Malta known as the Republic of Malta, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies 80 km south of Italy, 284 km east of Tunisia, 333 km north of Libya. With a population of about 475,000 over an area of 316 km2, Malta is the world's tenth smallest and fifth most densely populated country, its capital is Valletta, the smallest national capital in the European Union by area at 0.8 km.2 The official languages are Maltese and English, with Maltese recognised as the national language and the only Semitic language in the European Union. Malta has been inhabited since 5900 BC, its location in the centre of the Mediterranean has given it great strategic importance as a naval base, with a succession of powers having contested and ruled the islands, including the Phoenicians and Carthaginians, Greeks, Normans, Knights of St. John and British. Most of these foreign influences have left some sort of mark on the country's ancient culture. Malta became a British colony in 1815, serving as a way station for ships and the headquarters for the British Mediterranean Fleet.
It played an important role in the Allied war effort during the Second World War, was subsequently awarded the George Cross for its bravery in the face of an Axis siege, the George Cross appears on Malta's national flag. The British Parliament passed the Malta Independence Act in 1964, giving Malta independence from the United Kingdom as the State of Malta, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state and queen; the country became a republic in 1974. It has been a member state of the Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations since independence, joined the European Union in 2004. Malta has a long Christian legacy and its Archdiocese is claimed to be an apostolic see because Paul the Apostle was shipwrecked on "Melita", according to Acts of the Apostles, now taken to be Malta. While Catholicism is the official religion in Malta, Article 40 of the Constitution states that "all persons in Malta shall have full freedom of conscience and enjoy the free exercise of their respective mode of religious worship."Malta is a popular tourist destination with its warm climate, numerous recreational areas, architectural and historical monuments, including three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Hypogeum of Ħal-Saflieni and seven megalithic temples which are some of the oldest free-standing structures in the world.
The origin of the name Malta is uncertain, the modern-day variation is derived from the Maltese language. The most common etymology is that the word Malta is derived from the Greek word μέλι, meli, "honey"; the ancient Greeks called the island Μελίτη meaning "honey-sweet" for Malta's unique production of honey. The Romans called the island Melita, which can be considered either a latinisation of the Greek Μελίτη or the adaptation of the Doric Greek pronunciation of the same word Μελίτα; this spelling is found in the New Testament. Another conjecture suggests that the word Malta comes from the Phoenician word Maleth, "a haven", or'port' in reference to Malta's many bays and coves. Few other etymological mentions appear in classical literature, with the term Malta appearing in its present form in the Antonine Itinerary. Malta has been inhabited from around 5900 BC, since the arrival of settlers from the island of Sicily. A significant prehistoric Neolithic culture marked by Megalithic structures, which date back to c. 3600 BC, existed on the islands, as evidenced by the temples of Mnajdra and others.
The Phoenicians colonised Malta between 800 -- 700 BC, bringing their Semitic culture. They used the islands as an outpost from which they expanded sea explorations and trade in the Mediterranean until their successors, the Carthaginians, were ousted by the Romans in 216 BC with the help of the Maltese inhabitants, under whom Malta became a municipium. After a period of Byzantine rule and a probable sack by the Vandals, the islands were invaded by the Aghlabids in AD 870; the fate of the population after the Arab invasion is unclear but it seems the islands may have been depopulated and were to have been repopulated in the beginning of the second millennium by settlers from Arab-ruled Sicily who spoke Siculo-Arabic. The Muslim rule was ended by the Normans who conquered the island in 1091; the islands were re-Christianised by 1249. The islands were part of the Kingdom of Sicily until 1530, were controlled by the Capetian House of Anjou. In 1530 Charles I of Spain gave the Maltese islands to the Order of Knights of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem in perpetual lease.
The French under Napoleon took hold of the Maltese islands in 1798, although with the aid of the British the Maltese were able to oust French control two years later. The inhabitants subsequently asked Britain to assume sovereignty over the islands under the conditions laid out in a Declaration of Rights, stating that "his Majesty has no right to cede these Islands to any power...if he chooses to withdraw his protection, abandon his sovereignty, the right of electing another sovereign, or of the governing of these Islands, belongs to us, the inhabitants and aborigines alone, without control." As part of the Treaty of Paris in 1814, Malta became a British colony rejecting an attempted integration with the United Kingdom in 1956. Malta became independent on 21 September 1964. Under its 1964 constitution
Kairouan, is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate in Tunisia. It is a UNESCO World Heritage site; the city was founded by the Umayyads around 670. In the period of Caliph Mu'awiya, it became an important centre for Sunni Islamic scholarship and Quranic learning, thus attracting a large number of Muslims from various parts of the world, next only to Mecca and Medina; the holy Mosque of Uqba is situated in the city. In 2014, the city had about 186,653 inhabitants; the name is an Arabic deformation of the Persian word کاروان kârvân, meaning "military/civilian camp", "caravan", or "resting place". Kairouan, the capital of Kairouan Governorate, lies south of Sousse, 50 km from the east coast, 75 km from Monastir and 184 km from Tunis; the foundation of Kairouan dates to about the year 670 when the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi of Caliph Mu'awiya selected a site in the middle of a dense forest infested with wild beasts and reptiles, as the location of a military post for the conquest of the West. The city of Kamounia was located where Kairouan now stands.
It had housed a Byzantine garrison before the Arab conquest, stood far from the sea – safe from the continued attacks of the Berbers who had fiercely resisted the Arab invasion. Berber resistance continued, led first by Kusaila, whose troops killed Uqba at Biskra about fifteen years after the establishment of the military post, by a Berber woman called Al-Kahina, killed and her army defeated in 702. Subsequently, there occurred a mass conversion of the Berbers to Islam. Kharijites or Islamic "outsiders" who formed an egalitarian and puritanical sect appeared and are still present on the island of Djerba. In 745, Kharijite Berbers captured Kairouan, at that time a developed city with luxuriant gardens and olive groves. Power struggles continued until Ibrahim ibn al-Aghlab recaptured Kairouan at the end of the 8th century. In 800 Caliph Harun ar-Rashid in hereditary ruler of Ifriqiya. Ibrahim ibn al-Aghlab founded the Aghlabid dynasty which ruled Ifriqiya between 800 and 909; the new Emirs made it their capital.
It soon became famous for its wealth and prosperity, reaching the levels of Basra and Kufa and giving Tunisia one of its golden ages long sought after the glorious days of Carthage. The Aghlabites built the great mosque and established in it a university, a centre of education both in Islamic thought and in the secular sciences, its role can be compared to that of the University of Paris in the Middle Ages. In the 9th century, the city became a brilliant focus of Arab and Islamic cultures attracting scholars from all over the Islamic World. In that period Imam Sahnun and Asad ibn al-Furat made of Kairouan a temple of knowledge and a magnificent centre of diffusion of Islamic sciences; the Aghlabids built palaces and fine waterworks of which only the pools remain. From Kairouan envoys from Charlemagne and the Holy Roman Empire returned with glowing reports of the Aghlabites palaces and gardens – and from the crippling taxation imposed to pay for their drunkenness and sundry debaucheries; the Aghlabite pacified the country and conquered Sicily in 827.
In 893, through the mission of Abdullah al Mahdi, the Kutama Berbers from the west of the country started the movement of the Shiite Fatimids. The year 909 saw the overthrow of the Sunni Aghlabites who ruled Ifriqiya and the establishment of the Shiite Fatimid dynasty. During the rule of the Fatimids, Kairouan was neglected and lost its importance: the new rulers resided first in Raqqada but soon moved their capital to the newly built Al Mahdiyah on the coast of modern Tunisia. After succeeding in extending their rule over all of central Maghreb, an area consisting of the modern countries of Morocco, Algeria and Libya, they moved east to Egypt to found Cairo making it the capital of their vast Caliphate and leaving the Zirids as their vassals in Ifriqiya. Governing again from Kairouan, the Zirids led the country through another artistic and agricultural heyday. Schools and universities flourished, overseas trade in local manufactures and farm produce ran high and the courts of the Zirids rulers were centres of refinement that eclipsed those of their European contemporaries.
When the Zirids declared their independence from Cairo and their conversion to Sunni Islam in 1045 by giving allegiance to Baghdad, the Fatimid Caliph Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah sent as punishment hordes of troublesome Arab tribes to invade Ifriqiya. These invaders so utterly destroyed Kairouan in 1057 that it never regained its former importance and their influx was a major factor in the spread of nomadism in areas where agriculture had been dominant; some 1,700 years of intermittent but continual progress was undone within a decade as in most part of the country the land was laid to waste for nearly two centuries. In the 13th century under the prosperous Hafsids dynasty that ruled Ifriqiya, the city started to emerge from its ruins, it is only under the Husainid Dynasty that Kairouan started to find an honorable place in the country and throughout the Islamic world. In 1881, Kairouan was taken by the French; the French built the 600 mm Sousse–Kairouan Decauville railway, which operated from 1882 to 1996, before it was regauged to 1,000 mm gauge.
Jews were among the original settlers of Kairouan, the community played an important role in Jewish history, having been a world center of Talmudic and Hal
The dinar is the principal currency unit in several countries and was used in several more. The modern dinar's historical antecedents are the gold dinar, the main coin of the medieval Islamic empires, first issued in AH 77 by Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; the word is derived from the silver denarius coin of ancient Rome, first minted about 211 BC. The English word "dinar" is the transliteration of the Arabic دينار, borrowed via the Syriac dīnarā from the Greek δηνάριον, itself from the Latin dēnārius. A gold coin known as the dīnāra was introduced to India by the Kushan Empire in the 1st century AD, adopted by the Gupta Empire and its successors up to the 6th century; the modern gold dinar is a projected bullion gold coin, so far not issued as official currency by any state. The 8th century English king Offa of Mercia minted copies of Abbasid dinars struck in 774 by Caliph Al-Mansur with "Offa Rex" centered on the reverse; the moneyer visibly had no understanding of Arabic. Such coins may have been produced for trade with Islamic Spain.
Economy of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Kelantanese dinar List of circulating currencies Middle East economic integration
The Shihab dynasty were a prominent noble family during the Ottoman era in Mount Lebanon. The Shihabs were the traditional princes of the Wadi al-Taym, who traced their lineage to the Banu Makhzum of the ancient Quraysh tribe; the family inherited control over the Mount Lebanon Emirate from the Ma'an dynasty, their kinsmen through marriage, in 1697. This transfer of leadership was decided by the Qaysi faction of the emirate's Druze feudal chiefs and confirmed by the Ottoman authorities, who conferred to the family authority over the tax farms of Mount Lebanon. Under Emir Haydar Shihab, the Qaysi faction and the Shihab dynasty consolidated their control over Mount Lebanon from their Yamani Druze rivals at the 1711 Battle of Ain Dara, their victory precipitated an exodus of Druze tenants from Mount Lebanon and their gradual replacement with Maronite and Melkite Christians. During the era of Emir Yusuf Shihab, members of the family, including the latter, began to convert from Sunni Islam to the Maronite Church.
Yusuf's Maronite successor, Emir Bashir Shihab II, maneuvered against his local rivals and the powerful Acre-based governors of Sidon to centralize his control over Mount Lebanon. This involved destroying the feudal power of the Druze lords and the cultivation of the Maronite clergy as an alternative power base of the emirate. Bashir allied himself with Muhammad Ali of Egypt during his occupation of Syria, but was deposed in 1840 when the Egyptians were driven out by an Ottoman-European alliance, which had the backing of Maronite forces, his successor, Emir Bashir III, ruled for two years, after which emirate was dissolved and replaced with the Double Qaimaqamate, which split Mount Lebanon into Druze and Christian sectors. The Shihab family's influence declined thereafter. However, members of the presently mixed Muslim-Christian family, namely President Fuad Chehab and Prime Minister Khaled Chehab, reached high political office in the modern republic of Lebanon; the Banu Shihab were an Arab tribe from the Hejaz.
According to the 19th-century historian Mikhail Mishaqa, the Banu Shihab were descendants of the Qurayshi Banu Makhzum tribe of Khalid ibn al-Walid, that the family's ancestor was a certain Muslim soldier named Amir Harith who fell in battle at the Bab Sharqi gate of Damascus during the Muslim siege of that city in 634. At some point following the mid-7th-century Muslim conquest of Syria, the tribe settled in the Hauran plain south of Damascus. In 1172, during the reign of the Ayyubid sultan Saladin, the Banu Shihab migrated westward from the Hauran to Wadi al-Taym, a plain at the foot of Mount Hermon. Soon thereafter, the Shihabs formed an alliance with the Ma'an, a Druze clan based in the Chouf region of Mount Lebanon. Both the Shihab and Ma'an clans belonged to the Qaysi tribo-political faction in relation to the ancient Qaysi-Yamani tribal conflict, although there was no actual connection to the ancient rivalry and the Shihab clan was Sunni Muslim; as the Ma'an dynasty grew to become the tax farmers and emirs of Mount Lebanon in the 16th century, the Shihabs remained their close allies in their conflicts with other Druze clans.
In 1629, Husayn Shihab of Rashaya married the daughter of Emir Mulhim Ma'an. In 1650, the Ma'an and Shihab clans defeated a mercenary army of the Druze sheikh Ali Alam ad-Din. In 1660, the Ottomans, created the Sidon Eyalet, which included Mount Lebanon and Wadi al-Taym, under the command of Grand Vizier Koprulu Mehmed Pasha, launched an expedition targeting the Shihabs of Wadi al-Taym and the Shia Muslim Hamade clan of Keserwan; as Ottoman troops raided Wadi al-Taym, the Shihabs fled to the Keserwan region in northern Mount Lebanon seeking Hamade protection. Koprulu Mehmed Pasha issued orders to Emir Ahmad Ma'an to hand over the Shihab emirs, but Emir Ahmad rejected the demand and instead fled to Keserwan, losing the tax farms of Mount Lebanon in the process; the peasantry of the abandoned regions suffered at the hands of Ottoman troops pursuing the Shihab and Ma'an leaders. The Shihabs decided to flee further north into Syria, taking up shelter at Mount A'la south of Aleppo until 1663. Four years the Ma'ans and their Qaysi coalition defeated the Yamani coalition led by the Alam ad-Din family outside the port city of Beirut.
Emir Ahmad Ma'an regained control of the Mount Lebanon tax farms. The Shihabs further solidified their alliance with the Ma'ans when, in 1674, Musa Shihab married the daughter of Emir Ahmad Ma'an. In 1680, Emir Ahmad mediated a conflict between the Shihabs and the Shia Muslim Harfush clan of the Beqaa Valley, after the latter killed Faris Shihab in 1680, prompting an armed mobilization by the Shihabs. In 1693, the Ottoman authorities launched a major military expedition, consisting of 18,500 troops, against Emir Ahmad when he declined a request to suppress the Hamade sheikhs after they raided Jubail, killing forty Ottoman soldiers, including the garrison commander, Ahmad Qalawun, a descendant of Mamluk sultan Qalawun. Emir Ahmad fled and had his tax farms confiscated and transferred to Musa Alam ad-Din, who commandeered the Ma'an palace in Deir al-Qamar; the following year, Emir Ahmad and his Shihab allies mobilized their forces in Wadi al-Taym and conquered Chouf, forcing Musa Alam ad-Din to flee to Sidon.
Emir Ahmad was restored his tax farms in 1695. When Emir Ahmad Ma'an died without a male heir in 1697, the sheikhs of the Qaysi Druze faction of Mount Lebanon, including the Jumblatt clan, convened in Simaqaniyyah and decided that Bashir Shihab I should succeed Ahmad as emir of Mountain Lebanon. Bashir was rel
Emirate of Sicily
The Emirate of Sicily was an emirate on the island of Sicily which existed from 831 to 1091. Its capital was Palermo. Muslim Moors, who first invaded in 652, seized control of the entire island from the Byzantine Empire in a prolonged series of conflicts from 827 to 902, although Rometta in the far northeast of the island held out until 965. An Arab-Byzantine culture developed, producing a multilingual state; the Emirate was conquered by Christian Norman mercenaries under Roger I of Sicily, who founded the County of Sicily in 1071. The last Muslim city in the island, was conquered in 1091. Sicilian Muslims remained citizens of the multi-ethnic County and subsequent Kingdom of Sicily, until those who had not converted were expelled in the 1240s; until the late 12th century, as late as the 1220s, Muslims formed a majority of the island's population, except in the northeast region of Val Demone which remained predominantly Byzantine Greek and Christian during Islamic rule. The Islamic and Arabic influence remains in some elements of the Sicilian language, as well as in architecture and place names.
In 535, Emperor Justinian I returned Sicily to the Roman Empire ruled from Constantinople exclusively. As the power of what is now known as the Byzantine Empire waned in the West, Sicily was invaded by the Rashidun Caliphate during the reign of Caliph Uthman in the year 652. However, this first invasion was short-lived, the Muslims left soon after. By the end of the 7th century, with the Umayyad conquest of North Africa, the Muslims had captured the nearby port city of Carthage, allowing them to build shipyards and a permanent base from which to launch more sustained attacks. Around 700, the island of Pantelleria was captured by Muslims, it was only discord among the Muslims that prevented an attempted invasion of Sicily at that time. Instead, trading agreements were arranged with the Byzantines, Muslims merchants were allowed to trade goods at the Sicilian ports; the first true conquest expedition was launched in 740. Ready to conquer the whole island, they were however forced to return to Tunisia by a Berber revolt.
A second attack in 752 aimed only to sack the same city. In 826 Euphemius, the commander of the Byzantine fleet of Sicily, forced a nun to marry him. Emperor Michael II caught wind of the matter and ordered that General Constantine end the marriage and cut off Euphemius' nose. Euphemius rose up, killed Constantine and occupied Syracuse, he offered rule of Sicily over to Ziyadat Allah the Aghlabid Emir of Tunisia in return for a place as a general and safety. The latter agreed to conquer Sicily, promising to give it to Euphemius in exchange for a yearly tribute, entrusted its conquest to the 70-year-old qadi Asad ibn al-Furat; the Muslim force counted 10,000 infantry, 700 cavalry and 100 ships, reinforced by Euphemius' ships and, after the landing at Mazara del Vallo. A first battle against the loyal Byzantine troops occurred on July 15, 827, near Mazara, resulting in an Aghlabid victory. Asad subsequently laid siege to Syracuse. After a year of siege, an attempted mutiny, his troops were however able to defeat a large army sent from Palermo backed by a Venetian fleet led by Doge Giustiniano Participazio.
But when a plague killed many of the Muslim troops, as well as Asad himself, the Muslims retreated to the castle of Mineo. They returned to the offensive, but failed to conquer Castrogiovanni and retreated back to Mazara. In 830 they received a strong reinforcement of 30,000 Andalusian troops; the Iberian Muslims defeated the Byzantine commander Teodotus in July–August of that year, but again a plague forced them to return to Mazara and to Ifriqiya. The Ifriqiyan units sent to besiege Palermo managed to capture it after a year long siege in September 831. Palermo became the Muslim capital of Sicily, renamed al-Madinah; the conquest was a see-saw affair. Syracuse held out for a long time but fell in 878, Taormina fell in 902, the last Byzantine outpost was taken in 965. In succession, Sicily was ruled by the Sunni Aghlabid dynasty in Tunisia and the Shiite Fatimids in Egypt. However, throughout this period, Sunni Muslims formed the majority of the Muslim community in Sicily, with most of the people of Palermo being Sunni, leading to their hostility to the Shia Kalbids.
The Sunni population of the island was replenished following sectarian rebellions across north Africa from 943–47 against the Fatimids' harsh religious policies, leading to several waves of refugees fleeing to Sicily in an attempt to escape Fatimid retaliation. The Byzantines took advantage of temporary discord to occupy the eastern end of the island for several years. After suppressing a revolt the Fatimid caliph Ismail al-Mansur appointed al-Hasan al-Kalbi as Emir of Sicily, he managed to control the continuously revolting Byzantines and founded the Kalbid dynasty. Raids into Southern Italy continued under the Kalbids into the 11th century, in 982 a German army under Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor was defeated near Crotone in Calabria. With Emir Yusuf al-Kalbi a period of steady decline began. Under al-Akhal the dynastic conflict intensified, with factions within the ruling family allying themselves variously with the Byzantine Empire and the Zirids. After this period, Al-Mu'izz ibn B
Lihyan or Dadan or Dedan was a powerful and organized ancient Arabian kingdom that played a vital cultural and economic role in the north-western region of the Arabian Peninsula. The Lihyanites ruled over large domain from Yathrib in the south and parts of the Levant in the north. In antiquity, Gulf of Aqaba used to be called Gulf of Lihyan. A testimony to the extensive influence. Dedanite is used for the older phase of the history of this kingdom since their capital name was Dedan, now called Al-`Ula oasis located in northwestern Arabia, some 110 km southwest of Teima; the Lihyanites became the enemies of the Nabataeans. The Romans invaded the Nabataeans and destroyed their kingdom in 106 AD; this encouraged the Lihyanites to establish an independent kingdom to manage their country. This was headed by the King Han'as, one of the former royal family, which governed Al-Hijr before the Nabataean invasion; the Arab genealogies consider the Banu Lihyan to be descended from the Ishmaelite Arabs from Ishmael.
The descendants of Lihyan founded the Arab kingdom of Lihyan, presently live in the desert between Mecca and Jeddah. The primary evidence for the kingdom comes from the corpus of inscriptions in the capital Dedan and surrounding area; the dating of the rulers and dynasty is a matter of controversy in the academic sphere. The Lihyanite kingdom went through three different stages, the early phase of Lihyan Kingdom was around the end of the 7th century BC, started as a Sheikdom of Dedan developed into the Kingdom of Lihyan tribe; the earliest attestation of state regality, King of Lihyan, was in the mid-sixth century BC. Based on current chronological scheme, it is in the early stage of Lihyan that the Lihyanite writing system emerged. Initially simple in form evolved during stage; the second stage of the kingdom saw the transformation of Dedan from a mere city-state of which only influence they exerted was inside their city walls, to a kingdom that encompass much wider domain that marked the pinnacle of Lihyan civilization.
The third state occurred during the early 3rd century BC with bursting economic activity between the south and north that made Lihyan acquire large influence suitable to its strategic position on the Caravan Road. It appears, from recent epigraphic publications, that Lihyan controlled their trade rival Tayma for several generations; the hostility between the two oases is reflected by an inscription from Tayma that mention a war between them. After the Lihyanite annexation of Tayma, the Lihyanite kings may have visited the city to commemorate their rule on regular basis. Indeed, standing statues larger than human stature with legs aligned and hands hanging down of Lihyanite kings, were found in the temple of Tayma; as a reminder of the population subordination to the king of Dedan. The statues correspond with similar royal statues from Dedan, which display standardized artistic model of dignitary sculpting, thus suggesting the role of Dedan as a regional power. Dedan is mentioned in Harran Stele, in Biblical accounts as an important centre of trade.
Which is considered by some authors as an indicator of the existence of well organized state in the region before the mid 1st millennium BC. In the Biblical records, Dedan is mentioned alongside Tayma and Saba, but more connected with Qedar; the kings of Lihyan were the descendants of the Qedarites, had a close contacts with the Ptolemaic dynasty. The oldest reference to Lihyan comes from early Sabaean inscription dated to the first half of the sixth century BC that records the journey of a Sabaean merchant, he intended to go to Cyprus for trade, on his way he passed through Dedan, the "cities of Judah", Gaza. Some authors assert that the Lihyanites fell into the hands of the Nabataeans around 65 BC upon their seizure of Hegra marching to Tayma, to their capital Dedan in 9 BC. Werner Cascel consider the Nabataean annexation of Lihyan was around 24 BC, he inferred his opinion from two factors. Strabo made; the second, is an inscription which mention the Nabataean king Aretas IV found on a tomb in Hegra substantiate that the territories of Lihyan was conquered by the Nabataeans under the reign of Aretas IV.
Nearly half a century based on an inscription from certain Nabataean general who used Hegra as his HQ, mentioned the installation of Nabataean soldiers in Dedan the capital of Lihyan. The Nabataean rule over Lihyan ended with the annexation of Nabatea by the Romans in 106 AD. Although the Romans annexed most of the Nabataean Kingdom, they did not however reach the territories of Dedan; the Roman legionaries that escorted the caravans end 10 km before Dedan, the former boundary between Lihyan and Nabatea. The Lihyanites restored their independence under the rule of Han'as ibn Tilmi, from the former royal family before the Nabataean invasion, his name is recorded by a craftsman who dated his tomb carving to the fifth year of Han'as ibn Tilmi reign. The Lihyanite kingdom was a monarchy; the kingdom's bureaucracy represented by the Hajbal members, similar to the people's council in our modern time, used to aid the king in his daily duties and took care of certain state affairs on behalf of the king.
This public nature of the Lihyanite legal system is shared with that of south Arabia. The Lihyanite rulers were of great importance in
Muʿtazila is a rationalist school of Islamic theology that flourished in the cities of Basra and Baghdad, both now in Iraq, during the 8th to the 10th centuries. The adherents of the Muʿtazili school, known as Muʿtazilites, are best known for denying the status of the Qur'an as uncreated and co-eternal with God, asserting that if the Quran is the word of God, He logically "must have preceded his own speech"; the philosophical speculation of the Muʿtazilites centred on the concepts of divine justice and divine unity. The school worked to resolve the theological "problem of evil": how to reconcile the justice of an all-powerful God with the reality of evil in the world, it believed that since God is just and wise, He cannot command what is contrary to reason or act with disregard for the welfare of His creatures. Muʿtazilites believed that good and evil were not always determined by revealed scripture or interpretation of scripture, but they were rational categories that could be "established through unaided reason".
This part alone made them the enemy of those who follow the Tafsirs. The Muʿtazili school of Kalam considered the injunctions of God to be accessible to rational thought and inquiry and that reason, not "sacred precedent", is the effective means to determine what is just and religiously obligatory; the movement emerged during the Umayyad Caliphate and reached its height during the Abbasid Caliphate. After the 10th century, the movement declined, it is viewed as heretical by some Sunni scholars in modern mainstream Sunni theology for its tendency to deny the Qur'an being eternal. In contemporary Salafi jihadism, the epithet or supposed allegations of being a Muʿtazilite have been used between rival groups as a means of denouncing their credibility; the name Muʿtazili is derived from the reflexive stem VIII of the triconsonantal root ع-ز-ل "separate, segregate", as in اعتزل iʿtazala "to separate. The name is derived from the founder's "withdrawal" from the study circle of Hasan of Basra over a theological disagreement: Wāṣil ibn ʿAṭā' asked about the legal state of a sinner: is a person who has committed a serious sin a believer or an unbeliever?
Hasan answered. Wasil dissented, suggesting that a sinner was neither a believer nor an unbeliever and withdrew from the study circle. Others followed to form a new circle, including ʿAmr ibn ʿUbayd. Hasan's remark, is said to be the origin of the movement's name; the group referred to themselves as Ahl al-Tawḥīd wa l-ʿAdl (اهل التوحيد و العدل, "people of monotheism and justice", the name muʿtazili was first used by its opponents. The verb iʿtizal is used to designate a neutral party in a dispute. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "The name first appears in early Islāmic history in the dispute over ʿAlī's leadership of the Muslim community after the murder of the third caliph, ʿUthmān; those who would neither condemn nor sanction ʿAlī or his opponents but took a middle position were termed the Muʿtazilah." Nallino argued that the theological Mu'tazilism of Wasil and his successors was a continuation of this initial political Mu'tazilism. Muʿtazili theology originated in the eighth century in Basra when Wāṣil ibn ʿAṭā' left the teaching lessons of Hasan al-Basri after a theological dispute regarding the issue of al-Manzilah bayna al-Manzilatayn.
Though Muʿtazilis relied on logic and different aspects of early Islamic philosophy, ancient Greek philosophy, Indian philosophy, the basics of Islam were their starting point and ultimate reference. The accusations leveled against them by rival schools of theology that they gave absolute authority to extra-Islamic paradigms reflect more the fierce polemics between various schools of theology than any objective reality. For instance, Muʿtazilis adopted unanimously the doctrine of creation ex nihilo, contrary to certain Muslim philosophers who, with the exception of al-Kindi, believed in the eternity of the world in some form or another, it was Muslim philosophers, not the Muslim theologians speaking, who took Greek and Hellenistic philosophy as a starting point and master conceptual framework for analyzing and investigating reality. This school of thought emerged as a reaction to political tyranny; the philosophical and metaphysical elements, influence of the Greek philosophy were added afterward during the Abbasid Caliphate.
The founders of the Abbasid dynasty strategically supported this school to bring political revolution against the Umayyad Caliphate. Once their authority was established, they turned against this school of thought. Like all other schools, Muʿtazilism developed over an extensive period of time. Abu al-Hudhayl al-'Allaf, who came a couple of generations after Wāṣil ibn ʿAtāʾ and ʿAmr ibn ʿUbayd, is considered the theologian who systematized and formalized Muʿtazilism in Basra. Another branch of the school found a home in Baghdad under the direction of Bishr ibn al-Mu'tamir; the Muʿtazilites maintained, like the Qadarites of the Omayyad period, man's free will that justice and reason must form the foundation of the action God takes toward men, both of which doctrines were repudiated by the later