The Agreed Framework between the United States of America and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was signed on October 21, 1994, between North Korea and the United States. The objective of the agreement was the freezing and replacement of North Korea's indigenous nuclear power plant program with more nuclear proliferation resistant light water reactor power plants, the step-by-step normalization of relations between the U. S. and the DPRK. Implementation of the agreement was troubled from the start, but its key elements were being implemented until it broke down in 2003. On 12 December 1985, North Korea became a party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. On 10 April 1992 its NPT safeguards agreement entered into force. In May 1992, North Korea submitted its initial report to the IAEA under that agreement, International Atomic Energy Agency inspections began. Shortly thereafter inconsistencies emerged between the North Korea initial declaration and the Agency's findings, centering on a mismatch between declared plutonium product and nuclear waste solutions and the results of the Agency's analysis.
The latter suggested. In order to find answers to the inconsistencies detected and to determine the completeness and correctness of the initial declaration provided, the IAEA requested access to additional information and to two sites which seemed to be related to the storage of nuclear waste; the DPRK refused access to the sites, on 12 March 1993, North Korea announced its decision to withdraw from the NPT. On 1 April 1993, the IAEA concluded that North Korea was in non-compliance with its Safeguards Agreement, referred this to the UN Security Council. Following UN Security Council resolution 825, which called upon the DPRK to reconsider its decision to withdraw from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and allow weapons inspectors from the International Atomic Energy Agency into the country, North Korea "suspended the effectuation" of that withdrawal in June 1993. In November 1993, North Korea proposed to the United States that the two governments negotiate a "package solution" to all of the issues dividing them.
The Clinton Administration accepted this in principle but conditioned such "comprehensive" talks on North Korea acting first to allow a resumption of IAEA inspections and to re-open negotiations with South Korea over nuclear questions. North Korea approached the IAEA in January 1994, offering a single inspection, less comprehensive than those conducted by the IAEA in 1992. After several weeks of tough negotiations, the IAEA announced on February 16, 1994, that North Korea had accepted "the inspection activities" that the Agency had requested. In response, the Clinton Administration agreed to suspend the Team Spirit military exercise with South Korea and begin a new round of talks with North Korea—subject to North Korea allowing full implementation of the IAEA inspection and beginning high level talks with South Korea. Motivation: DPRK announced intention to withdraw from NPT and non-compliance with IAEA safeguards. Signed Date: October 21, 1994 by U. S. Ambassador Robert Gallucci and DPRK Vice-minister Kang Sok-ju Summary: Freeze of North Korean nuclear program, leading to denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, initial Peace agreement between the United States and North KoreaThe main provisions of the agreement were: DPRK's graphite-moderated 5MWe nuclear reactor, the 50 MWe and 200 MWe reactors under construction, which could produce weapons grade plutonium, would be replaced with two 1000MW light water reactors power plants by a target date of 2003.
Oil for heating and electricity production would be provided while DPRK's reactors were shut down and construction halted, until completion of the first LWR power unit. The amount of oil was 500,000 tons of heavy fuel oil per year; the two sides would move toward full normalization of economic relations. The U. S. would provide formal peace and national security assurances to the DPRK, against the threat or use of nuclear weapons by the U. S; the DPRK would take steps to implement the 1992 Joint Declaration of the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula between South and North Korea. The DPRK would remain a party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. IAEA ad hoc and routine inspections would resume for facilities not subject to the freeze. Existing spent nuclear fuel stocks would be stored and disposed of without reprocessing in the DPRK. Before delivery of key LWR nuclear components, the DPRK would come into full compliance with its safeguards agreement with the IAEA. There were some confidential minutes supporting the agreement, which have not been made public.
These are reported to include that full-scope IAEA safeguards would be applied when the major non-nuclear components of the first LWR unit were completed but before the delivery of key nuclear components. The commitments in the agreement were voluntary and non-binding, not approved by the United States Senate as with a treaty, though noted by the United Nations Security Council, it was signed in the wake of North Korea's 90-day advance notification of its intended withdrawal from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, a U. S. military buildup near the country, U. S. plans to bomb the active Yongbyon nuclear reactor. The U. S. regarded the Agreed Framework as a non-proliferation agreement, whereas North Korea placed greater value on measures normalizing relations with the U. S. Terms of the pact and consequent agreements included the shutdown of the pilot Yongbyon nuclear reactor, abandoning the construction of two larger nuclear power plants, a
Latif Huseynov is an Azerbaijan judge, the Judge of the European Court of Human Rights in respect of Azerbaijan. Latif Huseynov was born in 1964 in Agdam. In June 1986, he graduated from Faculty of International Law. On October 14, 1994 he defended his thesis for the degree of Candidate of Legal Sciences in Kiev, on September 29, 2000 - Doctor of Law. In 2001, he had been the chairman of the Legal Policies and State Structuring Department of the Milli Majlis of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Huseynov has been a member of the Venice Committee of the Council of Europe since 2003, he was a member of the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment between 2004 and 2015, from 2011 to 2015, President of the Committee. In 2005, he was appointed ad hoc judge at the European Court of Human Rights. Since 2017, Latif Huseynov has been in the European Court of Human Rights as a fully-fledged judge, he is fluent in English, Russian and Ukrainian. Latif Huseynov served as a lecturer within Baku State University Law School in 1990-1996.
In 1992-1995 he worked as a deputy dean at the same law school. In July 2002, he taught Public International Law at the Faculty of International Relations and International Law at Baku State University; the Concept of “Humanitarian Intervention” in the Light of Positive International Law //Beynalxalq huquq ve Inteqrasiya Problemleri. Baku, 2005, No. 1, pp. 3-10. Methods of Implementation of International Supervision in the Field of Human Rights Protection //Theory and Practice of Contemporary International Law, Tbilisi, 2007, pp. 160-199
Robert Kurz was a German Marxist philosopher, social critic and editor of the journal Exit! He was one of Germany's most prominent theorists of value criticism. Robert Kurz was born on 24 December 1943 in Nuremberg to a German working-class family. Kurz studied philosophy and paedagogy at the university of Erlangen without taking a degree, he was a member of the Kommunistischer Arbeiterbund Deutschland, KABD during the 1970s, but quit because of his critique of the leadership. Kurz was a co-founder of the magazine Marxistische Kritik in 1986, he died in Nuremberg from the consequences of an operational failure. The Collapse of Modernization: From the collapse of barracks socialism crisis of the world economy ISBN 3-8218-4421-3 Honecker's Revenge: On the political economy of the reunified Germany ISBN 3-923118-62-7 Potemkin's Return: Dummy capitalism and distribution war in Germany ISBN 3-923118-28-7 The Last One Turns Off the Light: On the crisis of democracy and market economy ISBN 3-923118-88-0 The World as Will and Design: Postmodernism, lifestyle Left and the aestheticization of the crisis ISBN 3-89320-024-X The Black Book of Capitalism: A Farewell to the Market Economy ISBN 3-8218-0491-2 Marx Read: The most important texts of Karl Marx for the 21st Century ISBN 3-8218-1644-9 World Order War: The End of Sovereignty and the changes of imperialism in the era of globalization ISBN 3-89502-149-0 The Anti-German Ideology ISBN 3-89771-426-4 Bloody Reason: Essays for emancipatory critique of capitalist modernity and its Western values ISBN 3-89502-182-2 The World Capital: Globalization and internal barriers of modern commodity-producing system ISBN 3-89320-085-1 Money Without Value: Plans to transform the critique of political economy ISBN 978-3-89502-343-9 Post-Marxism Krisis Robert Kurz / libcom.org
The Cibao referred as "El Cibao", is a region of the Dominican Republic located at the northern part of the country. As of 2009 the Cibao has a population of 5,622,378 making it the most populous region in the country; the word Cibao, from Taino Ciba-o, meaning'rocky land'. Cibao was a native name for the island, although the Spanish used it during the Spanish conquest to refer to the rich and fertile valley between the Central and Septentrional mountain ranges. El Cibao occupies the northern part of the Dominican territory. To the north and east of the region lies the Atlantic Ocean; the Cordillera Central mountain range is located within El Cibao, containing the highest peak in all of the Caribbean, Pico Duarte. Two of the largest rivers of the country are located inside this region: the Yaque del Norte, the largest river of the Dominican Republic, the Yuna river. Both of these rivers contain several chains of dams used to provide the region with water for irrigation and hydroelectric energy.
Rice and cacao are the most important crops grown in the area. The central mountain range has important mining activity, its main mineral resources include gold and nickel, among others. The largest gold mine in the Americas and second largest in the world, the Pueblo Viejo mine, is located in the Cibao region; the internationally known Barrick Gold and Falconbridge are the companies in charge of the extraction of these ores. The valley is not only a geographical unit, but a cultural and linguistic unit; the Cibao region is considered to be the cultural heartland of the Dominican Republic. The typical accent spoken in the Cibao region is a mixture of two dialects: that of the 16th- and 17th-century Portuguese colonists in the Cibao valley, of the 18th-century Canarian settlers. Merengue music, played using the güira and accordion, was originated in El Cibao; the original folk type of merengue is known as perico ripiao or típico, played to this day by local musical groups, as a variation of the merengue, with a faster pace.
During Late January and through February, several carnivals are held within the region. The most popular of these festivals belongs to the province of La Vega, dates back to the first European settlements, it began as a religious activity celebrating the pre-Lent season, the carnival's theme revolves around the victory of good over evil. Many important Dominican patriots were of Cibaeño origin. Among the most important are local generals José Desiderio Valverde and José Antonio Salcedo, who were responsible for the restoration of the Republic in the decades of the 1800s. During the Trujillo dictatorship, the Mirabal sisters arranged clandestine organizations to rebel against the fascist dictatorship; the sisters were brutally murdered in 1960, remain today as some of the biggest martyrs on behalf of the Dominican nation. The bulk of the population is concentrated in the center of the region; the city of Santiago de los Caballeros constitutes the regional center and main focus of development of the area
Sun Valley is a resort city in Blaine County, United States. The resort is adjacent within the greater Wood River valley; the population was 1,406 at the 2010 census, down from 1,427 in 2000. The elevation of Sun Valley is 5,920 feet above sea level. Scheduled passenger airline service is available via the Friedman Memorial Airport located in nearby Hailey 15 miles south. Visitors to Sun Valley are close to the Sawtooth National Recreation Area, accessed over Galena Summit on State Highway 75, the Sawtooth Scenic Byway. Among skiers, the term "Sun Valley" refers to the alpine ski area, which consists of Bald Mountain, the main ski mountain adjacent to Ketchum, Dollar Mountain, adjacent to Sun Valley, for novice and lower intermediate skiers. Bald Mountain, or "Baldy," has a vertical drop of 3,400 feet. With its abundance of constant-pitch terrain, at varying degrees of difficulty, coupled with its substantial vertical drop and absence of wind, Baldy has been referred to as one of the better ski mountains in the world.
The treeless "Dollar" at 6,638 feet has a moderate vertical drop of 628 feet. The term "Sun Valley" is used more to speak of the region surrounding the city, including the neighboring city of Ketchum and the Wood River Valley area winding south to Hailey and Bellevue; the region has been a seasonal home to the rich and famous since first being brought to public attention by Ernest Hemingway in the late 1930s. The first destination winter resort in the U. S. was developed by W. Averell Harriman, the chairman of the Union Pacific Railroad to increase ridership on U. P. passenger trains in the Western United States. The success of the 1932 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid, New York, spurred an increase in participation in winter sports. A lifelong skier, Harriman determined that America would embrace a destination mountain resort, similar to those he enjoyed in the Swiss Alps, such as St. Moritz and Davos. During the winter of 1935–36, Harriman enlisted the services of an Austrian Sportsman, Count Felix von Schaffgotsch, to travel across the Western U.
S. to locate an ideal site for a winter resort. The Count toured Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, the San Bernardino Mountains, Rocky Mountain National Park, the Wasatch Range, Jackson Hole, Grand Targhee areas. Late in his trip and on the verge of abandoning his search for an ideal location for a mountain resort development, he backtracked toward the Ketchum area in central Idaho. A U. P. employee in Boise had casually mentioned that the rail spur to Ketchum cost the company more money for snow removal than any other branch line and the Count went to explore. Schaffgotsch was impressed by the combination of Bald Mountain and its surrounding mountains, adequate snowfall, abundant sunshine, moderate elevation, absence of wind, selected it as the site. Harriman visited several weeks and agreed; the 3,888-acre Brass Ranch was purchased for about $4 per acre and construction commenced that spring. Publicist Steve Hannagan named the resort "Sun Valley" and developed the tag line: “Winter sports under a summer sun".
The centerpiece of the new resort was the Sun Valley Lodge, which opened on 21 December 1936. The 220-room, X-shaped lodge's exterior was constructed of concrete, poured inside rough-sawn forms; the wood grain was impressed on the concrete finish, acid-stained brown to imitate wood. The Swiss-style Sun Valley Inn and village were part of the initial resort, opening in 1937. Hannagan wanted swimming pools at the resort, "so people won't think skiing is too cold."Both the Lodge and the Inn have heated outdoor swimming pools, circular in shape. Hannagan had the pools designed this way, unique at the time, in the hope they would be photographed, providing free publicity, it worked; the world's first chairlifts were installed on the resort's Proctor and Dollar Mountains in the fall of 1936.. The U. P. chairlift design was adapted by an engineer recalling banana loading conveyor equipment used for tropical fruit ships' cargo. Single-seat chairlifts were developed at the U. P. headquarters in Omaha in the summer of 1936.
The chairlift went on to replace primitive rope tow and other adaptations seen at ski areas at the time. The original Proctor Mountain Ski Lift is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Author Ernest Hemingway completed For Whom the Bell Tolls, while staying in suite 206 of the Lodge in the fall of 1939. Averell Harriman had invited Hemingway and other celebrities from Hollywood, to the resort to help promote it. Gary Cooper was a frequent visitor and hunting/fishing partner, as were Clark Gable, Errol Flynn, Lucille Ball, Marilyn Monroe, several members of the Kennedy family. Hemingway was a part-time resident over the next twenty years relocating to Ketchum; the Hemingway Memorial, dedicated in 1966, is just off Trail Creek Road, about a mile northeast of the Sun Valley Lodge. Sun Valley was featured in the 1941 movie Sun Valley Serenade, starring Sonja Henie, John Payne, Milton Berle, bandleader Glenn Miller. Scenes were shot at the resort in March 1941. Sun Valley transfer local and future gold medalist Gretchen Fraser was the skiing stand-in for Henie.
Lake Hallwil is a lake in the Canton of Aargau, located at 47°17′N 8°12′E. It is the largest lake in Aargau and lies in the districts of Lenzburg and Kulm on the southern edge of the canton; the southern tip of the lake reaches into the canton of Lucerne. The main river leading to this lake is the Aabach, coming from the Lake Baldegg, its surface is 10.3 km² and its maximum depth is 48 metres. It is a popular vacation destination. In 1938 Sir Malcolm Campbell set a world water speed record in Blue Bird K3 on the lake. Media related to Lake Hallwil at Wikimedia Commons Lake Hallwil in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. Waterlevels of Lake Hallwil at Meisterschwanden Profile of Lake Hallwil at schweizersee.ch