Agile software development comprises various approaches to software development under which requirements and solutions evolve through the collaborative effort of self-organizing and cross-functional teams and their customer/end user. It advocates adaptive planning, evolutionary development, early delivery, continual improvement, it encourages rapid and flexible response to change; the term agile was popularized, by the Manifesto for Agile Software Development. The values and principles espoused in this manifesto were derived from and underpin a broad range of software development frameworks, including Scrum and Kanban. While there is much anecdotal evidence that adopting agile practices and values improves the agility of software professionals and organizations, some empirical studies have disputed that evidence. Iterative and incremental development methods can be traced back as early as 1957, with evolutionary project management and adaptive software development emerging in the early 1970s.
During the 1990s, a number of lightweight software development methods evolved in reaction to the prevailing heavyweight methods that critics described as overly regulated and micro-managed. These included: rapid application development, from 1991. Although these all originated before the publication of the Agile Manifesto, they are now collectively referred to as agile software development methods. At the same time, similar changes were underway in aerospace. In 2001, these seventeen software developers met at a resort in Snowbird, Utah to discuss these lightweight development methods: Kent Beck, Ward Cunningham, Dave Thomas, Jeff Sutherland, Ken Schwaber, Jim Highsmith, Alistair Cockburn, Robert C. Martin, Mike Beedle, Arie van Bennekum, Martin Fowler, James Grenning, Andrew Hunt, Ron Jeffries, Jon Kern, Brian Marick, Steve Mellor. Together they published the Manifesto for Agile Software Development. In 2005, a group headed by Cockburn and Highsmith wrote an addendum of project management principles, the PM Declaration of Interdependence, to guide software project management according to agile software development methods.
In 2009, a group working with Martin wrote an extension of software development principles, the Software Craftsmanship Manifesto, to guide agile software development according to professional conduct and mastery. In 2011, the Agile Alliance created the Guide to Agile Practices, an evolving open-source compendium of the working definitions of agile practices and elements, along with interpretations and experience guidelines from the worldwide community of agile practitioners. Based on their combined experience of developing software and helping others do that, the seventeen signatories to the manifesto proclaimed that they value: Individuals and Interactions over processes and tools Working Software over comprehensive documentation Customer Collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to Change over following a plan That is to say, the items on the left are valued more than the items on the right; as Scott Ambler elucidated: Tools and processes are important, but it is more important to have competent people working together effectively.
Good documentation is useful in helping people to understand how the software is built and how to use it, but the main point of development is to create software, not documentation. A contract is important but is no substitute for working with customers to discover what they need. A project plan is important, but it must not be too rigid to accommodate changes in technology or the environment, stakeholders' priorities, people's understanding of the problem and its solution; some of the authors formed the Agile Alliance, a non-profit organization that promotes software development according to the manifesto's values and principles. Introducing the manifesto on behalf of the Agile Alliance, Jim Highsmith said, The Agile movement is not anti-methodology, in fact many of us want to restore credibility to the word methodology. We want to restore a balance. We embrace modeling, but not in order to file some diagram in a dusty corporate repository. We embrace documentation, but not hundreds of pages of rarely-used tomes.
We recognize the limits of planning in a turbulent environment. Those who would brand proponents of XP or SCRUM or any of the other Agile Methodologies as "hackers" are ignorant of both the methodologies and the original definition of the term hacker; the Manifesto for Agile Software Development is based on twelve principles: Customer satisfaction by early and continuous delivery of valuable software. Welcome changing requirements in late development. Deliver working software Close, daily cooperation between business people and developers Projects are built around motivated individuals, who should be trusted Face-to-face conversation is the best form of communication Working software is the primary measure of progress Sustainable development, able to maintain a constant pace Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design Simplicity—the art of maximizing the amount of work not done—is essential Best architectures and designs emerge from self-organizing teams Regularly, the team reflects on how to become more effective, adjusts accordingly Most agile development methods break product development work into small increments that minimize the amount of up-front planning and design.
Iterations, or sprints, are short time frames that typi
Kaapmuiden is a small farming town situated at the confluence of the Kaap and Crocodile Rivers in Mpumalanga, South Africa. The town lies just off the N4 national highway and is marked by a large abandoned silo visible from the road; the silo has since been repainted to add to tourism appeal. The farms in the region produce subtropical fruit and vegetables; the town began as a junction on the Netherlands-South African Railway Company's Pretoria - Delagoa Bay railway line. The town underwent some development due to the Sasol pipeline and construction and upgrading of the national highway; the Nkomazi Tollgate has subsequently been built on the outskirts of the town
The 2010 FIA WTCC Race of UK was the sixth round of the 2010 World Touring Car Championship season and the sixth running of the FIA WTCC Race of UK. It was held at Brands Hatch in Kent, England on 18 July 2010; the two races were won by Yvan Muller of Chevrolet RML and Andy Priaulx of BMW Team RBM. After the Race of Portugal, Chevrolet driver Muller was leading the drivers' championship while Sergio Hernández was leading the Yokohama Independents' Trophy. Chevrolet RML ran an additional Chevrolet Cruze for triple Stock Car Brasil champion Cacá Bueno. Liqui Moly Team Engstler replaced regular driver Andrei Romanov with SEAT León Eurocup driver Tim Coronel. British Touring Car Championship regular Tom Boardman returned to the WTCC in a SUNRED Engineering run SEAT León TFSI. Volvo Olsbergs Green Racing joined the grid for the first of two events with their Scandinavian Touring Car Cup driver Robert Dahlgren. Robert Huff topped the opening practice session of his home event on Saturday morning, the Chevrolet driver beating the BMW pairing of Andy Priaulx and Augusto Farfus.
Gabriele Tarquini was the fastest SEAT driver in fourth. Colin Turkington was seventh in his eBay Motors run BMW, Boardman was thirteenth in his SUNRED SEAT and Harry Vaulkhard was the slowest of the local drivers, 22nd in his bamboo-engineering Chevrolet Lacetti; the session was interrupted when Michel Nykjær beached his car in the gravel trap at Paddock Hill bend. Turkington led the final practice session. Wiechers-Sport driver Mehdi Bennani was black flagged for exceeding the track limits. With guest driver Dahlgren running inside the top ten during the practice sessions and Q1 in his nationally-homologated Volvo C30, the stewards decided to allow the fastest 11 drivers through into Q2, rather than the usual ten. In the end, Dahlgren could only managed 12th in Q1, allowing 11th-placed Tom Coronel through to Q2. Muller was quickest in Q1, ahead of Chevrolet teammates Menu. Muller took pole position with Huff and Menu second and third once again. Independent racer Turkington was fourth quickest, ahead of Priaulx.
Turkington was quickest in the Sunday morning warm–up session, with Priaulx and Farfus behind completing a BMW 1–2–3. Pole sitter Muller was seventh behind the independent BMW of Kristian Poulsen. Muller Menu away from the start of the first race. Tarquini moved ahead of Turkington for fourth, while Priaulx, who had to start 16th after an engine change, moved up to 12th. On lap four, Turkington regained fourth from Tarquini at the Druids hairpin. At the same time and teammate Farfus moved up to ninth and tenth past Fredy Barth, before passing eighth placed Norbert Michelisz. Farfus passed Tiago Monteiro for seventh. Nearer the front, Menu was defending hard from Turkington, allowing Huff to escape ahead. Bueno pulled off in the fourth Chevrolet with an engine fire. After the restart, Priaulx made a robust move on Monteiro for eighth and pole position for Race Two. On the penultimate lap Turkington got past Menu, who dropped back on the final lap to seventh to get himself a front row start for Race Two.
Muller took the chequered flag ahead of Turkington. Tarquni and Tom Coronel finished fourth and fifth, ahead of Farfus and Priaulx. Farfus made a good start to Race Two from third on the grid to take the lead ahead of Priaulx and Menu. Further down and Poulsen made contact off the grid, putting Poulsen into the wall on the outside and giving Barth a slow puncture. At the end of the first lap, Boardman made contact with Monteiro. On lap three, Priaulx passed Farfus for the lead at Druids, with Menu attempting to follow him past the Brazilian. However, they made contact, damaging Menu's steering. Turkington took advantage to move up to second behind Priaulx, with Tarquini, Coronel and Muller following. On, Bennani hit Franz Engstler into a spin as the pair were fighting over tenth place. Muller passed Chevrolet teammate Huff for fifth. Farfus passed Boardman for ninth, before Boardman retired from the race. Meanwhile, Bennani pushed Darryl O'Young into the gravel at Druids. Farfus took eighth from Nykjær in the closing laps.
Priaulx crossed the line to take the victory ahead of Tarquini. Coronel finished fourth ahead of Muller, Huff and Farfus. ^1 — Poulsen was classified fifteenth in Q1 but had all his times deleted for breaching parc ferme regulations. Bold denotes Fastest lap. Bold denotes Fastest lap. Note: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of drivers' standings. World Touring Car Championship official website