Fuel oil is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue. In general terms, fuel oil is any liquid fuel, burned in a furnace or boiler for the generation of heat or used in an engine for the generation of power, except oils having a flash point of 42 °C and oils burned in cotton or wool-wick burners. Fuel oil is made of long hydrocarbon chains alkanes and aromatics; the term fuel oil is used in a stricter sense to refer only to the heaviest commercial fuel that can be obtained from crude oil, i.e. heavier than gasoline and naphtha. Small molecules like those in propane, gasoline for cars, jet fuel have low boiling points, they are removed at the start of the fractional distillation process. Heavier petroleum products like diesel fuel and lubricating oil are much less volatile and distill out more while bunker oil is the bottom of the barrel. Oil has many uses. A small amount of electricity is produced by diesel, but it is more polluting and more expensive than natural gas.
It is used as a backup fuel for peaking power plants in case the supply of natural gas is interrupted or as the main fuel for small electrical generators. In Europe, the use of diesel is restricted to cars, SUVs, trucks and buses; the market for home heating using fuel oil, called heating oil, has decreased due to the widespread penetration of natural gas as well as heat pumps. However, it is common in some areas, such as the Northeastern United States. Residual fuel oil is less useful because it is so viscous that it has to be heated with a special heating system before use and it may contain high amounts of pollutants sulfur, which forms sulfur dioxide upon combustion. However, its undesirable properties make it cheap. In fact, it is the cheapest liquid fuel available. Since it requires heating before use, residual fuel oil cannot be used in road vehicles, boats or small ships, as the heating equipment takes up valuable space and makes the vehicle heavier. Heating the oil is a delicate procedure, impractical on small, fast moving vehicles.
However, power plants and large ships are able to use residual fuel oil. Use of residual fuel oil was more common in the past, it powered boilers, railroad steam locomotives, steamships. Locomotives, have become powered by diesel or electric power; some industrial boilers still so do some old buildings, including in New York City. In 2011 The City estimated that the 1% of its buildings that burned fuel oils No. 4 and No. 6 were responsible for 86% of the soot pollution generated by all buildings in the city. New York made the phase out of these fuel grades part of its environmental plan, PlaNYC, because of concerns for the health effects caused by fine particulates, all buildings using fuel oil No. 6 had been converted to less polluting fuel by the end of 2015. Residual fuel's use in electrical generation has decreased. In 1973, residual fuel oil produced 16.8% of the electricity in the US. By 1983, it had fallen to 6.2%, as of 2005, electricity production from all forms of petroleum, including diesel and residual fuel, is only 3% of total production.
The decline is the result of price competition with natural gas and environmental restrictions on emissions. For power plants, the costs of heating the oil, extra pollution control and additional maintenance required after burning it outweigh the low cost of the fuel. Burning fuel oil residual fuel oil, produces uniformly higher carbon dioxide emissions than natural gas. Heavy fuel oils continue to be used in the boiler "lighting up" facility in many coal-fired power plants; this use is analogous to using kindling to start a fire. Without performing this act it is difficult to begin the large-scale combustion process; the chief drawback to residual fuel oil is its high initial viscosity in the case of No. 6 oil, which requires a engineered system for storage and burning. Though it is still lighter than water it is much heavier and more viscous than No. 2 oil, kerosene, or gasoline. No. 6 oil must, in fact, be stored at around 38 °C heated to 65–120 °C before it can be pumped, in cooler temperatures it can congeal into a tarry semisolid.
The flash point of most blends of No. 6 oil is, about 65 °C. Attempting to pump high-viscosity oil at low temperatures was a frequent cause of damage to fuel lines and related equipment which were designed for lighter fuels. For comparison, BS 2869 Class G heavy fuel oil behaves in similar fashion, requiring storage at 40 °C, pumping at around 50 °C and finalising for burning at around 90–120 °C. Most of the facilities which burned No. 6 or other residual oils were industrial plants and similar facilities constructed in the early or mid 20th century, or which had switched from coal to oil fuel during the same time period. In either case, residual oil was seen as a good prospect because it was cheap and available. Most o
Giovanni Agnelli was an Italian entrepreneur, who founded Fiat car manufacturing in 1899. The son of Edoardo Agnelli and Aniceta Frisetti, he was born in 1866 in Villar Perosa, a small town near Pinerolo, still the main home and burial place of the Agnelli family, his father, mayor of Villar Perosa, died at age 40. He studied at the Collegio San Giuseppe in Turin. Agnelli heard about the invention of the new horseless carriage and saw an opportunity for using his engineering and entrepreneurial skills. In 1898, he met Count Emanuele Cacherano of Bricherasio, looking for investors for his horseless carriage project. On 11 July 1899, Agnelli was part of the group of founding members of the Fabbrica Italiana di Automobili Torino, which became Fiat. One year he was the managing director of the new company and became the chairman in 1920; the first Fiat plant opened in 1900 with 35 staff making 24 cars. The company was known from the beginning for the creativity of its engineering staff. By 1903, Fiat made a small profit and produced 135 cars growing to 1,149 cars by 1906.
The company went public selling shares via the Milan stock exchange. Agnelli began purchasing all the shares. During this time, he overcame scandals and labour problems. During World War I, Agnelli became involved with the financier Riccardo Gualino in transport of US aid to Europe in 1917, they invested in two enterprises in the United States. These companies failed when the war ended, since they were structured to meet wartime demand, but had returned large profits to their owners. Agnelli and Gualino made an attempt early in 1918 to take over Credito Italiano, they joined the board of directors of the bank. Agnelli was vice-president of Gualino's SNIA from 1917 to 1926. In the early 1920s, SNIA began to manufacture artificial textile fibers. In 1920, Gualino and Agnelli participated in recapitalization of the private bank Jean de Fernex and bought a third of the shares of Alfredo Frassati, publisher of La Stampa. Gualino and Agnelli were involved in a proposal to link Milan and Turin with a high-speed railway and in various projects in cement and automobiles.
Their partnership broke up around 1926 due to Gualino's investments in the French automobile industry. After World War I, Fiat jumped from 30th to third place among Italian industrial companies; the first Ford factory was opened. In 1906, the first Fiat car dealer in the U. S. was established at a location in Manhattan on Broadway. Agnelli was appointed a Senator in 1923, filled several other prestigious positions between the two wars, he propelled Fiat to the international arena. He was still active with FIAT at the start of the Second World War and died soon after it ended in 1945 at age 79. Knight of the Order of Labour Grand Officer of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Italy Inducted into the Automotive Hall of Fame in 2002. Inducted into the European Automotive Hall of Fame in 2001. Ceirano GB & C Turin Edoardo Agnelli Gianni Agnelli Giovanni Agnelli at Find a Grave
Giacomo Matteotti was an Italian socialist politician. On 30 May 1924, he spoke in the Italian Parliament alleging the Fascists committed fraud in the held elections, denounced the violence they used to gain votes. Eleven days he was kidnapped and killed by Fascists. Matteotti was born a son of a wealthy family, in Fratta Polesine, Province of Rovigo in Veneto, he graduated in law at the University of Bologna. An atheist and from early on an activist in the socialist movement and the Italian Socialist Party, he opposed Italy's entry into World War I, he was elected deputy three times: in 1919, 1921 and 1924. As a follower of Filippo Turati, Matteotti became the leader of the Unitary Socialist Party in the Italian Chamber of Deputies after the scission of the Socialist Party, he spoke out against Fascism and Benito Mussolini, for a time was leader of the opposition to the National Fascist Party. From 1921 he denounced fascist violence in a pamphlet titled Inchiesta socialista sulle gesta dei fascisti in Italia.
In 1924 his book The Fascisti Exposed: A Year of Fascist Domination was published and he made two impassioned and lengthy speeches in the Chamber of Deputies denouncing Fascism and declaring that the last election, marked by intimidation and militia violence, was "invalid." On 10 June 1924 Matteotti was bundled into a car and stabbed several times with a carpenter's file as he was struggling to escape. His corpse was found after an extensive search near Riano, 23 kilometers north of Rome, on 16 August 1924. Five men were arrested a few days after the kidnapping. Another suspect, Filippo Panzeri, fled from arrest. Only three were convicted and shortly after released under amnesty by King Victor Emmanuel III. Before the trial against the murderers, the High Court of the Senate started a trial against general Emilio De Bono, commander of the Fascist paramilitary Blackshirts, but he was discharged. After the Second World War, in 1947, the trial against Francesco Giunta, Cesare Rossi, Viola, Malacria and Panzeri was re-opened.
Dumini and Poveromo were sentenced to life imprisonment. In none of these three trials was evidence found of Mussolini's involvement; the involvement of Mussolini in the assassination is much debated. Historians suggest some different theories; the main biographer of Mussolini, Renzo De Felice, was convinced. Aurelio Lepre and Emilio Gentile thought that Mussolini wanted the death of Matteotti; the former socialist and anti-fascist journalist Carlo Silvestri in 1924 was a harsh accuser of Mussolini. Silvestri became a strong defender of Mussolini's innocence in Matteotti's murder, suggested that the socialist was killed by a plot, in order both to damage Mussolini's attempt to raise a leftist government and to cover some scandals in which the Crown was involved. De Felice argued that maybe Mussolini himself was a political victim of a plot, surely he was damaged by the crisis that followed the murder. Many fascists left the Party, his government was about to collapse. Moreover, his secret attempt to bring Socialists and Populars into a new reformist government was ruined.
John Gunther wrote in 1940 that "Most critics nowadays do not think that the Duce directly ordered the assassination... but his moral responsibility is indisputable" with underlings believing they were carrying out Mussolini's desire performing the kidnapping and murder on their own. Other historians, including Justin Pollard and Denis Mack Smith, thought Mussolini was aware of the assassination plot but that it was ordered and organized by someone else. Mauro Canali suggests that Mussolini did order the murder, as Matteotti uncovered and wanted to make public incriminating documents proving that Mussolini and his associates sold to Sinclair Oil exclusive rights to all Italian oil reserves; the death of Matteotti sparked widespread criticism of Fascism. A general strike was threatened in retaliation. Since Mussolini's government did not collapse and the King refused to dismiss him, all the anti-fascists started to abandon the Chamber of Deputies, they retired like ancient Roman plebeians. They thought to force the Crown to act against Mussolini, but on the contrary this strengthened Mussolini.
After a few weeks of confusion, Mussolini gained a favourable vote by the Senate of the Kingdom, tried to defuse the tension with a speech. Despite pressure from the opposition, Victor Emmanuel III refused to dismiss Mussolini, since the Government was supported by a large majority of the Chamber of Deputies and all the Senate of the Kingdom. Moreover, he feared that compelling Mussolini to resign could be considered a coup d'état, that could lead to a civil war between the Army and the Blackshirts, but during the summer, the trial against Matteotti's alleged murderers and the discovery of the corpse of Matteotti once again spread rage against Mussolini: newspapers launched fierce attacks against him and the fascist movement. On 13 September, a right-wing fascist deputy, Armando Casalini, was killed on a tramway in retaliation for Matteotti's mur
Generali Italia S.p. A. is an Italian insurance company based in Mogliano Veneto, a subsidiary of Generali Group. The insurer had a share capital of €1,618,628,450 in 2013. Found as a public entity Istituto Nazionale delle Assicurazioni, the insurer was an equity owner of Agip, Istituto per il Credito Sportivo and other public corporation. In 1989 Crediop was sold to Istituto Bancario San Paolo di Torino. In 2000 INA sold Banco di Napoli to Sanpaolo IMI, it became a subsidiary of Assicurazioni Generali in 2000. The insurer became INA Assitalia in 2006. In 2013 the company became the sub-holding company of the group for Alleanza Toro, Genertel, Generali Properties and Banca Generali. In the same year Alleanza Toro was absorbed by Generali Italia but forming Alleanza Assicurazioni at the same time; the sub-holding sold FATA Assicurazioni Danni to Cattolica Assicurazioni for €179 million. As of 31 December 2015Alleanza Assicurazioni Alfuturo Servizi Assicurativi Assitimm Cimarosa Fund Difesa Automobilistica Sinistri DAS Legal Services Flandria Participations Financières Genagricola Agricola San Giorgio Generali Belgium Generali Real Estate Investments B.
V. Generali Business Solutions Generali Infrastructure Services Generali Finance B. V. Generali Financial Hold SF2 Generali North American Holding Generali Properties CityLife Genertellife Genertel Mascagni Fund Residenze CYL Scarlatti Fund Toscanini Fund UMS Immobiloare Genova Banca Generali GenerFid BG Fiduciaria Generali Europe Income Holding Telco AG Istituto Nazionale per l'Assicurazione Contro gli Infortuni sul Lavoro Official website
Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 20 regions of Italy. It is one of the five Italian autonomous regions, in Southern Italy along with surrounding minor islands referred to as Regione Siciliana. Sicily is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula, from which it is separated by the narrow Strait of Messina, its most prominent landmark is Mount Etna, the tallest active volcano in Europe, one of the most active in the world 3,329 m high. The island has a typical Mediterranean climate; the earliest archaeological evidence of human activity on the island dates from as early as 12,000 BC. By around 750 BC, Sicily had three Phoenician and a dozen Greek colonies and, for the next 600 years, it was the site of the Sicilian Wars and the Punic Wars. After the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, Sicily was ruled during the Early Middle Ages by the Vandals, the Ostrogoths, the Byzantine Empire, the Emirate of Sicily; the Norman conquest of southern Italy led to the creation of the Kingdom of Sicily, subsequently ruled by the Hohenstaufen, the Capetian House of Anjou and the House of Habsburg.
It was unified under the House of Bourbon with the Kingdom of Naples as the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. It became part of Italy in 1860 following the Expedition of the Thousand, a revolt led by Giuseppe Garibaldi during the Italian unification, a plebiscite. Sicily was given special status as an autonomous region on 15th May 1946, 18 days before the Italian constitutional referendum of 1946. Albeit, much of the autonomy still remains unapplied financial autonomy, because the autonomy-activating laws have been deferred to be approved by the parithetic committee, since 1946. Sicily has a rich and unique culture with regard to the arts, literature and architecture, it is home to important archaeological and ancient sites, such as the Necropolis of Pantalica, the Valley of the Temples and Selinunte. Sicily has a triangular shape, earning it the name Trinacria. To the east, it is separated from the Italian mainland by the Strait of Messina, about 3 km wide in the north, about 16 km wide in the southern part.
The northern and southern coasts are each about 280 km long measured as a straight line, while the eastern coast measures around 180 km. The total area of the island is 25,711 km2, while the Autonomous Region of Sicily has an area of 27,708 km2; the terrain of inland Sicily is hilly and is intensively cultivated wherever possible. Along the northern coast, the mountain ranges of Madonie, 2,000 m, Nebrodi, 1,800 m, Peloritani, 1,300 m, are an extension of the mainland Apennines; the cone of Mount Etna dominates the eastern coast. In the southeast lie the lower Hyblaean Mountains, 1,000 m; the mines of the Enna and Caltanissetta districts were part of a leading sulphur-producing area throughout the 19th century, but have declined since the 1950s. Sicily and its surrounding small islands have some active volcanoes. Mount Etna is the largest active volcano in Europe and still casts black ash over the island with its ever-present eruptions, it stands 3,329 metres high, though this varies with summit eruptions.
It is the highest mountain in Italy south of the Alps. Etna covers an area of 1,190 km2 with a basal circumference of 140 km; this makes it by far the largest of the three active volcanoes in Italy, being about two and a half times the height of the next largest, Mount Vesuvius. In Greek mythology, the deadly monster Typhon was trapped under the mountain by Zeus, the god of the sky. Mount Etna is regarded as a cultural symbol and icon of Sicily; the Aeolian Islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea, to the northeast of mainland Sicily form a volcanic complex, include Stromboli. The three volcanoes of Vulcano and Lipari are currently active, although the latter is dormant. Off the southern coast of Sicily, the underwater volcano of Ferdinandea, part of the larger Empedocles volcano, last erupted in 1831, it is located between the island of Pantelleria. The autonomous region includes several neighbouring islands: the Aegadian Islands, the Aeolian Islands and Lampedusa; the island is drained by several rivers, most of which flow through the central area and enter the sea at the south of the island.
The Salso flows through parts of Enna and Caltanissetta before entering the Mediterranean Sea at the port of Licata. To the east, the Alcantara flows through the province of Messina and enters the sea at Giardini Naxos, the Simeto, which flows into the Ionian Sea south of Catania. Other important rivers on the island are the Platani in the southwest. Sicily has a typical Mediterranean climate with mild and wet winters and hot, dry summers with changeable intermediate seasons. On the coasts the south-western, the climate is affected by the African currents and summers can be scorching. Sicily is seen as an island of warm winters but above all along the Tyrrhenian coast and in the inland areas, winters can be cold, with typical continental climate. Snow falls in abundance above 900–1000 metres, but stronger cold waves can carry it in the hills and in coastal cities on the northern coast of the island; the interi
Milan is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,372,810 while its metropolitan city has a population of 3,245,308. Its continuously built-up urban area has a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 over 1,891 square kilometres; the wider Milan metropolitan area, known as Greater Milan, is a polycentric metropolitan region that extends over central Lombardy and eastern Piedmont and which counts an estimated total population of 7.5 million, making it by far the largest metropolitan area in Italy and the 54th largest in the world. Milan served as capital of the Western Roman Empire from 286 to 402 and the Duchy of Milan during the medieval period and early modern age. Milan is considered a leading alpha global city, with strengths in the field of the art, design, entertainment, finance, media, services and tourism, its business district hosts Italy's stock exchange and the headquarters of national and international banks and companies.
In terms of GDP, it has the third-largest economy among European cities after Paris and London, but the fastest in growth among the three, is the wealthiest among European non-capital cities. Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and one of the "Four Motors for Europe"; the city has been recognized as one of the world's four fashion capitals thanks to several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair, which are among the world's biggest in terms of revenue and growth. It hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015; the city hosts numerous cultural institutions and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students. Milan is the destination of 8 million overseas visitors every year, attracted by its museums and art galleries that boast some of the most important collections in the world, including major works by Leonardo da Vinci; the city is served by a large number of luxury hotels and is the fifth-most starred in the world by Michelin Guide.
The city is home to two of Europe's most successful football teams, A. C. Milan and F. C. Internazionale, one of Italy's main basketball teams, Olimpia Milano; the etymology of the name Milan remains uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum planus. However, some scholars believe that lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines. Hence Mediolanum could signify the central sanctuary of a Celtic tribe. Indeed, about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France bore the name "Mediolanum", for example: Saintes and Évreux. In addition, another theory links the name to the boar sow an ancient emblem of the city, fancifully accounted for in Andrea Alciato's Emblemata, beneath a woodcut of the first raising of the city walls, where a boar is seen lifted from the excavation, the etymology of Mediolanum given as "half-wool", explained in Latin and in French; the foundation of Milan is credited to two Celtic peoples, the Bituriges and the Aedui, having as their emblems a ram and a boar.
Alciato credits Ambrose for his account. The Celtic Insubres, the inhabitants of the region of northern Italy called Insubria, appear to have founded Milan around 600 BC. According to the legend reported by Livy, the Gaulish king Ambicatus sent his nephew Bellovesus into northern Italy at the head of a party drawn from various Gaulish tribes; the Romans, led by consul Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, fought the Insubres and captured the city in 222 BC. They conquered the entirety of the region, calling the new province "Cisalpine Gaul" – "Gaul this side of the Alps" – and may have given the site its Latinized Celtic name of Mediolanum: in Gaulish *medio- meant "middle, center" and the name element -lanon is the Celtic equivalent of Latin -planum "plain", thus *Mediolanon meant " in the midst of the plain". In 286 the Roman Emperor Diocletian moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum. Diocletian himself chose to reside at Nicomedia in the Eastern Empire, leaving his colleague Maximian at Milan.
Maximian built several gigantic monuments, the large circus, the thermae or "Baths of Hercules", a large complex of imperial palaces and other services and buildings of which fewer visible traces remain. Maximian increased the city area surrounded by a new, larger stone wall encompassing an area of 375 acres with many 24-sided towers; the monumental area had twin towers. From Mediolanum the Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, granting tolerance to all religions within the Empire, thus paving the way for Christianity to become the dominant religion of Roman Europe. Constantine had come to Mediolanum to celebrate the wedding of his sister
Emilia-Romagna is an administrative region of Northeast Italy comprising the historical regions of Emilia and Romagna. Its capital is Bologna, it has an area of 22,446 km2, about 4.4 million inhabitants. Emilia-Romagna is one of the wealthiest and most developed regions in Europe, with the third highest GDP per capita in Italy. Bologna, its capital, has one of Italy's highest quality of life indices and advanced social services. Emilia-Romagna is a cultural and tourist centre, being the home of the University of Bologna, the oldest university in the world, containing Romanesque and Renaissance cities, a former Eastern Roman Empire capital such as Ravenna, encompassing eleven UNESCO heritage sites, being a centre for food and automobile production and having popular coastal resorts such as Cervia, Cesenatico and Riccione. In 2018, the Lonely Planet guide named Emilia Romagna as the best place to see in Europe; the name Emilia-Romagna is a legacy of Ancient Rome. Emilia derives from the via Aemilia, the Roman road connecting Piacenza to Rimini, completed in 187 BC and named after the consul Marcus Aemilius Lepidus.
Romagna derives from Romània, the name of the Eastern Roman Empire applied to Ravenna by the Lombards when the western Empire had ceased to exist and Ravenna was an outpost of the east. Before the Romans took control of present-day Emilia-Romagna, it had been part of the Etruscan world and that of the Gauls. During the first thousand years of Christianity trade flourished, as did culture and religion, thanks to the region's monasteries. Afterwards the University of Bologna—arguably the oldest university in Europe—and its bustling towns kept trade and intellectual life alive, its unstable political history is exemplified in such figures as Matilda of Canossa and contending seigniories such as the Este of Ferrara, the Malatesta of Rimini, the Popes of Rome, the Farnese of Parma and Piacenza, the Duchy of Modena and Reggio. In the 16th century, most of these were seized by the Papal States, but the territories of Parma and Modena remained independent until Emilia-Romagna became part of the Italian kingdom between 1859 and 1861.
After the referendum of 2006, seven municipalities of Montefeltro were detached from the Province of Pesaro and Urbino to join that of Rimini on 15 August 2009. The municipalities are Casteldelci, Novafeltria, San Leo, Sant'Agata Feltria and Talamello. On 20 and 29 May 2012 two powerful earthquakes hit the area, they caused churches and factories to collapse. 200 were injured. The 5.8 magnitude quake left 14,000 people homeless. The region of Emilia-Romagna consists of nine provinces and covers an area of 22,446 km², ranking sixth in Italy. Nearly half of the region consists of plains while 27 % is 25 % mountainous; the region's section of the Apennines is marked by areas of badland erosion and caves. The mountains stretch for more than 300 km from the north to the south-east, with only three peaks above 2,000 m – Monte Cimone, Monte Cusna and Alpe di Succiso; the plain was formed by the gradual retreat of the sea from the Po basin and by the detritus deposited by the rivers. Marshland in ancient times, its history is characterised by the hard work of its people to reclaim and reshape the land in order to achieve a better standard of living.
The geology varies, with lagoons and saline areas in the north and many thermal springs throughout the rest of the region as a result of groundwater rising towards the surface at different periods of history. All the rivers rise locally in the Apennines except for the Po, which has its source in the Alps in Piedmont; the northern border of Emilia-Romagna follows the path of the river for 263 km. The region has a temperate broadleaved and mixed forests and the vegetation may be divided into belts: the Common oak-European hornbeam belt, now covered with fruit orchards and fields of wheat and sugar beet, the Pubescent oak-European hop-hornbeam belt on the lower slopes up to 900 m, the European beech-Silver fir belt between 1,000 and 1,500 m and the final mountain heath belt. Emilia-Romagna has two Italian National Parks, the Foreste Casentinesi National Park and the Appennino Tosco-Emiliano National Park. Emilia-Romagna has been a populated area since ancient times. Inhabitants over the centuries have radically altered the landscape, building cities, reclaiming wetlands, establishing large agricultural areas.
All these transformations in past centuries changed the aspect of the region, converting large natural areas to cultivation, up until the 1960s. The trend changed, agricultural lands began giving way to residential and industrial areas; the increase of urban-industrial areas continued at high rates until the end of the 2010s. In the same period and mountainous areas saw an increase in the registration of semi-natural areas, because of the abandonment of agricultural lands. Land use changes can have strong effects on ecological functions. Human interactions such as agriculture and deforestation affect soil function, e.g. food and other biomass production, storing and transformation, habitat and gene pool. In the Emilia-Romagna plain, which represents half of the region and where three quarters of the population of the region live, the agricultural land area has been reduced by 157 km2 while urban and industrial areas