Herbert Clark Hoover was an American engineer and politician who served as the 31st president of the United States from 1929 to 1933. A member of the Republican Party, he held office during the onset of the Great Depression. Prior to serving as president, Hoover led the Commission for Relief in Belgium, served as the director of the U. S. Food Administration, served as the 3rd U. S. Secretary of Commerce. Born to a Quaker family in West Branch, Hoover took a position with a London-based mining company after graduating from Stanford University in 1895. After the outbreak of World War I, he became the head of the Commission for Relief in Belgium, an international relief organization that provided food to occupied Belgium; when the U. S. entered the war, President Woodrow Wilson appointed Hoover to lead the Food Administration, Hoover became known as the country's "food czar". After the war, Hoover led the American Relief Administration, which provided food to the inhabitants of Central Europe and Eastern Europe.
Hoover's war-time service made him a favorite of many progressives, he unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination in the 1920 presidential election. After the 1920 election, newly-elected Republican President Warren G. Harding appointed Hoover as Secretary of Commerce. Hoover was an unusually active and visible cabinet member, becoming known as "Secretary of Commerce and Under-Secretary of all other departments", he was influential in the development of radio and air travel and led the federal response to the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927. Hoover won the Republican nomination in the 1928 presidential election, decisively defeated the Democratic candidate, Al Smith; the stock market crashed shortly after Hoover took office, the Great Depression became the central issue of his presidency. Hoover pursued a variety of policies in an attempt to lift the economy, but opposed directly involving the federal government in relief efforts. In the midst of an ongoing economic crisis, Hoover was decisively defeated by Democratic nominee Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential election.
Hoover enjoyed one of the longest retirements of any former president, he authored numerous works. After leaving office, Hoover became conservative, he criticized Roosevelt's foreign policy and New Deal domestic agenda. In the 1940s and 1950s, Hoover's public reputation was rehabilitated as he served for Presidents Harry S. Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower in various assignments, including as chairman of the Hoover Commission. Hoover is not ranked in historical rankings of presidents of the United States. Herbert Hoover was born on August 1874 in West Branch, Iowa, his father, Jesse Hoover, was a blacksmith and farm implement store owner of German and English ancestry. Hoover's mother, Hulda Randall Minthorn, was raised in Norwich, Canada, before moving to Iowa in 1859. Like most other citizens of West Branch and Hulda were Quakers; as a child, Hoover attended schools, but he did little reading on his own aside from the Bible. Hoover's father, noted by the local paper for his "pleasant, sunshiny disposition", died in 1880 at the age of 34.
Hoover's mother died in 1884, leaving Hoover, his older brother and his younger sister, May, as orphans. In 1885, Hoover was sent to Newberg, Oregon to live with his uncle John Minthorn, a Quaker physician and businessman whose own son had died the year before; the Minthorn household was considered cultured and educational, imparted a strong work ethic. Much like West Branch, Newberg was a frontier town settled by Midwestern Quakers. Minthorn ensured that Hoover received an education, but Hoover disliked the many chores assigned to him and resented Minthorn. One observer described Hoover as "an orphan seemed to be neglected in many ways." Hoover attended Friends Pacific Academy, but dropped out at the age of thirteen to become an office assistant for his uncle's real estate office in Salem, Oregon. Though he did not attend high school, Hoover learned bookkeeping and mathematics at a night school. Hoover entered Stanford University in 1891, its inaugural year, despite failing all the entrance exams except mathematics.
During his freshman year, he switched his major from mechanical engineering to geology after working for John Casper Branner, the chair of Stanford's geology department. Hoover was a mediocre student, he spent much of his time working in various part-time jobs or participating in campus activities. Though he was shy among fellow students, Hoover won election as student treasurer and became known for his distaste for fraternities and sororities, he served as student manager of both the baseball and football teams, helped organize the inaugural Big Game versus the University of California. During the summers before and after his senior year, Hoover interned under economic geologist Waldemar Lindgren of the United States Geological Survey; when Hoover graduated from Stanford in 1895, the country was in the midst of the Panic of 1893, he struggled to find a job. He worked in various low-level mining jobs in the Sierra Nevada mountain range until he convinced prominent mining engineer Louis Janin to hire him.
After working as a mine scout for a year, Hoover was hired by Bewick, Moreing & Co. a London-based company that operated gold mines in Western Australia. Hoover first went to Coolgardie the center of the Eastern Goldfields. Though Hoover received a $5,000 salary, conditions were h
Wheat Price Guarantee Act
The Wheat Price Guarantee Act was a 1919 bill passed by Congress that gave the government the power to regulate the price of wheat. At the start of the first World War, the US government passed the Lever Act; this was done to conserve the food supply and increase its production in order to aid the efforts in Europe during the war. This alone helped food industries, including wheat. Sponsored by Democrat Asbury F. Lever, the Lever Act was controversial because it gave the president authority to make the country limit their use of agricultural products. In July of 1918, the Grain Corporation took on contracts with allied governments, promising to provide as much wheat up to 200 million bushels to the Allied powers. Soon after this, the war ended, the United States had a decision to make if they were going to honor the wheat prices they promised to farmers before the war ended. During World War I, the wheat industry was mobilized, but following the end of it the demand started to decline, which hurt the still-mobilized agricultural industry.
This resulted in the drafting of the Wheat Price Guarantee Act. Despite strong opposition from the Republican Party, the 65th Congress approved this and it was signed into law by Woodrow Wilson; the bill appropriated $1,000,000,000 in funds to keep wheat prices constant through the 1919-1920 crop year. Similar to the Lever Act, the passage of this act allowed the US Government to monitor wheat prices in order to guarantee farmers profits based on what they had expected them to be if the war had continued; the minimum price per bushel was set to $2.26, known as a guaranteed price scheme. The Wheat Price Guarantee Act was intended to give the agricultural industry time to adjust to the war being over. Put, this act was a temporary continuation of the Lever Act of 1917; the Wheat Price Guarantee Act would expire on June 1, 1920. After this, most farmers fell into debt and this laid some of the roots that would lead to the Great Depression in the 30's. Unlike the rest of the country, farmers felt the effects of the depression about 10–15 years before it would reach its peak.
The passage of the bill required the US to buy bushels of wheat for at least $2.26 each. Following the expiration of the bill in 1920, prices plummeted back to their typical range of $0.50–$1.50 per bushel. Having lost most of the business they had during the war, the wheat industry took a big hit. In 1931 during the Great Depression, it would hit a low of just $0.33 per bushel. Republican Senator Asle Gronna attempted to reverse all guarantees within this act with the Gronna Bill. Many state representatives opposed this from the Democratic Party, choosing to back the farmers with a 100% guarantee on their profits; the bill did not end up passing in the end. "WHEAT GUARANTEE BILL INTRODUCED. The New York Times. February 9, 1919. "The Guaranteed Wheat Price" The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 34, No. 4 "Going against the Grain: Why Did Wheat Marketing in the United States and Canada Evolve So Differently?" Business And Economic History On-Line, Vol. 4 2006 "The Gronna Bill" Grain And Feed Review, Volume 9 "Memorial to the Senate Committee on the Gronna Bill" American Co-Operative Manager, Volume 5, Issue 1 "WHEAT GUARANTEE BILL INTRODUCED" The New York Times Published Feb. 9, 1919 "Lever Act Preliminary National Prohibition" "Wheat Guarantee Bill Introduced" The New York Times Published 1919 "150 Years of US Wheat Prices" Political Calculations May 11, 2016
Agricultural Adjustment Act
The Agricultural Adjustment Act was a United States federal law of the New Deal era designed to boost agricultural prices by reducing surpluses. The Government bought livestock for slaughter and paid farmers subsidies not to plant on part of their land; the money for these subsidies was generated through an exclusive tax on companies which processed farm products. The Act created a new agency, the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, an agency of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, to oversee the distribution of the subsidies; the Agriculture Marketing Act, which established the Federal Farm Board in 1929, was seen as a strong precursor to this act. The AAA, along with other New Deal programs, represented the federal government's first substantial effort to address economic welfare in the United States; when President Franklin D. Roosevelt took office in March 1933, the United States was in the midst of the Great Depression. "Farmers faced the most severe economic situation and lowest agricultural prices since the 1890s."
"Overproduction and a shrinking international market had driven down agricultural prices." Soon after his inauguration, Roosevelt called the Hundred Days Congress into session to address the crumbling economy. From this Congress came the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, to replace the Federal Farm Board; the Roosevelt Administration was tasked with decreasing agricultural surpluses. Wheat, field corn, rice and milk and its products were designated as basic commodities in the original legislation. Subsequent amendments in 1934 and 1935 expanded the list of basic commodities to include rye, barley, grain sorghum, peanuts, sugar beets, sugar cane, potatoes; the administration targeted these commodities for the following reasons: Changes in the prices of these commodities had a strong effect on the prices of other important commodities. These commodities were running a surplus at the time; these items each required some amount of processing. "The goal of the Agricultural Adjustment Act, restoring farm purchasing power of agricultural commodities or the fair exchange value of a commodity based upon price relative to the prewar 1909–14 level, was to be accomplished through a number of methods.
These included the authorization by the Secretary of Agriculture to secure voluntary reduction of the acreage in basic crops through agreements with producers and use of direct payments for participation in acreage control programs. This was to be done by readjusting farm production at a level that would not increase the percentage of consumers' retail expenditures above the percentage returned to the farmer in the prewar base period."The juxtaposition of huge agricultural surpluses and the many deaths due to insufficient food shocked many, as well as some of the administrative decisions that happened under the Agricultural Adjustment Act. For example, in an effort to reduce agricultural surpluses, the government paid farmers to reduce crop production and to sell pregnant sows as well as young pigs. Oranges were being soaked with kerosene to prevent their consumption and corn was being burned as fuel because it was so cheap. There were many people, however, as well as livestock in different places starving to death.
Farmers slaughtered livestock because feed prices were rising, they could not afford to feed their own animals. Under the Agricultural Adjustment Act, "plowing under" of pigs was common to prevent them reaching a reproductive age, as well as donating pigs to the Red Cross. In 1935, the income generated by farms was 50 percent higher than it was in 1932, due to farm programs such as the AAA; the Agricultural Adjustment Act affected nearly all of the farmers in this time period. Tenant farming characterized the tobacco production in the post-Civil War South; as the agricultural economy plummeted in the early 1930s, all farmers were badly hurt but the tenant farmers and sharecroppers experienced the worst of it. To accomplish its goal of parity, the Act reduced crop production; the Act accomplished this by offering landowners acreage reduction contracts, by which they agreed not to grow cotton on a portion of their land. By law, they were required to pay the tenant farmers and sharecroppers on their land a portion of the money.
The farm wage workers who worked directly for the landowner suffered the greatest unemployment as a result of the Act. There are few people gullible enough to believe that the acreage devoted to cotton can be reduced one-third without an accompanying decrease in the laborers engaged in its production. Researchers concluded that the statistics after the Act took effect "... indicate a consistent and widespread tendency for cotton croppers and, to a considerable extent, tenants to decrease in numbers between 1930 and 1935. The decreases among Negroes were greater than those among whites." Another consequence was that the
United States Government Publishing Office
The United States Government Publishing Office is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government. The office produces and distributes information products and services for all three branches of the Federal Government, including U. S. passports for the Department of State as well as the official publications of the Supreme Court, the Congress, the Executive Office of the President, executive departments, independent agencies. An act of Congress changed the office's name to its current form in 2014; the Government Printing Office was created by congressional joint resolution on June 23, 1860. It began operations March 4, 1861, with 350 employees and reached a peak employment of 8,500 in 1972; the agency began transformation to computer technology in the 1980s. For its entire history, GPO has occupied the corner of North Capitol Street NW and H Street NW in the District of Columbia; the large red brick building that houses the GPO was erected in 1903 and is unusual in being one of the few large, red brick government structures in a city where most government buildings are marble and granite.
An additional structure was attached to its north in years. The activities of GPO are defined in the public printing and documents chapters of Title 44 of the United States Code; the Director, who serves as the head of GPO, is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Director selects a Superintendent of Documents; the Superintendent of Documents is in charge of the dissemination of information at the GPO. This is accomplished through the Federal Depository Library Program, the Cataloging and Indexing Program and the Publication Sales Program, as well as operation of the Federal Citizen Information Center in Pueblo, Colorado. Adelaide Hasse was the founder of the Superintendent of Documents classification system. GPO first used 100 percent recycled paper for the Congressional Record and Federal Register from 1991-1997, under Public Printers Robert Houk and Michael DiMario. GPO resumed using recycled paper in 2009. In March 2011, GPO issued a new illustrated official history covering the agency's 150 years of Keeping America Informed.
With demand for print publications falling and a move underway to digital document production and preservation, the name of the GPO was changed to "Government Publishing Office" in a provision of an omnibus government funding bill passed by Congress in December 2014. Following signature of this legislation by President Barack Obama, the name change took place on December 17, 2014. By law, the Public Printer heads the GPO; the position of Public Printer traces its roots back to Benjamin Franklin and the period before the American Revolution, when he served as "publick printer", whose job was to produce official government documents for Pennsylvania and other colonies. When the agency was renamed in December 2014 the title "Public Printer" was changed to "Director". Davita Vance-Cooks was therefore the first "Director" of GPO. Public Printers: Almon M. Clapp John D. Defrees Sterling P. Rounds Thomas E. Benedict Frank W. Palmer Thomas E. Benedict Frank W. Palmer, O. J. Ricketts Charles A. Stillings, William S. Rossiter, Capt. Henry T. Brian John S. Leech Samuel B. Donnelly Cornelius Ford George H. Carter Augustus E. Giegengack, John J. Deviny John J. Deviny, Phillip L. Cole Raymond Blattenberger, John M. Wilson, Felix E. Cristofane James L. Harrison Adolphus N. Spence, Harry J. Humphrey, L.
T. Golden Thomas F. McCormick John J. Boyle, Samuel Saylor Danford L. Sawyer, Jr. William J. Barrett Ralph E. Kennickell, Jr. Joseph E. Jenifer Robert Houk, Michael F. DiMario Michael F. DiMario Bruce James, William H. Turri Robert C. Tapella William J. Boarman Davita Vance-Cooks GPO contracts out much of the federal government's printing but prints the official journals of government in-house, including: Code of Federal Regulations Public and Private Laws The Congressional Record The Federal Register, the official daily publication for rules, proposed rules, notices of Federal agencies and organizations. United States Code United States Statutes at Large House Journal and Senate Journal GPO has been producing U. S. passports since the 1920s. The United States Department of State began issuing e-passports in 2006; the e-Passport includes an electronic chip embedded in the cover that contains the same information, printed in the passport: name and place of birth, dates of passport issuance and expiration, passport number, photo of the bearer.
GPO produces the blank e-Passport, while the Department of State receives and processes applications and issues individual passports. GPO ceased production of legacy passports in May 2007, shifting production to e-passports. In March 2008, the Washington Times published a three-part story about the outsourcing of electronic passports to overseas
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Agricultural Experiment Stations Act of 1887
Agricultural Experiment Stations Act of 1887 is a United States federal statute establishing agricultural research by the governance of the United States land-grant colleges as enacted by the Land-Grant Agricultural and Mechanical College Act of 1862. The agricultural experiment station alliance was granted fiscal appropriations by the enactment of the Hatch Act of 1887; the Act of Congress defines the basis of the agricultural experiments and scientific research by the State or Territory educational institutions. Physiology of plants and animals Diseases to which they are exposed to include antidotes for determined diseases Chemical composition of useful plants at their different stages of growth Comparative advantages of rotative cropping as pursued under a varying series of crops Capacity of new plants or trees for acclimation Analysis of soils and water Chemical composition of manures, natural, or artificial, with experiments designed to test their comparative effects on crops of different kinds Adaptation and value of grasses and forage plants Composition and digestibility of the different kinds of food for domestic animals Scientific and economic questions involved in the production of butter and cheese Other researches or experiments bearing directly on the agricultural industry of the United States as may in each case be deemed advisable, having due regard to the varying conditions and needs of the respective States or Territories December 4, 1893: First Annual Message to the Congress of the United States "In each State and Territory an agricultural experiment station has been established.
These stations, by their character and name, are the proper agencies to experiment with and test new varieties of seeds. Under the sanction of existing legislation there was sent out from the Agricultural Department during the last fiscal year enough of cabbage seed to plant 19,200 acres of land, a sufficient quantity of beans to plant 4,000 acres, beet seed enough to plant 2,500 acres, sweet corn enough to plant 7,800 acres, sufficient cucumber seed to cover 2,025 acres with vines, enough muskmelon and watermelon seeds to plant 2,675 acres; the total quantity of flower and vegetable seeds thus distributed was contained in more than 9,000,000 packages, they were sufficient if planted to cover 89,596 acres of land. In view of these facts this enormous expenditure without legitimate returns of benefit ought to be abolished. Anticipating a consummation so manifestly in the interest of good administration, more than $100,000 has been stricken from the estimate made to cover this object for the year ending June 30, 1895.
Thus the seed will be tested, after the test has been completed by the experiment station the propagation of the useful varieties and the rejection of the valueless may safely be left to the common sense of the people." - Grover Cleveland, 22nd and 24th President of the United States Chronological legislation relative to U. S. Congressional provisions as regarding the Agricultural Experiment Stations Act. Agricultural Experiment Station Barn Bureau of Animal Industry Farmers' Bulletin Henry Leavitt Ellsworth History of agriculture in the United States List of land-grant universities Mechanised agriculture Smith–Lever Act of 1914 United States Department of Agriculture Peters, Gerhard; the American Presidency Project. University of California - Santa Barbara. Peters, Gerhard; the American Presidency Project. University of California - Santa Barbara. True, Alfred Charles. "Bulletin No. 80 - The Agricultural Experiment Stations of the United States". Internet Archive. Washington, D. C.: United States Government Printing Office.
True, Alfred Charles. "Agricultural Experiment Stations in Foreign Countries". Internet Archive. Washington, D. C.: United States Government Printing Office
Gilbert N. Haugen
Gilbert Nelson Haugen was a seventeen-term Republican U. S. Representative from Iowa's 4th congressional district located in northeastern Iowa. For nearly five years, he was the longest-serving member of the House. Born before the American Civil War, first elected to Congress in the 19th century, Haugen served until his defeat in the 1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt landslide. Born near Orfordville, Haugen attended rural schools, he engaged in agricultural pursuits. He attended Breckenridge College in Decorah, Academic and Commercial College, in Janesville, Wisconsin. After leaving college, Haugen engaged in principally real estate and banking. Moving to Northwood, Iowa in 1886, Haugen engaged in banking. In 1890, he became its president, he served as treasurer of Worth County, Iowa from 1887 to 1893. In 1894, Haugen was elected to his first of two terms in the Iowa House of Representatives, where he served until 1898; that year, he was elected as a Republican to represent Iowa's 4th congressional district in the U.
S. House, first serving in the Fifty-sixth Congress, he was re-elected sixteen times. On April 5, 1917, he was one of the 50 representatives, he served as chairman of the Committee on Expenditures in the Department of the Interior, on the Committee on Agriculture. Haugen served as the U. S. Congressional Agriculture Committee's chairman from 1919 to 1931. Together with Senator Charles L. McNary, Haugen was the co-author of the McNary–Haugen Farm Relief Bill, a moderate farm relief bill, offered in three separate congresses before passing in 1927; the McNary–Haugen Farm Relief Act was a proposed bill to limit agricultural sales within the United States. Agricultural products would be exported to protect the prices of commodities; the bill was supported by Secretary of Agriculture Henry C. Wallace and Vice President Charles Dawes. In May 1928, Haugen had served longer than any of his House colleagues, earning him the informal title of Dean of the United States House of Representatives, a title that he would hold for five years.
He was the last Republican Dean of the House for more than eight decades, until Don Young assumed the title in 2017. In all, he served in Congress from March 4, 1899 to March 4, 1933. In 1932, like many other Republican candidates, was defeated in the Roosevelt landslide, losing to Democratic publisher Fred Biermann of Decorah. Several months after leaving Congress, Haugen died at Northwood, on July 18, 1933, he was interred in Sunset Rest Cemetery in Northwood. Harstad, Peter T. and Bonnie Lindemann. Gilbert N. Haugen: Norwegian-American Farm Politician. (Iowa City: State Historical Society of Iowa, 1992. Michael, Bonnie. Gilbert N. Haugen. Apprentice Congressman. Murphy, Daniel D. Contested Election Case of D. D. Murphy v. G. N. Haugen from the Fourth Congressional District of Iowa. Schacht, John N. Three Progressives From Iowa: Gilbert N. Haugen, Herbert C. Hoover, Henry A. Wallace. Media related to Gilbert N. Haugen at Wikimedia Commons United States Congress. "Gilbert N. Haugen". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
Gilbert N. Haugen at Find a Grave This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov