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Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar

Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar known by his regnal name of Agha Mohammad Shah, was the founder of the Qajar dynasty of Iran, ruling from 1789 to 1797 as king. Chieftain of the Qoyunlu branch of the Qajar tribe, Agha Mohammad Khan was enthroned as the king of Iran in 1789, but was not crowned until March 1796, having deposed Lotf Ali Khan of the Zand dynasty in 1794. Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar was famously the eunuch Monarch, being castrated as a young adult upon his capture by Adel Shah Afshar, hence was childless, he was assassinated on 17 June 1797, was succeeded by his nephew, Fath-Ali Shah Qajar. Agha Mohammad Khan's reign is noted for the return of a centralized and unified Iran and, for relocating the capital to Tehran, where it still stands today, he is noted for his cruel and rapacious behavior during the re-subjugation of Georgia. He sacked the capital Tbilisi, massacred many of its inhabitants, moved some 15,000 Georgian captives back to mainland Iran. Agha Mohammad Khan was born in Astarabad around 1742.

He belonged to the Qoyunlu branch of the Qajar tribe. The tribe had several other branches, one of the most prominent ones being the Develu, which fought against the Qoyunlu. Agha Mohammad Khan was the eldest son of the chieftain of the Qoyunlu clan, Mohammad Hasan Khan Qajar, the grandson of Fath-Ali Khan Qajar, a prominent aristocrat executed by the orders of Shah Tahmasp II. Agha Mohammad Khan had several half-brothers and full-brothers: Hossein Qoli Khan, Morteza Qoli Khan, Mostafa Qoli Khan, Reza Qoli Khan, Jafar Qoli Khan, Mehdi Qoli Khan, Abbas Qoli Khan and Ali Qoli Khan; when Nader Shah died in 1747, the Afsharid rule of Iran fell apart, which gave Mohammad Hasan an opportunity to seize Astarabad for himself, leading Nader Shah's nephew Adel Shah to march from Mashhad to the city in order to capture him. Although he failed to capture Hasan, Adel Shah managed to capture Agha Mohammad Khan, whom he planned to kill, he chose to spare Agha Mohammad Khan's life and instead had him castrated and thereafter freed.

While the common spelling of "Agha" is used as a title translated to "Sir" or "Mister", Agha Mohammad Khan's title is differently spelled, a common one among eunuchs who served at the court. During the following 10 years, Afsharid rule in Khorasan suffered from war among rival chieftains and from invasions by the Durrani ruler of Qandahar, Ahmad Shah Durrani. During this period, Mohammad Hasan fought against the Pashtun military leader Azad Khan Afghan and the Zand ruler Karim Khan for suzerainty over the western part of Nader Shah's former empire, he was, defeated in 1759 by a Zand army. He was betrayed by his own followers and thereafter, killed by his old rival, Mohammad Khan of Savadkuh. Due to Agha Mohammad Khan's castration, his brother Hossein Qoli Khan was appointed as the new chieftain of the Qoyunlu instead. Shortly thereafter Astarabad fell under the control of Karim Khan, who appointed a Develu named Hossein Khan Develu as its governor. Meanwhile, Agha Mohammad Khan and his brother Hossein Qoli Khan fled to the steppe.

One year Agha Mohammad Khan made an incursion against Astarabad, but was forced to flee, chased by the city's governor. Agha Mohammad Khan managed to reach Ashraf, but was at last seized and was sent as a hostage to Tehran, ruled by Karim Khan. Hossein Qoli Khan was soon captured and sent to Karim Khan. During his stay, Agha Mohammad Khan was treated kindly and honorably by Karim Khan, who made him convince his kinsmen to lay down their arms, which they did. Karim Khan settled them in Damghan. In 1763, Agha Mohammad Khan and Hossein Qoli Khan were sent to the Zand capital, where their paternal aunt Khadija Begum, part of Karim Khan's harem, lived. Agha Mohammad Khan's half-brothers Morteza Qoli Khan and Mostafa Qoli Khan were granted permission to live in Astarabad, due to their mother being the sister of the governor of the city, his remaining brothers were sent to Qazvin. Agha Mohammad Khan was looked upon more as a respected guest in Karim Khan's court than a captive. Furthermore, Karim Khan acknowledged Agha Mohammad Khan's political knowledge and asked his advice on interests of the state.

He called Agha Mohammad Khan his "Piran-e Viseh", referring to an intelligent counselor of the mythical Turanian king Afrasiab in the Shahnameh epic. Two of Agha Mohammad Khan's brothers who were at Qazvin were sent to Shiraz during this period. In February 1769, Karim Khan appointed Hossein Qoli Khan as the governor of Damghan; when Hossein Qoli Khan reached Damghan, he began a fierce conflict with the Develu and other tribes to avenge his father's death. He was, killed ca. 1777 near Findarisk by some Turks from the Yamut tribe with whom he had clashed. On 1 March 1779, while Agha Mohammad Khan was hunting, he was informed by Khadija Begum that Karim Khan had died after six months of illness. Agha Mohammad Khan left for Tehran. Meanwhile, in Shiraz, people were fighting among themselves. In Tehran, Agha Mohammad Khan met the main chieftains of the Develu clan, with, he visited the shrine of Shah Abd al-Azim. He travelled to the Mazandaran Province, where his first task was to set up his suzerainty among his Qoyunlu brothers.

This resulted in a clash with his brothers Reza Qoli and Morteza Qoli, whom he defea

Nagano Sports Park

Nagano Sports Park is a park located in the Yoshida area of the city of Nagano, Japan 5 km northeast of Nagano Station. The facilities are owned by the Nagano municipal government; the park hosted events during the 1998 Winter Paralympics. The Nagano Olympic Commemorative Marathon begins at Nagano Sports Park; the Aqua Wing Arena located within the Sports Park will be an international pre-training camp for the 2020 Summer Olympics. Nagano Sports Park should not be confused with the Minami Nagano Sports Park, located 8 km south of Nagano Station in the Shinonoi area of the city, where the opening and closing ceremonies of the 1998 Winter Olympics were held. 1966 - the park opened and the Nagano Prefectural Baseball Stadium was completed. 1975 - Nagano Sports Park Pool was completed. 1976 - Nagano Athletic Stadium was completed. 1977 - tennis courts were completed. 1978 - Nagano Sports Park Gymnasium was completed. 1997 - Aqua Wing Arena, the B-Venue for the ice hockey events at the 1998 Winter Games, was completed.

1998 - Aqua Wing Arena hosted a combined 23 women's and men's ice hockey matches during the 1998 Winter Olympics in February. 1999 - Aqua Wing Arena was renovated and opened as the municipal pool. 2006 - Shinko Sports was designed as the manager of the park. Central square Walking pond Ikoi Forest Nagano Athletic Park General Sports Ground Pool General gymnasium Track and Field Stadium Auxiliary stadium Archery field Sumo ground Tennis court Open space Gate ball field Nagano Prefectural Baseball Stadium Nagano City Nishiwada tennis court Lawn square Children's square Mallet Golf Course Asahi Station on the Nagano Electric Railway is 15 minutes away by foot Kita-Nagano Station on the Shinano Railway is 20 minutes away by foot Bus No.7 leaves from Nagano Station, passengers disembark at Undou kouen or Undou kouen higashi

Clark Rampling

Clark Rampling was an English architect who worked from offices in London and from about 1820 in Birkenhead, Cheshire. By 1841 he was joined in partnership in Birkenhead by his nephew Robert Bushell Rampling and the practice was known as C. and R. B. Rampling, his best known work is the Liverpool Medical Institution, built in 1835–37 in Neoclassical style. This building is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II* listed building. Earlier, he had designed the Church of St Mary, Birch, a Commissioners' church in Gothic Revival style, which has since been demolished. Other works in Cheshire and Lancashire include 1832 Villas at Nr. West Derby 1833/35 Birkenhead Town Hall 1834 House for Spencer Jones, West Derby 1837 The Fish Hall, Murray Street, Liverpool 1830/40 Estate cottages, West Kirby 1840 Magistrates' offices, Birkenhead 1840 St John the Evangelist, Congleton 1845 Market etc. BirkenheadClark Rampling died in 1875 in Tranmere, now in Merseyside