Economy of Japan
The economy of Japan is a developed and market-oriented economy. It is the third-largest in the world by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, and is the world's second largest developed economy. Japan is a member of the G7. According to the International Monetary Fund, the country's per capita GDP was at $38,937. Due to a volatile currency exchange rate, Japan's GDP as measured in dollars fluctuates sharply. Accounting for these fluctuations through use of the Atlas method, Japan is estimated to have a GDP per capita of around $38,490; the Japanese economy is forecast by the Quarterly Tankan survey of business sentiment conducted by the Bank of Japan. The Nikkei 225 presents the monthly report of top Blue chip equities on Japan Exchange Group. Japan is the world's third largest automobile manufacturing country, has the largest electronics goods industry, is ranked among the world's most innovative countries leading several measures of global patent filings. Facing increasing competition from China and South Korea, manufacturing in Japan today now focuses on high-tech and precision goods, such as optical instruments, hybrid vehicles, robotics.
Besides the Kantō region, the Kansai region is one of the leading industrial clusters and manufacturing centers for the Japanese economy. The size and industrial structure of cities in Japan have maintained tight regularities despite substantial churning of population and industries across cities overtime. Japan is the world's largest creditor nation. Japan runs an annual trade surplus and has a considerable net international investment surplus; as of 2010, Japan possesses 13.7% of the world's private financial assets at an estimated $13.5 trillion. As of 2015, 54 of the Fortune Global 500 companies are based in Japan, down from 62 in 2013. Japan has the highest ratio of public debt to GDP of any developed nation. However, the national debt is predominantly owned by Japanese nationals; the Japanese economy faces considerable challenges posed by a declining population. Statistics showed an official decline for the first time in 2015, while projections suggest that it will continue to fall from 127 million down to below 100 million by the middle of the 21st century.
In the three decades of economic development following 1960, rapid economic growth referred to as the Japanese post-war economic miracle occurred. By the guidance of Ministry of Economy and Industry, with average growth rates of 10% in the 1960s, 5% in the 1970s, 4% in the 1980s, Japan was able to establish and maintain itself as the world's second largest economy from 1978 until 2010, when it was surpassed by the People's Republic of China. By 1990, income per capita in Japan surpassed that in most countries in the West. During the second half of the 1980s, rising stock and real estate prices created an economic bubble; the economic bubble came to an abrupt end as the Tokyo Stock Exchange crashed in 1990–92 and real estate prices peaked in 1991. Growth in Japan throughout the 1990s at 1.5% was slower than global growth, giving rise to the term Lost Decade. After another decade of low growth rate, the term became the Lost 20 Years. Nonetheless, GDP per capita growth from 2001 to 2010 has still managed to outpace Europe and the United States.
With this low growth rate, the national debt of Japan has expanded due to its considerable social welfare spending in an aging society with a shrinking tax-base. The scenario of "Abandoned homes" continues to spread from rural areas to urban areas in Japan. A mountainous, volcanic island country, Japan has inadequate natural resources to support its growing economy and large population, therefore exports goods in which it has a comparative advantage such as engineering-oriented and development-led industrial products in exchange for the import of raw materials and petroleum. Japan is among the top-three importers for agricultural products in the world next to the European Union and United States in total volume for covering of its own domestic agricultural consumption. Japan is the world's largest single national importer of fishery products. Tokyo Metropolitan Central Wholesale Market is the largest wholesale market for primary products in Japan, including the renowned Tsukiji fish market.
Japanese whaling, ostensibly for research purposes, has been sued as illegal under international law. Although many kinds of minerals were extracted throughout the country, most mineral resources had to be imported in the postwar era. Local deposits of metal-bearing ores were difficult to process; the nation's large and varied forest resources, which covered 70 percent of the country in the late 1980s, were not utilized extensively. Because of political decisions on local and national levels, Japan decided not to exploit its forest resources for economic gain. Domestic sources only supplied between 30 percent of the nation's timber needs. Agriculture and fishing were the best developed resources, but only through years of painstaking investment and toil; the nation therefore built up the manufacturing and processing industries to convert raw materials imported from abroad. This strategy of economic development necessitated the establishment of a strong economic infrastructure to provide the needed energy, transportation and technological know-how.
Deposits of gold and silver meet current industrial demands, but Japan is dependent on foreign sources for many of the minerals essential to modern industry. Iron ore, copper and alumina must be imported, as well as many forest products; the economic history of Japan is one of the most studied economies for its spectacular growth in three different periods. First w
Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig. It is the most consumed meat worldwide, with evidence of pig husbandry dating back to 5000 BC. Pork is eaten both freshly preserved. Curing extends the shelf life of the pork products. Ham, smoked pork, gammon and sausage are examples of preserved pork. Charcuterie is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products, many from pork. Pork is the most popular meat in Eastern and Southeastern Asia, is very common in the Western world in Central Europe, it is prized in Asian cuisines for its fat content and pleasant texture. Consumption of pork is forbidden by Jewish and Rastafarian dietary law, for religious reasons, with several suggested possible causes. Charcuterie is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products such as bacon, sausage, galantines, pâtés, confit from pig. Intended as a way to preserve meats before the advent of refrigeration, these preparations are prepared today for the flavors that are derived from the preservation processes.
In 15th century France, local guilds regulated tradesmen in the food production industry in each city. The guilds that produced charcuterie were those of the charcutiers; the members of this guild produced a traditional range of cooked or salted and dried meats, which varied, sometimes distinctively, from region to region. The only "raw" meat the charcutiers were allowed to sell was unrendered lard; the charcutier prepared numerous items, including pâtés, sausages, bacon and head cheese. Before the mass production and re-engineering of pigs in the 20th century, pork in Europe and North America was traditionally an autumn dish—pigs and other livestock coming to the slaughter in the autumn after growing in the spring and fattening during the summer. Due to the seasonal nature of the meat in Western culinary history, apples have been a staple pairing to fresh pork; the year-round availability of meat and fruits has not diminished the popularity of this combination on Western plates. Pigs are the most eaten animal in the world, accounting for about 38% of meat production worldwide.
Consumption varies from place to place. The meat is taboo to eat in the Middle East and most of the Muslim world because of Jewish kosher and Islamic Halal dietary restrictions. But, pork is consumed in East and Southeast Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas and Oceania; as the result, large numbers of pork recipes are developed throughout the world. Jamón is the most famous Spanish inlay, made with the front legs of a pig. Feijoada for example, the national dish of Brazil, is traditionally prepared with pork trimmings: ears and feet. According to the USDA's Foreign Agricultural Service, nearly 100 million metric tons of pork were consumed worldwide in 2006. Increasing urbanization and disposable income has led to a rapid rise in pork consumption in China, where 2006 consumption was 20% higher than in 2002, a further 5% increase projected in 2007. In 2015 recorded total 109.905 million metric tons of pork were consumed worldwide. By 2017, half the world's pork was consumed in China. Pork is popular throughout eastern Asia and the Pacific, where whole roast pig is a popular item in Pacific Island cuisine.
It is consumed in a great many ways and esteemed in Chinese cuisine. China is the world's largest pork consumer, with pork consumption expected to total 53 million tons in 2012, which accounts for more than half of global pork consumption. In China, pork is preferred over beef for aesthetic reasons. Domestic pigs feed on human waste, thus reducing cost of feeding and helping in recycling; the colours of the meat and the fat of pork are regarded as more appetizing, while the taste and smell are described as sweeter and cleaner. It is considered easier to digest. In rural tradition, pork is shared to form bonding. In China, pork is so important that the nation maintains a "strategic pork reserve". Red braised pork, a delicacy from Hunan Province, inspired Mao Zedong. Other popular Chinese pork dishes are sweet and sour pork and charsiu. In the Philippines, due to 300 years of Spanish colonization and influence, an entire roasted suckling pig, is the national delicacy. Pork may be cured over time. Cured meat products include bacon.
The carcass may be used in many different ways for fresh meat cuts, with the popularity of certain cuts and certain carcass proportions varying worldwide. Most of the carcass can be used to produce fresh meat and in the case of a suckling pig, the whole body of a young pig ranging in age from two to six weeks is roasted. Danish roast pork or flæskesteg, prepared with crispy crackling is a national favourite as the traditional Christmas dinner. Pork is common as an ingredient in sausages. Many traditional European sausages are made with pork, including chorizo, Cumberland sausage and salami. Many brands of American hot dogs and most breakfast sausages are made from pork. Processing of pork into sausages and other products in France is described as charcuterie. Ham and bacon are made from fresh pork by curing with smoking. Shoulders and legs are most cured in this manner for Picnic shoulder and ham, whereas streaky and round bacon come from the side. Ham and bacon are popular foods in the west, their consumption has increased with industrialisation.
Non-western cuisines use preserved meat produc
A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food. The word "bean" and its Germanic cognates have existed in common use in West Germanic languages since before the 12th century, referring to broad beans and other pod-borne seeds; this was long. After Columbian-era contact between Europe and the Americas, use of the word was extended to pod-borne seeds of Phaseolus, such as the common bean and the runner bean, the related genus Vigna; the term has long been applied to many other seeds of similar form, such as Old World soybeans, chickpeas, other vetches, lupins, to those with slighter resemblances, such as coffee beans, vanilla beans, castor beans, cocoa beans. Thus the term "bean" in general usage can mean a host of different species. Seeds called "beans" are included among the crops called "pulses", although a narrower prescribed sense of "pulses" reserves the word for leguminous crops harvested for their dry grain; the term bean excludes legumes with tiny seeds and which are used for forage and silage purposes.
According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization the term "BEANS, DRY" should include only species of Phaseolus. One is that in the past, several species, including Vigna angularis, mungo and aconitifolia, were classified as Phaseolus and reclassified. Another is that it is not surprising that the prescription on limiting the use of the word, because it tries to replace the word's older senses with a newer one, has never been followed in general usage. Unlike the related pea, beans are a summer crop that need warm temperatures to grow. Maturity is 55–60 days from planting to harvest; as the bean pods mature, they turn yellow and dry up, the beans inside change from green to their mature colour. As a vine, bean plants need external support, which may be provided in the form of special "bean cages" or poles. Native Americans customarily grew them along with corn and squash, with the tall cornstalks acting as support for the beans. In more recent times, the so-called "bush bean" has been developed which does not require support and has all its pods develop simultaneously.
This makes the bush bean more practical for commercial production. Beans are one of the longest-cultivated plants. Broad beans called fava beans, in their wild state the size of a small fingernail, were gathered in Afghanistan and the Himalayan foothills. In a form improved from occurring types, they were grown in Thailand since the early seventh millennium BCE, predating ceramics, they were deposited with the dead in ancient Egypt. Not until the second millennium BCE did cultivated, large-seeded broad beans appear in the Aegean and transalpine Europe. In the Iliad is a passing mention of beans and chickpeas cast on the threshing floor. Beans were an important source of protein throughout Old and New World history, still are today; the oldest-known domesticated beans in the Americas were found in Guitarrero Cave, an archaeological site in Peru, dated to around the second millennium BCE. However, genetic analyses of the common bean Phaseolus shows that it originated in Mesoamerica, subsequently spread southward, along with maize and squash, traditional companion crops.
Most of the kinds eaten fresh or dried, those of the genus Phaseolus, come from the Americas, being first seen by a European when Christopher Columbus, during his exploration of what may have been the Bahamas, found them growing in fields. Five kinds of Phaseolus beans were domesticated by pre-Columbian peoples: common beans grown from Chile to the northern part of what is now the United States, lima and sieva beans, as well as the less distributed teparies, scarlet runner beans and polyanthus beans One famous use of beans by pre-Columbian people as far north as the Atlantic seaboard is the "Three Sisters" method of companion plant cultivation: In the New World, many tribes would grow beans together with maize, squash; the corn would not be planted in rows as is done by European agriculture, but in a checkerboard/hex fashion across a field, in separate patches of one to six stalks each. Beans would be planted around the base of the developing stalks, would vine their way up as the stalks grew.
All American beans at that time were vine plants, "bush beans" having been bred only more recently. The cornstalks would work as a trellis for the beans, the beans would provide much-needed nitrogen for the corn. Squash would be planted in the spaces between the patches of corn in the field, they would be provided slight shelter from the sun by the corn, would shade the soil and reduce evaporation, would deter many animals from attacking the corn and beans because their coarse, hairy vines and broad, stiff leaves are difficult or uncomfortable for animals such as deer and raccoons to walk through, crows to land on, etc. Dry beans come from both Old World varieties of New World varieties. Beans are a heliotropic plant. At night, they go into a folded "sleep" position; the world genebanks hold about 40,000 bean varieties, although on
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, using and repairing forests and associated resources for human and environmental benefits. Forestry is practiced in natural stands; the science of forestry has elements that belong to the biological, social and managerial sciences. Modern forestry embraces a broad range of concerns, in what is known as multiple-use management, including the provision of timber, fuel wood, wildlife habitat, natural water quality management, recreation and community protection, aesthetically appealing landscapes, biodiversity management, watershed management, erosion control, preserving forests as "sinks" for atmospheric carbon dioxide. A practitioner of forestry is known as a forester. Other common terms are: a silviculturalist. Silviculture is narrower than forestry, being concerned only with forest plants, but is used synonymously with forestry. Forest ecosystems have come to be seen as the most important component of the biosphere, forestry has emerged as a vital applied science and technology.
Forestry is an important economic segment in various industrial countries. For example, in Germany, forests cover nearly a third of the land area, wood is the most important renewable resource, forestry supports more than a million jobs and about €181 billion of value to the German economy each year; the preindustrial age has been dubbed by Werner Sombart and others as the'wooden age', as timber and firewood were the basic resources for energy and housing. The development of modern forestry is connected with the rise of capitalism, economy as a science and varying notions of land use and property. Roman Latifundiae, large agricultural estates, were quite successful in maintaining the large supply of wood, necessary for the Roman Empire. Large deforestations came with after the decline of the Romans; however in the 5th century, monks in the Byzantine Romagna on the Adriatic coast, were able to establish stone pine plantations to provide fuelwood and food. This was the beginning of the massive forest mentioned by Dante Alighieri in his 1308 poem Divine Comedy.
Similar sustainable formal forestry practices were developed by the Visigoths in the 7th century when, faced with the ever-increasing shortage of wood, they instituted a code concerned with the preservation of oak and pine forests. The use and management of many forest resources has a long history in China as well, dating back to the Han dynasty and taking place under the landowning gentry. A similar approach was used in Japan, it was later written about by the Ming dynasty Chinese scholar Xu Guangqi. In Europe, land usage rights in medieval and early modern times allowed different users to access forests and pastures. Plant litter and resin extraction were important, as pitch was essential for the caulking of ships and hunting rights and building, timber gathering in wood pastures, for grazing animals in forests; the notion of "commons" refers to the underlying traditional legal term of common land. The idea of enclosed private property came about during modern times. However, most hunting rights were retained by members of the nobility which preserved the right of the nobility to access and use common land for recreation, like fox hunting.
Systematic management of forests for a sustainable yield of timber began in Portugal in the 13th century when Afonso III of Portugal planted the Pinhal do Rei near Leiria to prevent coastal erosion and soil degradation, as a sustainable source for timber used in naval construction. His successor Dom Dinis continued the forest exists still today. Forest management flourished in the German states in the 14th century, e.g. in Nuremberg, in 16th-century Japan. A forest was divided into specific sections and mapped; as timber rafting allowed for connecting large continental forests, as in south western Germany, via Main, Neckar and Rhine with the coastal cities and states, early modern forestry and remote trading were connected. Large firs in the black forest were called "Holländer ``. Large timber rafts on the Rhine were 200 to 400m in length, 40m in width and consisted of several thousand logs; the crew consisted of 400 to 500 men, including shelter, bakeries and livestock stables. Timber rafting infrastructure allowed for large interconnected networks all over continental Europe and is still of importance in Finland.
Starting with the sixteenth century, enhanced world maritime trade, a boom in housing construction in Europe and the success and further Berggeschrey of the mining industry increased timber consumption sharply. The notion of'Nachhaltigkeit', sustainability in forestry, is connected to the work of Hans Carl von Carlowitz, a mining administrator in Saxony, his book Sylvicultura oeconomica, oder haußwirthliche Nachricht und Naturmäßige Anweisung zur wilden Baum-Zucht was the first comprehensive treatise about sustainable yield forestry. In the UK, and, to an extent, in continental Europe, the enclosure movement and the clearances favored enclosed private property; the Agrarian reformers, early economic writers and scientists tried to get rid of the traditional commons. At the time, an alleged tragedy of the commons together with fears of a Holznot, an imminent wood shortage played a watershed role in the controversies about cooperative land use patterns; the practice of establishing tree plantations in the British Isles was promoted by John Evelyn, though it had acquired some populari
The domestic pig called swine, hog, or pig when there is no need to distinguish it from other pigs, is a domesticated large, even-toed ungulate. It is variously considered a subspecies of a distinct species; the domestic pig's head-plus-body-length ranges from 0.9 to 1.8 m, adult pigs weigh between 50 and 350 kg, with well-fed individuals exceeding this weight range. The size and weight of a hog depends on its breed. Compared to other artiodactyls, its head is long and free of warts. Even-toed ungulates are herbivorous, but the domestic pig is an omnivore, like its wild relative; when used as livestock, domestic pigs are farmed for the consumption of their flesh, called pork. The animal's bones and bristles are used in commercial products. Domestic pigs miniature breeds, are kept as pets; the domestic pig has a large head, with a long snout, strengthened by a special prenasal bone and a disk of cartilage at the tip. The snout is used to dig into the soil to find food, is a acute sense organ; the dental formula of adult pigs is 220.127.116.11.1.4.3.
The rear teeth are adapted for crushing. In the male the canine teeth can form tusks, which grow continuously and are sharpened by being ground against each other. Four hoofed toes are on each foot, with the two larger central toes bearing most of the weight, but the outer two being used in soft ground. Most domestic pigs have rather a bristled sparse hair covering on their skin, although woolly-coated breeds such as the Mangalitsa exist. Pigs possess both apocrine and eccrine sweat glands, although the latter appear limited to the snout and dorsonasal areas. Pigs, like other "hairless" mammals, do not use thermal sweat glands in cooling. Pigs are less able than many other mammals to dissipate heat from wet mucous membranes in the mouth through panting, their thermoneutral zone is 16 to 22 °C. At higher temperatures, pigs lose heat by wallowing in water via evaporative cooling. Pigs are one of four known mammalian species which possess mutations in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor that protect against snake venom.
Mongooses, honey badgers and pigs all have modifications to the receptor pocket which prevents the snake venom α-neurotoxin from binding. These represent four independent mutations. Domestic pigs have small lungs in relation to their body size, are thus more susceptible than other domesticated animals to fatal bronchitis and pneumonia; the domestic pig is most considered to be a subspecies of the wild boar, given the name Sus scrofa by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. However, in 1777, Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben classified the domestic pig as a separate species from the wild boar, he gave it the name Sus domesticus, still used by some taxonomists. Archaeological evidence suggests that pigs were domesticated from wild boar as early as 13,000–12,700 BC in the Near East in the Tigris Basin, Çayönü, Cafer Höyük, Nevalı Çori being managed in the wild in a way similar to the way they are managed by some modern New Guineans. Remains of pigs have been dated to earlier than 11,400 BC in Cyprus; those animals must have been introduced from the mainland, which suggests domestication in the adjacent mainland by then.
There was a separate domestication in China which took place about 8000 years ago. DNA evidence from subfossil remains of teeth and jawbones of Neolithic pigs shows that the first domestic pigs in Europe had been brought from the Near East; this stimulated the domestication of local European wild boar, resulting in a third domestication event with the Near Eastern genes dying out in European pig stock. Modern domesticated pigs have involved complex exchanges, with European domesticated lines being exported, in turn, to the ancient Near East. Historical records indicate that Asian pigs were introduced into Europe during the 18th and early 19th centuries. In August 2015, a study looked at over 100 pig genome sequences to ascertain their process of domestication, assumed to have been initiated by humans, involved few individuals, relied on reproductive isolation between wild and domestic forms; the study found that the assumption of reproductive isolation with population bottlenecks was not supported.
The study indicated that pigs were domesticated separately in Western Asia and China, with Western Asian pigs introduced into Europe, where they crossed with wild boar. A model that fitted the data included a mixture with a now extinct ghost population of wild pigs during the Pleistocene; the study found that despite back-crossing with wild pigs, the genomes of domestic pigs have strong signatures of selection at DNA loci that affect behavior and morphology. The study concluded that human selection for domestic traits counteracted the homogenizing effect of gene flow from wild boars and created domestication islands in the genome; the same process may apply to other domesticated animals. The adaptable nature and omnivorous diet of the wild boar allowed early humans to domesticate it readily. Pigs were used for food, but early civilizations used the pigs' hides for shields, bones for tools and weapons, bristles for brushes. In India, pigs have been domesticated for a long time in Goa and some rural areas, for pig toilets.
Though ecologically logical as well as economical
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Aquaculture known as aquafarming, is the farming of fish, molluscs, aquatic plants and other organisms. Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, can be contrasted with commercial fishing, the harvesting of wild fish. Mariculture refers to aquaculture practiced in underwater habitats. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, aquaculture "is understood to mean the farming of aquatic organisms including fish, molluscs and aquatic plants. Farming implies some form of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, protection from predators, etc. Farming implies individual or corporate ownership of the stock being cultivated." The reported output from global aquaculture operations in 2014 supplied over one half of the fish and shellfish, directly consumed by humans. Further, in current aquaculture practice, products from several pounds of wild fish are used to produce one pound of a piscivorous fish like salmon.
Particular kinds of aquaculture include fish farming, shrimp farming, oyster farming, mariculture and the cultivation of ornamental fish. Particular methods include aquaponics and integrated multi-trophic aquaculture, both of which integrate fish farming and aquatic plant farming; the indigenous Gunditjmara people in Victoria, may have raised eels as early as 6000 BC. Evidence indicates they developed about 100 km2 of volcanic floodplains in the vicinity of Lake Condah into a complex of channels and dams, used woven traps to capture eels, preserve them to eat all year round. Aquaculture was operating in China circa 2000 BC; when the waters subsided after river floods, some fish carp, were trapped in lakes. Early aquaculturists fed their brood using nymphs and silkworm feces, ate them. A fortunate genetic mutation of carp led to the emergence of goldfish during the Tang dynasty. However, ancient Egyptians might have farmed fish from Lake Bardawil about 3,500 years ago, they traded them with Canaan.
Gim cultivation is the oldest aquaculture in Korea. Early cultivation methods used bamboo or oak sticks, which were replaced by newer methods that utilized nets in the 19th century. Floating rafts have been used for mass production since the 1920s. Japanese cultivated seaweed by providing bamboo poles and nets and oyster shells to serve as anchoring surfaces for spores. Romans bred fish in ponds and farmed oysters in coastal lagoons before 100 CE. In central Europe, early Christian monasteries adopted Roman aquacultural practices. Aquaculture spread in Europe during the Middle Ages since away from the seacoasts and the big rivers, fish had to be salted so they did not rot. Improvements in transportation during the 19th century made fresh fish available and inexpensive in inland areas, making aquaculture less popular; the 15th-century fishponds of the Trebon Basin in the Czech Republic are maintained as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Hawaiians constructed oceanic fish ponds. A remarkable example is the "Menehune" fishpond dating from at least 1,000 years ago, at Alekoko.
Legend says. In the first half of the 18th century, German Stephan Ludwig Jacobi experimented with external fertilization of brown trouts and salmon, he wrote an article "Von der künstlichen Erzeugung der Forellen und Lachse". By the latter decades of the 18th century, oyster farming had begun in estuaries along the Atlantic Coast of North America; the word aquaculture appeared in an 1855 newspaper article in reference to the harvesting of ice. It appeared in descriptions of the terrestrial agricultural practise of subirrigation in the late 19th century before becoming associated with the cultivation of aquatic plant and animal species. In 1859, Stephen Ainsworth of West Bloomfield, New York, began experiments with brook trout. By 1864, Seth Green had established a commercial fish-hatching operation at Caledonia Springs, near Rochester, New York. By 1866, with the involvement of Dr. W. W. Fletcher of Concord, artificial fish hatcheries were under way in both Canada and the United States; when the Dildo Island fish hatchery opened in Newfoundland in 1889, it was the largest and most advanced in the world.
The word aquaculture was used in descriptions of the hatcheries experiments with cod and lobster in 1890. By the 1920s, the American Fish Culture Company of Carolina, Rhode Island, founded in the 1870s was one of the leading producers of trout. During the 1940s, they had perfected the method of manipulating the day and night cycle of fish so that they could be artificially spawned year around. Californians harvested wild kelp and attempted to manage supply around 1900 labeling it a wartime resource. Harvest stagnation in wild fisheries and overexploitation of popular marine species, combined with a growing demand for high-quality protein, encouraged aquaculturists to domesticate other marine species. At the outset of modern aquaculture, many were optimistic that a "Blue Revolution" could take place in aquaculture, just as the Green Revolution of the 20th century had revolutionized agriculture. Although land animals had long been domesticated, most seafood species were still caught from the wild.
Concerned about the impact of growing demand for seafood on the world's oceans, prominent ocean explorer Jacques Cousteau wrote in 1973: "With earth's burgeoning human populations to feed, we must turn to the sea with new understanding and new technology."About 430 of the species cultu