore may have a cover, referred to as an operculum or it may not. Poricidal dehiscence occurs in many unrelated organisms, in fruit, causing the release of seeds, in the sporangia of many organisms.
Poricidal anthers of various flowers are associated with buzz pollination by insects. Circumscissile dehiscence involves a horizontal opening; this type of dehiscence occurs in some fruit and anthers and in some flower buds. Anther dehiscence is the final function of the anther; this process is coordinated with pollen differentiation, floral development, flower opening. The anther wall breaks at a specific site; this site is observed as an indentation between the locules of each theca and runs the length of the anther, but in species with poricidal anther dehiscence it is instead a small pore. If the pollen is released from the anther through a split on the outer side, this is extrorse dehiscence, if the pollen is released from the inner side, this is introrse dehiscence. If the pollen is released through a split, positioned to the side, towards other anthers, rather than towards the inside or outside of the flower, this is latrorse dehiscence; the stomium is the region of the anther. The degeneration of the stomium and septum cells is part of a developmentally timed cell-death program.
Expansion of the endothecial layer and subsequent drying are required for dehiscence. The endothecium tissue is responsible for the tensions; this tissue is one to several layers thick, with cells walls of uneven thickness due to uneven lignification. The cells lose water, the uneven thickness causes the thinner walls of the cells to stretch to a greater extent; this creates a tension that leads to the anther being split along its line of weakness and releasing pollen grains to the atmosphere. Flower buds of Eucalyptus and related genera open with circumscissile dehiscence. A small cap separates from the remainder of the bud along a circular horizontal zone. There are many different types of fruit dehiscence; some fruits are indehiscent, do not open to disperse the seeds. Xerochasy is dehiscence that occurs upon drying, hygrochasy is dehiscence that occurs upon wetting, the fruit being hygroscopic. Dehiscent fruits that are derived from one carpel are follicles or legumes, those derived from multiple carpels are capsules or siliques.
One example of a dehiscent fruit is the silique. This fruit develops from a gynoecium composed of two fused carpels, upon fertilization, grow to become a silique that contains the developing seeds. After seed maturation, dehiscence takes place, valves detach from the central septum freeing the seeds; this is known as shattering and can be important as a seed dispersal mechanism. This process is similar to anther dehiscence and the region that breaks runs the entire length of the fruit between the valves and the replum. At maturity, the dehiscence zone is a non-lignified layer between two regions of lignified cells in the valve and the replum. Shattering occurs due to the combination of cell wall loosening in the dehiscence zone and the tensions established by the differential mechanical properties of the drying cells. Endothecium tissue found in moss ca
The blackberry is an edible fruit produced by many species in the genus Rubus in the family Rosaceae, hybrids among these species within the subgenus Rubus, hybrids between the subgenera Rubus and Idaeobatus. The taxonomy of the blackberries has been confused because of hybridization and apomixis, so that species have been grouped together and called species aggregates. For example, the entire subgenus Rubus has been called the Rubus fruticosus aggregate, although the species R. fruticosus is considered a synonym of R. plicatus. What distinguishes the blackberry from its raspberry relatives is whether or not the torus "picks with" the fruit; when picking a blackberry fruit, the torus stays with the fruit. With a raspberry, the torus remains on the plant; the term bramble, a word meaning any impenetrable thicket, has traditionally been applied to the blackberry or its products, though in the United States it applies to all members of the genus Rubus. In the western US, the term caneberry is used to refer to blackberries and raspberries as a group rather than the term bramble.
The black fruit is not a berry in the botanical sense of the word. Botanically it is termed an aggregate fruit, composed of small drupelets, it is a widespread and well-known group of over 375 species, many of which are related apomictic microspecies native throughout Europe, northwestern Africa, temperate western and central Asia and North and South America. Blackberries are perennial plants which bear biennial stems from the perennial root system. In its first year, a new stem, the primocane, grows vigorously to its full length of 3–6 m, arching or trailing along the ground and bearing large palmately compound leaves with five or seven leaflets. In its second year, the cane becomes a floricane and the stem does not grow longer, but the lateral buds break to produce flowering laterals. First- and second-year shoots have numerous short-curved sharp prickles that are erroneously called thorns; these prickles can tear through denim with ease and make the plant difficult to navigate around. Prickle-free cultivars have been developed.
The University of Arkansas has developed primocane fruiting blackberries that grow and flower on first-year growth much as the primocane-fruiting red raspberries do. Unmanaged mature plants form a tangle of dense arching stems, the branches rooting from the node tip on many species when they reach the ground. Vigorous and growing in woods, scrub and hedgerows, blackberry shrubs tolerate poor soils colonizing wasteland and vacant lots; the flowers are produced in late spring and early summer on short racemes on the tips of the flowering laterals. Each flower is about 2 -- 3 cm in diameter with five pale pink petals; the drupelets only develop around ovules. The most cause of undeveloped ovules is inadequate pollinator visits. A small change in conditions, such as a rainy day or a day too hot for bees to work after early morning, can reduce the number of bee visits to the flower, thus reducing the quality of the fruit. Incomplete drupelet development can be a symptom of exhausted reserves in the plant's roots or infection with a virus such as raspberry bushy dwarf virus.
Blackberry leaves are food for certain caterpillars. Caterpillars of the concealer moth Alabonia geoffrella have been found feeding inside dead blackberry shoots; when mature, the berries are eaten and their seeds dispersed by several mammals, such as the red fox and the Eurasian badger, as well as by small birds. Blackberries grow wild throughout most of Europe, they are an important element in the ecology of many countries, harvesting the berries is a popular pastime. However, the plants are considered a weed, sending down roots from branches that touch the ground, sending up suckers from the roots. In some parts of the world without native blackberries, such as in Australia, New Zealand, the Pacific Northwest of North America, some blackberry species Rubus armeniacus and Rubus laciniatus, are naturalised and considered an invasive species and a serious weed. Blackberry fruits are red before they are ripe, leading to an old expression that "blackberries are red when they're green". In various parts of the United States, wild blackberries are sometimes called "black-caps", a term more used for black raspberries, Rubus occidentalis.
As there is evidence from the Iron Age Haraldskær Woman that she consumed blackberries some 2,500 years ago, it is reasonable to conclude that blackberries have been eaten by humans over thousands of years. Cultivated blackberries are notable for their significant contents of dietary fiber, vitamin C, vitamin K. A 100 gram serving of raw blackberries supplies 43 calories and 5 grams of dietary fiber or 25% of the recommended Daily Value. In 100 grams, vitamin C and vitamin K contents are 25% and 19% DV while other essential nutrients are low in content. Blackberries contain both insoluble fiber components. Blackberries contain numerous large seeds; the seeds contain oil rich in omega-3 and omega-6 fats as well as protein, dietary fiber, carotenoids and ellagic acid. The soft fruit is popular for use in desserts, seedless jelly