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Agra Fort

Agra Fort is a historical fort in the city of Agra in India. It was the main residence of the emperors of the Mughal Dynasty until 1638, when the capital was shifted from Agra to Delhi. Before capture by the British, the last Indian rulers to have occupied. In 1983, the Agra fort was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, it is about 2.5 km northwest of the Taj Mahal. The fort can be more described as a walled city, it had been used by the early mughal rulers. The Fort was traditionally known as Badalgarh, it was captured by Ghaznavi for some time but in the 15th century A. D. the Chauhan Rajputs occupied it. Soon after, Agra assumed the status of capital when Sikandar Lodi shifted his capital from Delhi and constructed a few buildings in the pre-existing Fort at Agra. After the first battle of Panipat Mughals ruled from it. In A. D. 1530, Humayun was crowned in it. The Fort got its present appearance during the reign of Akbar. After the First Battle of Panipat in 1526, Babur stayed in the palace of Ibrahim Lodi.

He built a baoli in it. His successor, was crowned in the fort in 1530, he was defeated at Bilgram in 1540 by Sher Shah Suri. The fort remained with the Suris till 1555. Adil Shah Suri's general, recaptured Agra in 1556 and pursued its fleeing governor to Delhi where he met the Mughals in the Battle of Tughlaqabad. Realising the importance of its central situation, Akbar made it his capital and arrived in Agra in 1558, his historian, Abul Fazl, recorded that this was a brick fort known as'Badalgarh'. It was in a ruined condition and Akbar had it rebuilt with red sandstone from Barauli area Dhaulpur district, in Rajasthan. Architects laid the foundation and it was built with bricks in the inner core with sandstone on external surfaces; some 4,000 builders worked on it daily for eight years, completing it in 1573. It was only during the reign of Akbar's grandson, Shah Jahan, that the site took on its current state. Shah Jahan built the beautiful Taj Mahal in the memory of Mumtaz Mahal. Unlike his grandfather, Shah Jahan tended to have buildings made from white marble.

He destroyed some of the earlier buildings inside the fort to make his own. At the end of his life, Shah Jahan was restrained by his son, Aurangzeb, in the fort, it is rumoured that Shah Jahan died in Muasamman Burj, a tower with a marble balcony with a view of the Taj Mahal. The fort was under the Jat rulers of Bharatpur for 13 Years. In the fort, they built the Ratan Singh ki haveli; the fort was captured by the Maratha Empire in the early 18th century. Thereafter, it changed hands between their foes many times. After their catastrophic defeat at Third Battle of Panipat by Ahmad Shah Abdali in 1761, Marathas remained out of the region for the next decade. Mahadji Shinde took the fort in 1785, it was lost by the Marathas to the British during the Second Anglo-Maratha War, in 1803. The fort was the site of a battle during the Indian rebellion of 1857, which caused the end of the British East India Company's rule in India, led to a century of direct rule of India by Britain; the 380,000 m2 fort has a semicircular plan, its chord lies parallel to the river Yamuna and its walls are seventy feet high.

Double ramparts have massive circular bastions at intervals, with battlements, embrasures and string courses. Four gates were provided on one Khizri gate opening on to the river. Two of the fort's gates are notable: the "Delhi Gate" and the "Lahore Gate." The Lahore Gate is popularly known as the "Amar Singh Gate," for Amar Singh Rathore. The monumental Delhi Gate, which faces the city on the western side of the fort, is considered the grandest of the four gates and a masterpiece of Akbar's time, it was built circa 1568 both to enhance security and as the king's formal gate, includes features related to both. It is embellished with intricate inlay work in white marble. A wooden drawbridge was used to reach the gate from the mainland; the drawbridge, slight ascent, 90-degree turn between the outer and inner gates make the entrance impregnable. During a siege, attackers would employ elephants to crush a fort's gates. Without a level, straight run-up to gather speed, that thing is prevented by this layout.

Because the Indian military is still using the northern portion of the Agra Fort, the Delhi Gate cannot be used by the public. Tourists enter via the Amar Singh Gate; the site is important in terms of architectural history. Abul Fazal recorded that five hundred buildings in the beautiful designs of Bengal and Gujarat were built in the fort; some of them were demolished by Shah Jahan to make way for his white marble palaces. Most of the others were destroyed by the British troops of East India Company between 1803 and 1862 for raising barracks. Hardly thirty Mughal buildings have survived on the south-eastern side, facing the river, such as the Delhi Gate and Akbar Gate and one palace – "Bengali Mahal". Akbar Darwazza was renamed Amar Singh Gate by Shah Jahan; the gate is similar in design to the Delhi Gate. Both are built of red sandstone; the Bengali Mahal is now split into Akbari Mahal and Jahangiri Mahal. Jahangir's Hauz A. D. 1610: This monolithic tank was used for bathing. It is 8 feet in diameter and 25 feet in circumference.

On the external side of the rim there is an inscriptio

Direct Action Day

Direct Action Day known as the 1946 Calcutta Killings, was a day of widespread communal rioting between Muslims and Hindus in the city of Calcutta in the Bengal province of British India. The day marked the start of what is known as The Week of the Long Knives; the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress were the two largest political parties in the Constituent Assembly of India in the 1940s. The Muslim League had demanded, since its 1940 Lahore Resolution, that the Muslim-majority areas of India in the northwest and the east, should be constituted as'independent states'; the 1946 Cabinet Mission to India for planning of the transfer of power from the British Raj to the Indian leadership proposed a three-tier structure: a centre, groups of provinces, provinces. The "groups of provinces" were meant to accommodate the Muslim League demand. Both the Muslim League and Congress in principle accepted the Cabinet Mission's plan. However, Muslim League suspected. In July 1946, it withdrew its agreement to the plan and announced a general strike on 16 August, terming it as Direct Action Day, to assert its demand for a separate Muslim homeland.

Against a backdrop of communal tension, the protest triggered massive riots in Calcutta. More than 4,000 people lost their lives and 100,000 residents were left homeless in Calcutta within 72 hours; this violence sparked off further religious riots in the surrounding regions of Noakhali, United Provinces and the North Western Frontier Province. These events sowed the seeds for the eventual Partition of India. In 1946, the Indian independence movement against the British Raj had reached a pivotal stage. British Prime Minister Clement Attlee sent a three-member Cabinet Mission to India aimed at discussing and finalizing plans for the transfer of power from the British Raj to the Indian leadership. After holding talks with the representatives of the Indian National Congress and the All India Muslim League—the two largest political parties in the Constituent Assembly of India—on 16 May 1946, the Mission proposed a plan of composition of the new Dominion of India and its government; the Muslim League demand for'autonomous and sovereign' states in the northwest and the east was accommodated by creating a new tier of'groups of provinces' between the provincial layer and the central government.

The central government was expected to handle the subjects of defence, external affairs and communications. All other powers would be relegated to the'groups'. Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the one time Congressman and Indian Nationalist, now the leader of the Muslim League, had accepted the Cabinet Mission Plan of 16 June, as had the central presidium of the Congress. On 10 July, Jawaharlal Nehru, the Congress President, held a press conference in Bombay declaring that although the Congress had agreed to participate in the Constituent Assembly, it reserved the right to modify the Cabinet Mission Plan as it saw fit. Fearing Hindu domination in the Constituent Assembly, Jinnah rejected the British Cabinet Mission plan for transfer of power to an interim government which would combine both the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress, decided to boycott the Constituent Assembly. In July 1946, Jinnah held a press conference at his home in Bombay, he proclaimed that the Muslim league was "preparing to launch a struggle" and that they "have chalked out a plan".

He said that if the Muslims were not granted a separate Pakistan they would launch "direct action". When asked to be specific, Jinnah retorted: "ask them their plans; when they take you into their confidence I will take you into mine. Why do you expect me alone to sit with folded hands? I am going to make trouble."The next day, Jinnah announced 16 August 1946 would be "Direct Action Day" and warned Congress, "We do not want war. If you want war we accept your offer unhesitatingly. We will either have a divided India divided or a destroyed India." In his book The Great Divide, H V Hodson recounted, "The Working Committee followed up by calling on Muslims throughout India to observe 16th August as'Direct Action Day'. On that day, meetings would be held all over the country to explain the League's resolution; these meetings and processions passed off–as was manifestly the central League leaders' intention–without more than commonplace and limited disturbances, with one vast and tragic exception...

What happened was more than anyone could have foreseen."In Muslim Societies: Historical and Comparative Aspects, edited by Sato Tsugitaka, Nakazato Nariaki writes: From the viewpoint of institutional politics, the Calcutta disturbances possessed a distinguishing feature in that they broke out in a transitional period, marked by the power vacuum and systemic breakdown. It is important to note that they constituted part of a political struggle in which the Congress and the Muslim League competed with each other for the initiative in establishing the new nation-state, while the British made an all-out attempt to carry out decolonization at the lowest possible political cost for them; the political rivalry among the major nationalist parties in Bengal took a form different from that in New Delhi because of the broad mass base those organizations enjoyed and the tradition of flexible political dealing in which they excelled. At the initial stage of the riots, the Congress and the Muslim League appeared to be confident that they could draw on this tradition if a difficult situation arose out of political showdown.

Most Direct Action Day in Calcutta was planned to be a large-scale hartal and mass rally which they knew well ho

Chauncey C. Loomis

Chauncey Chester Loomis Jr. was a Dartmouth professor of English and American literature, Arctic historian, documentary maker, author best known for Weird and Tragic Shores: The Story of Charles Francis Hall, described as “a concise and intelligent introduction to the history of Arctic exploration.” Chauncey Chester Loomis Jr. was born in New York City in 1930, the youngest of three sons of an industrial chemist and businessman, Chauncey C. Loomis, his wife Elizabeth, he was the brother of Stanley Loomis. He grew up in Stockbridge and attended Phillips Exeter Academy, he earned a B. A. from Princeton University in 1952, an M. A. from Columbia University in 1955. He served in the U. S. Army during the Korean War before returning to teach English and American literature first at the University of Vermont and at Dartmouth College, where he remained from 1963 to his retirement in 1997, he served as chair of the department from 1977 to 1980. He completed his Ph. D. at Princeton in 1966. In 1968, he led an expedition to Greenland, one of five expeditions to the Arctic he made during his lifetime.

On this first trip, he received permission to disinter the body of Charles Francis Hall, a Cincinnati journalist who had made two attempts to find the grave of Sir John Franklin, who himself died in the course of an 1871 attempt to reach the North Pole. Rumours had suggested that Hall had not died of natural causes. Loomis received a Smithsonian grant to go to Greenland, dig up Hall’s body, take samples of the hair and fingernails, send them for forensic analysis. Although he succeeded in doing so, the results of the analysis were not conclusive: the remains contained traces of arsenic, which could indicate poisoning, but since arsenic was a component of many medicines, it is possible that Hall had inadvertently overdosed himself; this research expedition inspired Loomis’s well-known book and Tragic Shores: The Story of Charles Francis Hall, published by Knopf in 1971. A 2001 article by Sara Wheeler in the New York Times notes: Chauncey Loomis accomplished writer... and his “Weird and Tragic Shores,” reissued... in the Modern Library’s Exploration Series, unravels the expedition brilliantly and offers a concise and intelligent introduction to the history of Arctic exploration...

Loomis conjures flesh and blood from the flimsy old journals and lifts the story from the pincers of the pack ice into the warm and infinitely more thrilling realm of the human spirit. The book has been maintained in print by the Modern Library and was the subject of a CBC television documentary in the early 1970s. In 1981, the National Geographic Society cited the book in its Atlas of the World by marking the location of Hall's grave on its map of Greenland and noting: A dissension-plagued U. S. expedition to the North Pole was disrupted when leader Charles Francis Hall died here in 1871. Permafrost preserved his body, exhumed in 1968 by Chauncey Loomis, who found that Hall had been poisoned with arsenic. Chauncey C. Loomis wrote many essays about the Arctic, most notably “The Arctic Sublime,” which appeared in Nature and the Victorian Imagination, edited by U. C. Knoepflmacher and G. B. Tennyson; this article focuses on the watercolours and drawings of early Arctic explorers and their relationship to their journals and narratives.

He wrote many reviews of books about the North for the London Review of Books as well as articles about Thackeray, Joyce and Stephen Crane for scholarly journals. In 1996, with art historian Constance Martin and wrote the introduction for an illustrated edition of Arctic Explorations: The Second Grinnell Expedition in Search of Sir John Franklin, 1853 by Elisha Kent Kane, he was a lifelong member of the Arctic Institute of North America. Loomis was an avid fly fisherman and a keen photographer, travelled to Peru and Sikkim, to photograph archeological sites and wildlife. In 1964, he made a CBS documentary about muskoxen in Alaska, titled Wild River, Wild Beasts. In retirement, he served on many boards and through the Berkshire Taconic Community Foundation established a fund to help students from Berkshire County High School attend college. After his death, the Foundation received a $2 million bequest from his estate directed to a variety of education, social service and environmental organizations.

He died of lung cancer at Fairview Hospital in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, at the age of 78. Weird and Tragic Shores: The Story of Charles Francis Hall, Explorer. NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1971, ISBN 0-394-45131-7. Translated into French as Le Robinson de la banquise, published in Paris by Paulsen, 2007. "The Arctic Sublime," in U. C. Knoepflmacher and G. B. Tennyson and the Victorian Imagination, Los Angeles and London, 1977, pp. 95–112. ISBN 0-520-03229-2 "Arctic Profiles: Ebierbing," Arctic, vol. 39, no. 2, June 1986, pp. 186–187. "Arctic Profiles: Charles Francis Hall," Arctic, vol. 35, no. 3, Sept. 1982, pp. 442–443. Kane, E. K. Arctic Explorations: The Second Grinnell Expedition in Search of Sir John Franklin, 1853, 54, 55. Edited by Chauncey Loomis and Constance Martin. Chicago: Donnelley & Sons, Lakeside Classic Series, 1996

741st Missile Squadron

The 741st Missile Squadron is a United States Air Force unit stationed at Minot Air Force Base, North Dakota. The squadron is equipped with the LGM-30G Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missile, with a mission of nuclear deterrence; the squadron was first activated as the 741st Bombardment Squadron in June 1943. After training in the United States with the Consolidated B-24 Liberator bombers, the 741st deployed to the Mediterranean Theater of Operations, participating in the strategic bombing campaign against Germany, it earned two Distinguished Unit Citations for its combat operations. Following V-E Day, it remained in Italy without its flight echelon until inactivating in September 1945 The squadron was activated in the reserve in 1947, but was not manned or equipped before inactivating in June 1949 and transferring its resources to another unit, it was redesignated the 741st Fighter-Day Squadron and activated, but did not become operational before inactivating in July 1957. In November 1962 it was organized as the 741st Strategic Missile Squadron, an LGM-30B Minuteman I squadron.

In 1971 it upgraded to the Minuteman III, is a part of the 91st Operations Group. The 741st Missile Squadron controls and maintains 50 launch facilities and 5 missile alert facilities; the squadron is divided into missile operations flights, which are responsible for day-to-day operations and security, an operations support flight, responsible for ensuring the readiness of the missile alert facilities. The squadron was first activated at Alamogordo Army Air Field, New Mexico on 1 June 1943 as the 741st Bombardment Squadron, one of the four squadrons of the 455th Bombardment Group; the initial cadre for the squadron was drawn from the 302d Bombardment Group. In July, a group cadre was given advanced tactical training by the Army Air Forces School of Applied Tactics at Orlando Army Air Base and Pinecastle Army Air Field, Florida. After organizing at Alamogordo, the squadron moved to Utah, where the ground echelon was stationed at Kearns Army Air Base, although flying operations were based at Salt Lake City Army Air Base.

After completing training at Langley Field, the squadron departed the United States for the Mediterranean Theater of Operations in December 1943. The air echelon began staging through Mitchel Field, New York to ferry their Liberators via the southern ferry route; the ground echelon sailed on the USS President Monroe. The air echelon of the squadron was delayed in Tunisia and was not lodged at the squadron's combat station of San Giovanni Airfield, Italy until 1 February 1944, the squadron flew its first mission that month; the squadron was engaged in the strategic bombing campaign against Germany, attacking targets like airfields, oil refineries, marshalling yards in Italy, Germany, Hungary and Yugoslavia. On 2 April 1944, the squadron attacked a ball bearing plant at Steyr, Austria for which it earned a Distinguished Unit Citation; the primary target, the Daimler-Pusch aircraft engine factory was obscured by clouds, so the unit attacked the nearby ball bearing plant although attacks by an estimated 75 twin engine fighters continued through the bomb run and heavy, accurate flak was encountered.

The squadron was the only one in the 455th Group not to suffer any losses in this operation. On 26 June 1944, the squadron encountered fighter opposition, described as the strongest Fifteenth Air Force had encountered to date, which destroyed several Liberators of the 455th Group, leading the 304th Bombardment Wing on the raid; the enemy fighters intensified their attacks on the squadron after they were able to separate the 741st from its fighter escort. One squadron bomber was lost; the Liberator continued on the bomb run and dropped its bombs on the target before crashing into the ground. Other fighters continued their attacks to within 100 feet of the squadron's planes; the squadron pressed its attack on an oil refinery at Moosbierbaum, for which it received a second DUC. The squadron provided air support to ground forces in Operation Shingle, the landings at Anzio and the Battle of Monte Cassino in the spring of 1944, it knocked out coastal defenses to clear the way for Operation Dragoon, the invasion of southern France in September.

As Axis forces were withdrawing from the Balkan peninsula in the fall of 1944, the squadron bombed marshalling yards, troop concentrations and airfields to slow their retreat. It flew air interdiction missions to support Operation Grapeshot, the Spring 1945 offensive in Northern Italy; the squadron flew its last combat mission on 25 April 1945 against rail yards at Austria. Following the surrender of German forces in Italy, it flew some supply missions and transported personnel to ports and airfields for shipment back to the United States. Most of the air echelon returned to the United States. Many of the squadron's remaining personnel were transferred to other units in the 304th Bombardment Wing for shipment back to the United States, while the squadron remained in Italy, serving as a replacement depot; the last of the air echelon departed Italy in July and the squadron was inactivated on 9 September 1945. The squadron was reactivated as a reserve unit under Air Defense Command at Hensley Field, Texas in June 1947, where its training was supervised by ADC's 4122d AAF Base Unit.

It was nominally a heavy bomber unit, but the squadron does not appear to have been manned or equipped while a reserve unit. In 1948 Continental Air Command assumed responsibility for managing reserve and Air National Guard units from ADC

The Insulated World

The Insulated World is the tenth studio album by Japanese metal band Dir En Grey, released on September 26, 2018 via Firewall Div./SMEJ. The Insulated World is the first album in 4 years since Arche. Remixed and remastered version of two pre-release singles "Utafumi" and "Ningen wo Kaburu" are included for this release; the Insulated World is available in three editions: regular edition, first press limited edition with a bonus CD and limited deluxe edition with a bonus CD as well as a bonus Blu-ray/DVD. The bonus CD in limited deluxe edition included new version of three old songs including "Kigan", "The Deeper Vileness" and "Wake" as well as live recordings of "Fukai" "Ash" and "Beautiful Dirt", taken from performance at Shinkiba Studio Coast in Kōtō, Japan on June 30, 2018; the bonus CD in first press limited edition only included "Kigan" as well as live recordings of "Fukai" and "Beautiful Dirt". The bonus Blu-ray/DVD included live recordings taken from performances at Sendai Ginko Hall Izumity21 in Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan on April 28, 2018 and Shinkiba Studio Coast in Kōtō, Japan on April 30, 2018, respectively.

All lyrics are written by Kyo.

Auguste Creuzé de Lesser

Baron Auguste Creuzé de Lesser was a French poet, playwright and politician. 1790: Satires de Juvenal, traduction en prose 1796: Le Seau enlevé, poème héroï-comique, imitated from Tassoni, suivi d'un choix des stances les plus intéressantes de l'auteur italien et de quelques poésies 1806: Voyage en Italie et en Sicile, fait en 1801 et 1802 Text online at Gallica 1811: La Table ronde, poem 1812: Roland, poem 1813: Amadis de Gaule, poème, faisant suite à la Table ronde 1814: El Cid, romances espagnoles imitées en romances françaises 1825: Apologues 1831: Le Dernier Homme, poème imité de Grainville 1832: De la Liberté, ou Résumé de l'histoire des républiques 1834: Étrennes pour les enfants. Contes de fées mis en vers, imités de Perrault et autres 1834: Annales secrètes d'une famille pendant 1800 ans mises au jour 1835: Les Véritables Lettres d'Héloïse, in verse 1837: Le Roman des romans 1839: La Chevalerie, ou les Histoires du Moyen Âge, composées de La Table ronde, Roland, poèmes sur les trois grandes familles de la chevalerie romanesque 1839: Le Naufrage et le DésertTheatre and opera1794: Les Voleurs, tragedy in five acts in prose after Friedrich von Schiller 1798: Les Français à Cythère, comedy in 1 act in prose, mingled with vaudevilles, with René-André-Polydore Alissan de Chazet and Emmanuel Dupaty, Théâtre du Vaudeville, 17 March 1799: Ninon de Lenclos, ou l'Épicuréisme, comédie en vaudeville in 1 act and in prose, Théâtre des Troubadours, 2 September 1799: La Clef forée, ou la Première Représentation, anecdote en vaudevilles in 1 act, with François-Pierre-Auguste Léger, Théâtre des Troubadours, 17 October 1806: Monsieur Deschalumeaux ou la Soirée de carnaval, opéra bouffon in three acts, music by Pierre Gaveaux, Opéra-Comique, 17 February 1806: Le Déjeuner de garçons, comedy mingled with music, Théâtre Feydeau, 24 April 1807: L'Amante sans le savoir, one-act opéra comique, music by Jean-Pierre Solié, Théâtre Feydeau 1809: Le Secret du ménage, comedy in 3 acts and in verse, Théâtre-Français, 25 May Text online 1809: La Revanche, three-act comedy, with François Roger, Comédie-Française, 15 July 1809: Le Diable à quatre, ou la Femme acariâtre, three-act opéra comique, after Michel-Jean Sedaine, music by Jean-Pierre Solié, Théâtre Feydeau, 30 November 1810: Le Présent de noces, ou le Pari, one-act opéra comique, music by Henri François Berton, Théâtre Feydeau, 2 January 1801: Les Deux Espiègles, one-act comédie en vaudeville, with François Roger, Théâtre du Vaudeville, 8 January 1811: Le Magicien sans magie, two-act opéra comique, with François Roger, Opéra-Comique, 4 November 1811: Ninette à la cour, opéra comique in 2 acts and in verse, after Charles-Simon Favart, music by Henri Montan Berton, Opéra-Comique, 24 December 1811: Le Billet de loterie, one-act comedy, mingled with ariettes, with François Roger, music by Nicolas Isouard, Opéra-Comique, 14 September 1813: Le Nouveau Seigneur de village, one-act opéra comique, with Edmond de Favières, music by François-Adrien Boieldieu, Opéra-Comique, 29 June 1813: Mlle de Launay à la Bastille, one-act historical comedy, mingled with ariettes, with François Roger, Opéra-Comique, 16 December 1932: Le Prince et la Grisette, comedy in 3 acts and in verse, Paris, Théâtre-Français, 11 January Anonyme, Répertoire général du Théâtre-Français, composé des tragédies, comédies et drames des auteurs du premier et du second ordre, restés au Théâtre-Français, H. Nicolle, vol.

XXIV, 1817. Ferdinand Hoefer, Nouvelle Biographie générale, Firmin-Didot, vol. XII, 1855, col. 453-454. Pierre Larousse, Grand Dictionnaire universel du XIXe, vol. V, 1869. Frédéric Godefroy, Histoire de la littérature française depuis le XVIe jusqu'à nos jours, vol. VII, XIXe, poètes, t. I, 1878. "Auguste Creuzé de Lesser", in Adolphe Robert and Gaston Cougny, Dictionnaire des parlementaires français, Paris, 1889 Edition details Wikisource Auguste Creuzé de Lesser on data.bnf.fr