Distribution is one of the four elements of the marketing mix. Distribution is the process of making a product or service available for the consumer or business user who needs it; this can be done directly by the producer or service provider, or using indirect channels with distributors or intermediaries. The other three elements of the marketing mix are product and promotion. Decisions about distribution need to be taken in line with a company's overall strategic vision and mission. Developing a coherent distribution plan is a central component of strategic planning. At the strategic level, there are three broad approaches to distribution, namely mass, selective or exclusive distribution; the number and type of intermediaries selected depends on the strategic approach. The overall distribution channel should add value to the consumer. Distribution is fundamentally concerned with ensuring that products reach target customers in the most direct and cost efficient manner. In the case of services, distribution is principally concerned with access.
Although distribution, as a concept, is simple, in practice distribution management may involve a diverse range of activities and disciplines including: detailed logistics, warehousing, inventory management as well as channel management including selection of channel members and rewarding distributors. Prior to designing a distribution system, the planner needs to determine what the distribution channel is to achieve in broad terms; the overall approach to distributing products or services depends on a number of factors including the type of product perishability. The process of setting out a broad statement of the aims and objectives of a distribution channel is a strategic level decision. Strategically, there are three approaches to distribution: Mass distribution: When products are destined for a mass market, the marketer will seek out intermediaries that appeal to a broad market base. For example, snack foods and drinks are sold via a wide variety of outlets including supermarkets, convenience stores, vending machines and others.
The choice of distribution outlet is skewed towards those than can deliver mass markets in a cost efficient manner. Selective distribution: A manufacturer may choose to restrict the number of outlets handling a product. For example, a manufacturer of premium electrical goods may choose to deal with department stores and independent outlets that can provide added value service level required to support the product. Dr Scholl orthopedic sandals, for example, only sell their product through pharmacies because this type of intermediary supports the desired therapeutic positioning of the product; some of the prestige brands of cosmetics and skincare, such as Estee Lauder and Clinique, insist that sales staff are trained to use the product range. The manufacturer will only allow trained clinicians to sell their products. Exclusive distribution: In an exclusive distribution approach, a manufacturer chooses to deal with one intermediary or one type of intermediary; the advantage of an exclusive approach is that the manufacturer retains greater control over the distribution process.
In exclusive arrangements, the distributor is expected to work with the manufacturer and add value to the product through service level, after sales care or client support services. Another definition of exclusive arrangement is an agreement between a supplier and a retailer granting the retailer exclusive rights within a specific geographic area to carry the supplier's product. Summary of strategic approaches to distribution In consumer markets, another key strategic level decision is whether to use a push or pull strategy. In a push strategy, the marketer uses intensive advertising and incentives aimed at distributors retailers and wholesalers, with the expectation that they will stock the product or brand, that consumers will purchase it when they see it in stores. In contrast, in a pull strategy, the marketer promotes the product directly to consumers hoping that they will pressure retailers to stock the product or brand, thereby pulling it through the distribution channel; the choice of a push or pull strategy has important implications for promotion.
In a push strategy the promotional mix would consist of trade advertising and sales calls while the advertising media would be weighted towards trade magazines and trade shows while a pull strategy would make more extensive use consumer advertising and sales promotions while the media mix would be weighted towards mass-market media such as newspapers, magazines and radio. Distribution of products takes place by means of a marketing channel known as a distribution channel. A marketing channel is the people and activities necessary to transfer the ownership of goods from the point of production to the point of consumption, it is the way products get to the consumer. This is accomplished through merchant retailers or wholesalers or, in the international context, by importers. In certain specialist markets, agents or brokers may become involved in the marketing channel. Typical intermediaries involved in distribution include: Wholesaler: A merchant intermediary who sells chiefly to retailers, other merchants, or industrial and commercial users for resale or business use.
Wholesalers sell in large quantities.. Retailer: A merchant intermediary who sells direct to the public. There are many different types of retail outlet - from hypermarts and supermarkets
Guntur. Located 24 km away from the state capital Amaravati, Guntur city is the administrative headquarters of Guntur district, of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, it is a municipal corporation and the headquarters of Guntur mandal in Guntur revenue division. It is situated on the plains at a distance of 40 miles to north of the Bay of Bengal; the city is the third most populous in the state with a population of 743,654 and urban agglomeration population around one million as per 2011 census of India. Guntur is classified as a Y-grade city as per the Seventh Central Pay Commission, it forms a part of Vishakhapatnam-Guntur Industrial Region, a major industrial corridor in the country. The city is known for its chilli and tobacco exports and has the largest chilli market yard in Asia; the earliest reference to the present name of the city can be dated back to the period of Ammaraja–I, the Vengi Eastern Chalukyan King. It has its appearance in another two inscriptions dated 1147 AD and 1158 AD.
In Sanskrit, Guntur was referred to as Garthapuri. "Garthapuri" or "Guntlapuri" translates to "a place surrounded by water ponds". The settlement might have been near a "gunta" in Telugu. Another source refers to "kunta" which may have transformed to "kunta uru" and to "Guntur"; the earliest recorded reference of Guntur comes from the Idern plates of Ammaraja I, the Vengi Chalukyan king. French astronomer, Pierre Janssen observed the Solar eclipse of 18 August 1868 and discovered helium, from Guntur in Madras State, British India; the inscriptions stones in the Agastyeshwara temple in'Naga Lipi' dates back to about 1100 CE. It is considered one of the most famous temples in the city, it is said that Agastya built the temple in the last Treta Yuga around the swayambhu linga and hence it has this name. The'Nagas' were said to have ruled the region at that time. R. Agraharam and Old Guntur areas are considered to be the oldest part of the city; the region has been known for Buddhism and the first Kalachakra ceremony performed by Gautama Buddha himself.
The place of Sitanagaram and the Guttikonda caves are referred in the ancient texts going back to the Treta Yuga and Dwapara Yuga. With the arrival of the Europeans in the late sixteenth century the city attained national and international significance; the French shifted their headquarters from Kondavid Fort to here in 1752 because of the ample availability of water due to the two large tanks. This settlement formed the nucleus of the modern city; the Nizams and Hyder Ali ruled the city until it came under British rule in 1788. It was made the headquarters of a district named after it, abolished in 1859, only to be reconstituted in 1904; the city became a major market for agricultural produce from the surrounding countryside due to the opening of the railway link in 1890. The expansion continued post independence as well and was concentrated in what is now called "New Guntur", with many urban areas such as Brodipet and suburban areas like Pattabhipuram, Chandramouli Nagar, Sita Rama nagar, Brindavan Gardens, etc.
The city area has been further expanded in 2012 with merger of many villages like Nallapadu, Ankireddipalem, Adavitakkellapadu, Pothuru, Etukuru, Reddypalem. Guntur is located at 16.29°N 80.43°E / 16.29. It is situated on the plains. There are few hills in the surrounding suburban areas and Perecherla Reserve Forest on the north west; the city is around 40 miles to the west of the Bay of Bengal on the east coast of India. The Krishna delta lies in the Guntur district. There are other smaller rivers and channels in the region such as Guntur Channel, Naagileru, Guntur Branch Canal etc; as quoted in NASA's website "it is typical of the wider deltas along the southeast coast of India. The braided stream channels, broad floodplain, extensive sandbars suggest that this part of the Krishna River flows through flat terrain and carries a substantial amount of sediment during the monsoon season." As per Köppen-Geiger climate classification system the climate in Guntur is tropical. The average temperature is warm to hot year-round.
The summer season has the highest temperatures, but these are followed by monsoon rains. The winter season is the most enjoyable with a pleasant climate. Winter months are dry, with little to no rainfall; the wettest month is July. The average annual temperature is. Rain storms and cyclones are common in the region during the rainy season, which starts with the monsoons in early June. Cyclones may occur any time of the year, but occur more between May and November. In the 1961 census, Guntur had a population of 187,122 and increased to 516,461 in 2001, which shows a considerable growth during the last 5 decades; as of 2011 census, the city had a population of 651,382. It increased to 7,43,354 after expansion, constituting 371,727 males and 3,71,612 females —a sex ratio of 1004 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 940 per 1000; the urban agglomeration population of the city is projected to be 1,028,667. Hinduism is the major religion in Guntur with 85%. Telugu is the main language of communication in the city.
One of the earlier forms of Telugu language can be noticed in this region. Most of the Muslims in th
A farmer is a person engaged in agriculture, raising living organisms for food or raw materials. The term applies to people who do some combination of raising field crops, vineyards, poultry, or other livestock. A farmer might own the farmed land or might work as a laborer on land owned by others, but in advanced economies, a farmer is a farm owner, while employees of the farm are known as farm workers, or farmhands. However, in the not so distant past, a farmer was a person who promotes or improves the growth of by labor and attention, land or crops or raises animals. Farming dates back as far as the Neolithic. By the Bronze Age, the Sumerians had an agriculture specialized labor force by 5000–4000 BCE, depended on irrigation to grow crops, they relied on three-person teams. The Ancient Egypt farmers relied and irrigated their water from the Nile. Animal husbandry, the practice of rearing animals for farming purposes, has existed for thousands of years. Dogs were domesticated in East Asia about 15,000 years ago.
Goats and sheep were domesticated around 8000 BCE in Asia. Swine or pigs were domesticated by 7000 BCE in China; the earliest evidence of horse domestication dates to around 4000 BCE. In the U. S. of the 1930s, one farmer could only produce enough food to feed three other consumers. A modern-day farmer produces enough food to feed well over a hundred people. However, some authors consider this estimate to be flawed, as it does not take into account that farming requires energy and many other resources which have to be provided by additional workers, so that the ratio of people fed to farmers is smaller than 100 to 1. More distinct terms are used to denote farmers who raise specific domesticated animals. For example, those who raise grazing livestock, such as cattle, sheep and horses, are known as ranchers, graziers, or stockmen. Sheep and cattle farmers might be referred to as shepherds and cowherds; the term dairy farmer is applied to those engaged in milk production, whether from cattle, sheep, or other milk producing animals.
A poultry farmer is one who concentrates on raising chickens, ducks, or geese, for either meat, egg, or feather production, or all three. A person who raises a variety of vegetables for market may be called a truck farmer or market gardener. Dirt farmer is one who farms his own land. In developed nations, a farmer is defined as someone with an ownership interest in crops or livestock, who provides land or management in their production; those who provide only labor are most called farmhands. Alternatively, growers who manage farmland for an absentee landowner, sharing the harvest are known as sharecroppers or sharefarmers. In the context of agribusiness, a farmer is defined broadly, thus many individuals not engaged in full-time farming can nonetheless qualify under agricultural policy for various subsidies and tax deductions. In the context of developing nations or other pre-industrial cultures, most farmers practice a meager subsistence agriculture—a simple organic farming system employing crop rotation, seed saving and burn, or other techniques to maximize efficiency while meeting the needs of the household or community.
One subsisting in this way may have been known as a peasant. In developed nations, however, a person using such techniques on small patches of land might be called a gardener and be considered a hobbyist. Alternatively, one might be driven into such practices by poverty or, ironically—against the background of large-scale agribusiness—might become an organic farmer growing for discerning consumers in the local food market. Farmers are members of local, regional, or national farmers' unions or agricultural producers' organizations and can exert significant political influence; the Grange movement in the United States was effective in advancing farmers' agendas against railroad and agribusiness interests early in the 20th century. The FNSEA is politically active in France pertaining to genetically modified food. Agricultural producers, both small and large, are represented globally by the International Federation of Agricultural Producers, representing over 600 million farmers through 120 national farmers' unions in 79 countries.
Farmed products might be sold either directly from a farm. In a subsistence economy, farm products might to some extent be either consumed by the farmer's family or pooled by the community. There are several occupational hazards for those in agriculture. Farmers can encounter and be stung or bitten by dangerous insects and other arthropods, including scorpions, fire ants, bees and hornets. Farmers work around heavy machinery which can kill or injure them. Farmers can establish muscle and joints pains from repeated work. Notes Bibliography Media related to Farmers at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of farmer at Wiktionary
A ranch is an area of land, including various structures, given to the practice of ranching, the practice of raising grazing livestock such as cattle or sheep for meat or wool. The word most applies to livestock-raising operations in Mexico, the Western United States and Western Canada, though there are ranches in other areas. People who own or operate a ranch are called cattlemen, or stockgrowers. Ranching is a method used to raise less common livestock such as elk, American bison or ostrich and alpaca. Ranches consist of large areas, but may be of nearly any size. In the western United States, many ranches are a combination of owned land supplemented by grazing leases on land under the control of the federal Bureau of Land Management or the United States Forest Service. If the ranch includes arable or irrigated land, the ranch may engage in a limited amount of farming, raising crops for feeding the animals, such as hay and feed grains. Ranches that cater to tourists are called guest ranches or, colloquially, "dude ranches."
Most working ranches do not cater to guests, though they may allow private hunters or outfitters onto their property to hunt native wildlife. However, in recent years, a few struggling smaller operations have added some dude ranch features, such as horseback rides, cattle drives or guided hunting, in an attempt to bring in additional income. Ranching is part of the iconography of the "Wild West" as seen in Western rodeos; the person who owns and manages the operation of a ranch is called a rancher, but the terms cattleman, stockgrower, or stockman are sometimes used. If this individual in charge of overall management is an employee of the actual owner, the term foreman or ranch foreman is used. A rancher who raises young stock sometimes is called a cow-calf operator or a cow-calf man; this person is the owner, though in some cases where there is absentee ownership, it is the ranch manager or ranch foreman. The people who are employees of the rancher and involved in handling livestock are called a number of terms, including cowhand, ranch hand, cowboy.
People involved with handling horses are sometimes called wranglers. Ranching and the cowboy tradition originated in Spain, out of the necessity to handle large herds of grazing animals on dry land from horseback. During the Reconquista, members of the Spanish nobility and various military orders received large land grants that the Kingdom of Castile had conquered from the Moors; these landowners were to defend the lands put into their control and could use them for earning revenue. In the process it was found that open-range breeding of sheep and cattle was the most suitable use for vast tracts in the parts of Spain now known as Castilla-La Mancha and Andalusia; when the Conquistadors came to the Americas in the 16th century, followed by settlers, they brought their cattle and cattle-raising techniques with them. Huge land grants by the Spanish government, part of the hacienda system, allowed large numbers of animals to roam over vast areas. A number of different traditions developed related to the original location in Spain from which a settlement originated.
For example, many of the traditions of the Jalisco charros in central Mexico come from the Salamanca charros of Castile. The vaquero tradition of Northern Mexico was more organic, developed to adapt to the characteristics of the region from Spanish sources by cultural interaction between the Spanish elites and the native and mestizo peoples; as settlers from the United States moved west, they brought cattle breeds developed on the east coast and in Europe along with them, adapted their management to the drier lands of the west by borrowing key elements of the Spanish vaquero culture. However, there were cattle on the eastern seaboard. Deep Hollow Ranch, 110 miles east of New York City in Montauk, New York, claims to be the first ranch in the United States, having continuously operated since 1658; the ranch makes the somewhat debatable claim of having the oldest cattle operation in what today is the United States, though cattle had been run in the area since European settlers purchased land from the Indian people of the area in 1643.
Although there were substantial numbers of cattle on Long Island, as well as the need to herd them to and from common grazing lands on a seasonal basis, the cattle handlers lived in houses built on the pasture grounds, cattle were ear-marked for identification, rather than being branded. The only actual "cattle drives" held on Long Island consisted of one drive in 1776, when the island's cattle were moved in a failed attempt to prevent them from being captured by the British during the American Revolution, three or four drives in the late 1930s, when area cattle were herded down Montauk Highway to pasture ground near Deep Hollow Ranch; the prairie and desert lands of what today is Mexico and the western United States were well-suited to "open range" grazing. For example, American bison had been a mainstay of the diet for the Native Americans in the Great Plains for centuries. Cattle and other livestock were turned loose in the spring after their young were born and allowed to roam with little supervision and no fences rounded up in the fall, with the mature animals driven to market and the breeding stock brought close to the ranch headquarters for greater protection in the winter.
The use of livestock branding allowed the cattle owned by different ranchers to be identified and sorted. Beginning with the settlement of Texas in the 1840s, expansion both north and west from that time, through the Civil War and into the 1880s, ranching dominated wes
University of Saskatchewan
The University of Saskatchewan is a Canadian public research university, founded on March 19, 1907, located on the east side of the South Saskatchewan River in Saskatoon, Canada. An "Act to establish and incorporate a University for the Province of Saskatchewan" was passed by the provincial legislature in 1907, it established the provincial university on March 19, 1907 "for the purpose of providing facilities for higher education in all its branches and enabling all persons without regard to race, creed or religion to take the fullest advantage". The University of Saskatchewan is the largest education institution in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan; the University of Saskatchewan is one of Canada’s top research universities and is a member of the U15 Group of Canadian Research Universities. The university began as an agricultural college in 1907 and established the first Canadian university-based department of extension in 1910. There were 120 hectares set aside for university buildings and 400 ha for the U of S farm, agricultural fields.
In total 10.32 km2 was annexed for the university. The main University campus is situated upon 981 ha, with another 200 ha allocated for Innovation Place Research Park; the University of Saskatchewan agriculture college still has access to neighbouring urban research lands. The University of Saskatchewan's Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization facility, develops DNA-enhanced immunization vaccines for both humans and animals; the University is home to the Canadian Light Source synchrotron, considered one of the largest and most innovative investments in Canadian science. Since its origins as an agricultural college, research has played an important role at the university. Discoveries made at the U of S include sulphate-resistant cement and the cobalt-60 cancer therapy unit; the university offers over 200 academic programs. Duncan P. McColl was appointed as the first registrar, establishing the first convocation from which Chief Justice Edward L. Wetmore was elected as the first chancellor.
Walter Charles Murray became the first president of the university's board of governors. The institution was modelled on the American state university, with an emphasis on extension work and applied research; the University of Saskatchewan, in Saskatoon, was granted a provincial charter on March 19, 1907. A provincial statute known as the University Act, it provided for a publicly funded, yet independent institution to be created for the citizens of the whole province. The governance was modelled on the provincial University of Toronto Act of 1906 which established a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate, responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters; the president, appointed by the board, was to provide a link between the two bodies and to perform institutional leadership. The scope of the new institution was to include colleges of arts and science, including art and commerce, agriculture with forestry, domestic science, engineering, medicine, veterinary science and dentistry.
Saskatoon was chosen as the site for the University on April 1909 by the board of governors. On October 12, 1912 the first building opened its doors for student admission, it awarded its first degrees in 1912. In the early part of this century, professional education expanded beyond the traditional fields of theology and medicine. Graduate training based on the German-inspired American model of specialized course work and the completion of a research thesis was introduced. Battleford, Moose Jaw, Prince Albert and Saskatoon all lobbied to be the location of the new university. Walter Murray preferred Regina. In a politically influenced vote, Saskatoon was chosen on April 7, 1909. Designed by David Robertson Brown, the Memorial Gates were erected in 1927 at the corner of College Drive and Hospital Drive in honour of the University of Saskatchewan alumni who served in the First World War. A stone wall bears inscriptions of the names of the sixty seven university students and faculty who lost their lives while on service during World War I.
The hallways of the Old Administrative Building at the University of Saskatchewan are decorated with memorial scrolls in honour of the University of Saskatchewan alumni who served in the World Wars. The National Film Board of Canada documentary "Prairie University" directed by John Feeney explores diverse research activities at the University of Saskatchewan on agriculture and ice cream. A college of veterinary medicine opened at the University of Saskatchewan on July 2, 1969; the University of Saskatchewan's Arms were registered with the Canadian Heraldic Authority on February 15, 2001. A location next to the South Saskatchewan River, across from the city centre of Saskatoon, was selected for the campus. David Robertson Brown of Brown & Vallance were the initial architects constructing a campus plan and the first university buildings in Collegiate Gothic style: The Prime Minister of Canada, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, laid the cornerstone of the first building, the College Building, on July 29, 1910.
The first building to be started on the new campus, the College Building, built 1910–1912 opened in 1913. Brown & Vallance designed the Administration Building. Brown & Vallance designed the Engineering Building as well as additions 1913 i
Agroforestry is a land use management system in which trees or shrubs are grown around or among crops or pastureland. This intentional combination of agriculture and forestry has varied benefits, including increased biodiversity and reduced erosion. Agroforestry practices have been successful in parts of the United States; the theoretical base for agroforestry comes via agroecology. From this perspective, agroforestry is one of the three principal agricultural land-use sciences; the other two are forestry. Agroforestry shares principles with intercropping. Both place two or more plant species in close proximity and both provide multiple outputs; as a consequence, overall yields are higher and because a single application or input is shared, costs are reduced. Agroforestry systems can be advantageous over conventional agricultural, forest production methods, they can offer increased productivity, economic benefits, more diversity in the ecological goods and services provided. Depending upon the application, positive impacts of agroforestry comprise different topics.
Biodiversity in agroforestry systems is higher than in conventional agricultural systems. Two or more interacting plant species in a given area create a more complex habitat that can support a wider variety of fauna. Agroforestry is important for biodiversity for different reasons, it provides a more diverse habitat than a conventional agricultural system. Tropical bat and bird diversity for instance can be comparable to the diversity in natural forests. Although agroforestry systems do not provide as many floristic species as forests and do not show the same canopy height, they do provide food and nesting possibilities. A further contribution to biodiversity is; as agroforests have no natural clear areas, habitats are more uniform. Furthermore, agroforests can serve as corridors between habitats. Agroforestry can help to conserve biodiversity by having a positive influence on other ecosystem services. Depleted soils can be protected from soil erosion by groundcover plants such as growing grasses in agroforestry systems.
These help to stabilise the soil. Soil cover is a crucial factor in preventing erosion. Cleaner water through reduced nutrient and soil surface runoff can be a further advantage of agroforestry; the runoff can be reduced by increasing infiltration into the soil. Compared to row-cropped fields nutrient uptake can reduce nutrient loss into streams. Further advantages concerning plant growth: Bioremediation Drought resistance Increased crop stability Reduced poverty through increased production of wood and other products Increased food security by restored soil fertility for food crops Multifunctional site use, e.g. crop production and animal grazing Reduced global warming and hunger risk by increasing the number of drought-resistant trees and the subsequent production of fruits and edible oils Reduced deforestation and pressure on woodlands by providing farm-grown fuelwood Reduced need for toxic chemicals Improved human nutrition through more diverse farm outputs Growing space for medicinal plants e.g. in situations where people have limited access to mainstream medicines Carbon sequestration is an important ecosystem service.
Trees in agroforestry systems, like in new forests, can recapture some of the carbon, lost by cutting existing forests. They provide additional food and products; the rotation age and the use of the resulting products are important factors controlling the amount of carbon sequestered. Agroforests can reduce pressure on primary forests by providing forest products. Agroforestry practices may realize a number of associated environmental goals, such as: Odour and noise reduction Green space and visual aesthetics Enhancement or maintenance of wildlife habitat Especially in recent years, poor smallholder farmers turned to agroforestry as a mean to adapt to climate change. A study from the CGIAR research program on Climate Change and Food Security found from a survey of over 700 households in East Africa that at least 50% of those households had begun planting trees in a change from earlier practices; the trees were planted with fruit, coffee, oil and medicinal products in addition to their usual harvest.
Agroforestry was one of the most widespread adaptation strategies, along with the use of improved crop varieties and intercropping. Agroforestry encompasses diverse applications such as countering winds, high rainfall, harmful insects, etc; some categories are described in the following sections. A well-studied example of an agroforestry hillside system is the Quesungual Slash and Mulch Agroforestry System in Lempira Department, Honduras; this region was used for slash and burn subsistence agriculture. Due to heavy seasonal floods, the exposed soil was washed away, leaving infertile barren soil exposed to the dry season. Farmed hillside sites had to be abandoned; the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations helped introduce a system incorporating local knowledge consisting of the following steps: Thin and prune Hillside secondary forest, leaving individual beneficial trees nitrogen-fixing trees. They help reduce soil erosion, maintain soil moisture, provide shade and provide an input of nitrogen-rich organic matter in the form of litter.
Plant maize in rows. This is a traditional local crop. Harvest from the dried plant and plant beans; the maize stalks provide an i
Lincolnshire is a county in eastern England, with a long coastline on the North Sea to the east. It borders Norfolk to the south east, Cambridgeshire to the south, Rutland to the south west and Nottinghamshire to the west, South Yorkshire to the north west, the East Riding of Yorkshire to the north, it borders Northamptonshire in the south for just 20 yards, England's shortest county boundary. The county town is the city of Lincoln; the ceremonial county of Lincolnshire is composed of the non-metropolitan county of Lincolnshire and the area covered by the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. Part of the ceremonial county is in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, most is in the East Midlands region; the county is the second-largest of the English ceremonial counties and one, predominantly agricultural in land use. The county is fourth-largest of the two-tier counties, as the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire are not included.
The county has several geographical sub-regions, including the rolling chalk hills of the Lincolnshire Wolds. In the southeast are the Lincolnshire Fens, the Carrs, the industrial Humber Estuary and North Sea coast around Grimsby and Scunthorpe, in the southwest of the county, the Kesteven Uplands, comprising rolling limestone hills in the district of South Kesteven. During the Pre-Roman times most of Lincolnshire was inhabited by the Brythonic Corieltauvi people; the Iceni covered the area around modern day Grimsby. The language of the area at that time would have been the precursor to modern Welsh; the name Lincoln derives from the old Welsh ‘Lindo’ meaning Lake. Modern-day Lincolnshire is derived from the merging of the territory of the Brythonic Kingdom of Lindsey with that controlled by the Danelaw borough of Stamford. For some time the entire county was called "Lindsey", it is recorded as such in the 11th-century Domesday Book; the name Lindsey was applied to the northern core, around Lincoln.
This emerged as one of the three Parts of Lincolnshire, along with the Parts of Holland in the south east, the Parts of Kesteven in the south west, which each had separate Quarter Sessions as their county administrations. In 1888 when county councils were set up, Lindsey and Kesteven each received separate ones; these survived until 1974, when Holland and most of Lindsey were unified into Lincolnshire. The northern part of Lindsey, including Scunthorpe Municipal Borough and Grimsby County Borough, was incorporated into the newly formed non-metropolitan county of Humberside, along with most of the East Riding of Yorkshire. A local government reform in 1996 abolished Humberside; the land south of the Humber Estuary was allocated to the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. These two areas became part of Lincolnshire for ceremonial purposes, such as the Lord-Lieutenancy, but are not covered by the Lincolnshire police; the remaining districts of Lincolnshire are Boston, East Lindsey, North Kesteven, South Holland, South Kesteven, West Lindsey.
They are part of the East Midlands region. The area was shaken by the 27 February 2008 Lincolnshire earthquake, reaching between 4.7 and 5.3 on the Richter magnitude scale. Lincolnshire is home to Woolsthorpe Manor and home of Sir Isaac Newton, he attended Grantham. Its library has preserved his signature, carved into a window sill. Bedrock in Lincolnshire features Cretaceous chalk. For much of prehistory, Lincolnshire was under tropical seas, most fossils found in the county are marine invertebrates. Marine vertebrates have been found including ichthyosaurus and plesiosaur; the highest point in Lincolnshire is Wolds Top, at Normanby le Wold. Some parts of the Fens may be below sea level; the nearest mountains are in Derbyshire. The biggest rivers in Lincolnshire are the Trent, running northwards from Staffordshire up the western edge of the county to the Humber estuary, the Witham, which begins in Lincolnshire at South Witham and runs for 132 kilometres through the middle of the county emptying into the North Sea at The Wash.
The Humber estuary, on Lincolnshire's northern border, is fed by the River Ouse. The Wash is the mouth of the Welland, the Nene and the Great Ouse. Lincolnshire's geography is varied, but consists of several distinct areas: Lincolnshire Wolds - area of rolling hills in the north east of the county designated an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty The Fens - dominating the south east quarter of the county The Marshes - running along the coast of the county The Lincoln Edge/Cliff - limestone escarpment running north-south along the western half of the countyLincolnshire's most well-known nature reserves include Gibraltar Point National Nature Reserve, Whisby Nature Park Local Nature Reserve, Donna Nook National Nature Reserve, RSPB Frampton Marsh and the Humberhead Peatlands National Nature Reserve. Although the Lincolnshire countryside is intensively farmed, there are many biodiverse wetland areas, as well as rare limewood forests. Much of the county was once wet. From bones, we can tell that animal species found in Lincolnshire include wooly mammoth, wooly rhinoceros, wild horse, wild boar and beaver.
Species which have returned to Lincolnshire after extirpation include little egret, Eurasian spoonbill, European otter and red kite. This is a chart