Agricultural productivity is measured as the ratio of agricultural outputs to agricultural inputs. While individual products are measured by weight, their varying densities make measuring overall agricultural output difficult. Therefore, output is measured as the market value of final output, which excludes intermediate products such as corn feed used in the meat industry; this output value may be compared to many different types of inputs such as land. These are called partial measures of productivity. Agricultural productivity may be measured by what is termed total factor productivity; this method of calculating agricultural productivity compares an index of agricultural inputs to an index of outputs. This measure of agricultural productivity was established to remedy the shortcomings of the partial measures of productivity. Changes in TFP are attributed to technological improvements. Agricultural productivity is an important component of food security: increased yields, lead to markets which rely on certain volumes of food.
The IPCC Special Report on Climate Change and Land and the Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 °C both project negative changes in productivity of crops as global warming happens with some Breadbasket regions losing productivity, while other crops increase ranges and productivity—but resulting in a net reduction of crop productivity. Some sources of agricultural productivity are: Mechanization High yield varieties, which were the basis of the Green revolution Fertilizers: Primary plant nutrients: nitrogen and potassium and secondary nutrients such as sulfur, copper, calcium and molybdenum on deficient soil Education in management and entrepreneurial techniques to decrease fixed and variable costs and optimise manpower Liming of acid soils to raise pH and to provide calcium and magnesium Irrigation Herbicides Genetic engineering Pesticides Increased plant density Animal feed made more digestible by processing Keeping animals indoors in cold weatherSee: Productivity improving technologies Section: 2.4.1: Mechanization: Agriculture, Section 2.6: Scientific agriculture.
The productivity of a region's farms is important for many reasons. Aside from providing more food, increasing the productivity of farms affects the region's prospects for growth and competitiveness on the agricultural market, income distribution and savings, labour migration. An increase in a region's agricultural productivity implies a more efficient distribution of scarce resources; as farmers adopt new techniques and differences, the more productive farmers benefit from an increase in their welfare while farmers who are not productive enough will exit the market to seek success elsewhere. As a region's farms become more productive, its comparative advantage in agricultural products increases, which means that it can produce these products at a lower opportunity cost than can other regions. Therefore, the region becomes more competitive on the world market, which means that it can attract more consumers since they are able to buy more of the products offered for the same amount of money.
Increases in agricultural productivity lead to agricultural growth and can help to alleviate poverty in poor and developing countries, where agriculture employs the greatest portion of the population. As farms become more productive, the wages earned by those. At the same time, food prices decrease and food supplies become more stable. Labourers therefore have more money to spend on food as well as other products; this leads to agricultural growth. People see that there is a greater opportunity to earn their living by farming and are attracted to agriculture either as owners of farms themselves or as labourers. However, it is not only the people employed in agriculture who benefit from increases in agricultural productivity; those employed in other sectors enjoy lower food prices and a more stable food supply. Their wages may increase. Agricultural productivity is becoming important as the world population continues to grow. India, one of the world's most populous countries, has taken steps in the past decades to increase its land productivity.
Forty years ago, North India produced only wheat, but with the advent of the earlier maturing high-yielding wheats and rices, the wheat could be harvested in time to plant rice. This wheat/rice combination is now used throughout the Punjab and parts of Uttar Pradesh; the wheat yield of three tons and rice yield of two tons combine for five tons of grain per hectare, helping to feed India's 1.1 billion people. Increase in agricultural productivity is linked with questions about sustainability and sustainable development. Changes in agricultural practices bring changes in demands on resources; this means that as regions implement measures to increase the productivity of their farm land, they must find ways to ensure that future generations will have the resources they will need to live and thrive. Between 1950 and 2000, during the so-called "second agricultural revolution of modern times", U. S. agricultural productivity rose fast due to the development of new technologies. For example, the average amount of milk produced per cow increased from 5,314 pounds to 18,201 pounds per year, the average yield of corn rose from 39 bushels to 153 bushels per acre, each farmer in 2000 produced on average 12 times as much farm output per hour worked as a farmer did in 1950.
Deolalikar in 1981 investigated the theory first proposed by Sen in 1975 that in traditional, pre-modern farming in India, there is an inverse relationship to size of the farm
The Château de Beynes is a ruined castle in the commune of Beynes in the Yvelines département of France. The original structure was erected in 1073. Works date from the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries; the first castle, a motte-and-bailey, was built in the bottom of the valley of the Mauldre River, at a time when castles were built on high ground. It had a defensive role at that time, with the river as a western defence line of the French Royal domain, defending against Normandy and other possible combatants, it was owned by the English during the Hundred Years' War. The castle lost its defensive role after the extension of the Royal territories. Around 1450, Robert d'Estouteville transformed the castle into a more comfortable residence by dismantling the keep and adapting the fortifications to the incipient artillery. Other transformations were performed during the 15th century under Philibert de l'Orme. In 1536, the castle was given to Diane de Poitiers by Henri II; the castle was abandoned during the 18th century, fell into ruins, was used as a stone quarry for the village constructions.
The castle has an oval shape surrounded by a moat. Since the transformations of the 15th century, a paved central courtyard crosses the castle. Two châtelets defend the two entries to the castle, a barbican protects the west access; the whole remains of the castle were listed as a Monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture in November 1959. The castle was bought by the commune in 1967, from 1995 to 1999 excavations and consolidation works have stopped its deterioration. Presently, an active association is restoring the castle. List of castles in France Association for the safeguard of the château de Beynes Ministry of Culture: Ministry of Culture listing for Beynes ]
Charles Henry Baker was an English footballer who played in the Football League for Stoke and Wolverhampton Wanderers. He played in the Southern League with Southampton. Born in Stafford, he first played for Stafford Rangers before joining Stoke in April 1889, he made one appearance at the end of the 1888–89 season. As a consequence, Stoke played 1890 -- 91 in the Football Alliance. In August 1891, he moved to Wolverhampton Wanderers where he played alongside Will Devey and England international forwards Harry Wood and Robert Topham. In 1891–92 he was a virtual ever-present, making 24 appearances in the league scoring five goals, as well as four FA Cup appearances; the following season, he lost his place to Joe Butcher and returned to Stoke in January 1893. Although he made four appearances for Stoke at the end of the 1892–93 season, he made no appearances at all in the first team in the following season as a result of injury. On 26 April 1893, he was part of a Stoke side who were invited to play a friendly match against Southampton St Mary's, played at the County Cricket ground in Northlands Road, Southampton.
The "Saints", who included the 18-year-old Charles Miller in their line-up, were "outplayed and squarely on every point", although the spectators "thoroughly enjoyed the exhibition" and looked forward to witnessing "more matches of a similar character" in future. Playing for Stoke were Alf Littlehales, Willie Naughton and Lachie Thomson, all of whom were to move to Southampton within two years. In the summer of 1894, along with fellow Stoke players Lachie Thomson and Alf Littlehales, he was persuaded to move to the south coast, where Southampton were about to embark on their first season in the new Southern League, he was appointed the first team captain and "his surges down the right wing made him a favourite with the Southampton faithful". He scored a hat trick in an FA Cup qualifying match at the Antelope Ground against Reading on 3 November 1894, as well as scoring in the next two matches as the Saints progressed to the first round proper where they lost 4–1 to Nottingham Forest. Baker went on to score a total of twelve goals that season.
According to Holley & Chalk, he was "a neat dribbler, had a firm command over the ball and could centre with precision" In 1895–96 he was an ever-present as Southampton finished the season in third place. His Southampton career covered 42 first-team appearances. At the end of the season he announced his retirement from football. Stoke Football Alliance champions: 1890–91