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Broccoli is an edible green plant in the cabbage family whose large flowering head and stalk is eaten as a vegetable. The word broccoli comes from the Italian plural of broccolo, which means "the flowering crest of a cabbage", is the diminutive form of brocco, meaning "small nail" or "sprout". Broccoli is classified in the Italica cultivar group of the species Brassica oleracea. Broccoli has large flower heads dark green in color, arranged in a tree-like structure branching out from a thick stalk, light green; the mass of flower heads is surrounded by leaves. Broccoli resembles cauliflower, a different cultivar group of the same Brassica species. Combined in 2017, China and India produced 73 % of the world's cauliflower crops. Broccoli resulted from breeding of cultivated Brassica crops in the northern Mediterranean starting in about the sixth century BC. Since the time of the Roman Empire, broccoli has been consumed, is eaten raw or cooked. Broccoli is a rich source of vitamin C and vitamin K.

Contents of its characteristic sulfur-containing glucosinolate compounds and sulforaphane, are diminished by boiling, but are better preserved by steaming, microwaving or stir-frying. Rapini, sometimes called "broccoli raab" among other names, forms similar but smaller heads, is a type of turnip. Other cultivar groups of Brassica oleracea include cabbage and Romanesco broccoli and collard, Brussels sprouts, kai-lan. Broccolini or "Tenderstem broccoli" is a cross between broccoli and Chinese broccoli. There are three grown types of broccoli; the most familiar is Calabrese broccoli referred to as "broccoli", named after Calabria in Italy. It has thick stalks, it is a cool-season annual crop. Sprouting broccoli has a larger number of heads with many thin stalks. Purple cauliflower is a type of broccoli grown in North America, it has a head shaped like cauliflower. It not always, has a purple cast to the tips of the flower buds. Other popular cultivars include Belstar, Blue Wind, Coronado Crown, Destiny, DiCicco, Green Goliath, Green Magic, Purple Sprouting, Sun King and Waltham 29.

Beneforté is a variety of broccoli containing 2–3 times more glucoraphanin and produced by crossing broccoli with a wild Brassica variety, Brassica oleracea var villosa. In 2017, global production of broccoli was 26.0 million tonnes, with China and India together accounting for 73% of the world total. Secondary producers, each having about one million tonnes or less annually, were the United States, Spain and Italy. In the United States, broccoli is grown year-round in California – which produces 92% of the crop nationally – with 95% of the total crop produced for fresh sales; the majority of broccoli cultivars are cool-weather crops. Broccoli grows best when exposed to an average daily temperature between 18 and 23 °C; when the cluster of flowers referred to as a "head" of broccoli, appear in the center of the plant, the cluster is green. Garden pruners or shears are used to cut the head about an inch from the tip. Broccoli should be harvested before the flowers on the head bloom bright yellow.

Introduced by accident to North America and New Zealand, "cabbage worms", the larvae of Pieris rapae known as the "small white" butterfly, are a common pest in broccoli. A 100 gram reference serving of raw broccoli provides 34 calories and is a rich source of vitamin C and vitamin K. Raw broccoli contains moderate amounts of several B vitamins and the dietary mineral manganese, whereas other micronutrients are low in content. Raw broccoli is 89% water, 7% carbohydrates, 3% protein, contains negligible fat. Boiling reduces the levels of broccoli glucosinolates, while other cooking methods, such as steaming and stir frying, have no significant effect on glucosinolate levels; the perceived bitterness of cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli varies from person to person, but the functional underpinnings of this variation are not known. Some research reports that the gene TAS2R38 may be responsible for bitter taste perception in broccoli. Other factors, such as isothiocyanates and polyphenols, are likely involved in bitterness perception.

In some varieties the bitter tasting compounds are in less volatile forms. Broccolini Agriculture portal Food portal PROTAbase on Brassica oleracea List of North American broccoli cultivars, USDA/ARS Vegetable Laboratory Lee, Lisa-Ann. "Creating a broccoli for all seasons to hedge against climate change". Retrieved 26 February 2017

Eslam Ahmed Ibrahim

Eslam Ahmed Shabaan is an Egyptian track and field athlete who competes in the hammer throw. He holds a personal best of 70.33 m. He was the gold medallist at the 2016 African Championships in Athletics, he had a successful career in age category tournaments. He topped qualifying at the 2010 Summer Youth Olympics and, though he ended sixth in the final, his throw of 73.42 m was the second best at the event. He placed fourth at the 2011 World Youth Championships in Athletics. In the junior category he was 21st at the 2012 World Junior Championships and was the winner at the 2013 African Junior Athletics Championships, he entered the senior ranks in 2015 and cleared seventy metres for the first time in 2016. Eslam Ahmed Ibrahim at World Athletics

Azumazeki stable

Azumazeki stable is a stable of sumo wrestlers, part of the Takasago group of stables. It was founded in February 1986 by the Hawaiian born Takamiyama of the Takasago stable in Higashi–Komagata, Tokyo. Azumazeki's first sekitori was Akebono from Hawaii, in 1990, who subsequently reached the yokozuna rank. A total of nine foreign born wrestlers have fought for the stable: seven from the United States, one from Great Britain and one from China who retired in January 2017; the stable's first Japanese sekitori was Takamisakari. As of January 2020 it had nine wrestlers; the former Takamiyama reached the mandatory retirement age of 65 in June 2009 and was succeeded by Ushiomaru who announced his retirement from active competition after the May tournament. In 2012 it absorbed Nakamura stable when Takamiyama's former stablemate Fujizakura retired as a coach upon turning 65. In February 2018 the stable moved from Sumida to larger premises in Katsushika; the opening was celebrated at the Ryōgoku Kokugikan with around 500 guests from the sumo world.

The move was encouraged by the Katsushika ward. Azumazeki Oyakata died in December 2019 at the age of 41, after the January 2020 tournament the former Takamisakari took over as Azumazeki Oyakata; some wrestlers at this stable take ring names or shikona that begin with the characters 高見, meaning high and view, in deference to the now retired coach and owner, the former Takamiyama. Examples include Takamiryu. 2020-: 14th Azumazeki Daigorō 2009–2019: 13th Azumazeki Daigorō 1986-2009: 12th Azumazeki Daigorō Kaōnishiki Akebono Takamisakari Ushiomaru Takamishū Daiki Hidenokuni Kimura Yōnosuke Daikichi Tokokei 2018–Present: 2-10-13 Shibamata, Katsushika Ward, Tokyo Prefecture 125-0052 1986–2018: Tokyo, Sumida Ward, Higashi Komagata 4-6-43 minute walk from Honjo-Azumabashi Station on Toei Asakusa Line Phone number: 03-5876-5713 Fax number: 03-5876-5714 Email: List of sumo stables List of active sumo wrestlers List of past sumo wrestlers Glossary of sumo terms Official site Japan Sumo Association profile Article on Azumazeki stable

Rachel McFarlane

Rachel McFarlane is a British singer. She began singing at the age of twelve as a gospel singer. In 1992, her career began as a featured member of the dancehall/rave act The Family Foundation, which recorded the single "Express Yourself". After the act disbanded, McFarlane joined the house music group Loveland in 1994, she was featured on their track "Let the Music Lift You Up" which reached number 16 on the UK Singles Chart. The same year, she recorded "Turn Up the Power" with N-Trance. In 1998, she released her debut single "Lover" which made the UK Top 40. "Lover" was released in 2005 through the All Around the World label, once again making it to the Top 40. In 2004, she joined LMC to record the vocals for their track "Take Me to the Clouds Above" which peaked at number one in the UK chart. Two years she recorded "You Get What You Give" with the group, she appeared as Justice/Mother in the London production of Rock of Ages. Myspace

Duke of Ciudad Rodrigo

Duke of Ciudad Rodrigo is a hereditary title in the Peerage of Spain. It was conferred by Ferdinand VII on the British General Arthur Wellesley 1st Viscount Wellington 1st Duke of Wellington in 1812, after his important victory at the Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo that same year, as a victory title; as all Dukedoms in the Peerage of Spain, it has Grandeeship attached. This Spanish dukedom is held by the successors of the 1st Duke of Wellington holding the title of Duke of Wellington. Although, this has not always been the case because of different succession laws. Traditionally, when titles are created, the first holder can regulate how their title will pass: in the United Kingdom 99% of ducal titles were created with agnatic primogeniture rules. In 1943, Anne Rhys, the only daughter and eldest child of Arthur Wellesley, 5th Duke of Wellington, inherited the Spanish dukedom while having no rights to the British title of her family which passed to her uncle, after her younger brother was killed in action during the Second World War.

In 1949 Anne renounced to the title in favor of her uncle Gerald Wellesley, 7th Duke of Wellington. In 2010, His Grace The 8th Duke of Wellington & 9th Duke of Ciudad Rodrigo ceded the Spanish dukedom to his eldest child, Charles Wellesley, Marquess of Douro, in accordance with Spanish procedure, the Marquess made formal claim to the title with the Spanish authorities on 10 March 2010. King Juan Carlos of Spain, through his minister, granted the succession of the dukedom to the Marquess of Douro by Royal Decree of 21 May 2010, as confirmed by the notice in the Official State Gazette of 12 June 2010; the new Duke of Ciudad Rodrigo succeeded his father as Duke of Wellington in 2014. The heir apparent to the Dukedom of Ciudad Rodrigo is the 10th Duke's eldest child, Arthur Wellesley, Marquess of Douro. Lord Douro has fraternal twins, a first-born daughter, Lady Mae Madeleine Wellesley, a second-born son, Arthur Darcy Wellesley, Earl of Mornington. Lady Mae is Lord Douro's heir apparent to the Spanish dukedom as the eldest child while the second born is the heir to the British dukedom as the eldest male, which could lead to a separation of these titles.

Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Ciudad Rodrigo from 1812 Arthur Wellesley, 2nd Duke of Ciudad Rodrigo from 1852 Henry Wellesley, 3rd Duke of Ciudad Rodrigo from 1884 Arthur Wellesley, 4th Duke of Ciudad Rodrigo from 1900 Arthur Wellesley, 5th Duke of Ciudad Rodrigo from 1934 Henry Wellesley, 6th Duke of Ciudad Rodrigo from 1941. Upon his death in 1943, the title went to his sister Anne. Anne Rhys, 7th Duchess of Ciudad Rodrigo from 1943, ceded the title to her uncle in 1949 Gerald Wellesley, 8th Duke of Ciudad Rodrigo from 1949, ceded the title to his son 1968 Arthur Valerian Wellesley, 9th Duke of Ciudad Rodrigo from 1972, ceded the title to his son 2010 Arthur Charles Wellesley, 10th Duke of Ciudad Rodrigo since 2010 Duke of Wellington Prins van Waterloo Duque da Vitória

Harold Addison Woodruff

Harold Addison Woodruff was an Australian veterinary pathologist and bacteriologist. He was born on 10 July 1877 in Sheffield, England to Herbert Woodruff and Mary, née Addison, he was raised Methodist and remained active, including attending to weekly prayer meetings for students at the University of Melbourne. Woodruff was educated at Wesley College, Sheffield and graduated at the Royal Veterinary College, England, he tutored in surgery there in 1898-1899 and became a professor in veterinary science and bacteriology at the Royal Agricultural University, Gloucestershire, United Kingdom. He returned in 1900 to the Royal Veterinary College as a professor of materia hygiene. From 1900-1908, he was appointed chair of veterinary medicine and ran an extensive out-patient clinic. In 1912, he graduated with an English Conjoint License - M. R. C. S. L. R. C. P. and transferred to Australia as professor of veterinary pathology and director of the veterinary institute at the University of Melbourne. In October 1915, Woodruff joined the Australian Imperial Force as a major in the Australian Army Veterinary Corps, serving in Egypt and France to fight World War I.

He was permitted to return home in 1917 due to the decline of the veterinary school. At the age of 51 in 1928, Woodruff accepted a post as director of the bacteriology department at Melbourne University when the veterinary school closed, his efforts expanded the department, he influenced a number of notable scientists, most he established the Public Health Laboratories, now known as the Microbiological Diagnostic Unit at the Melbourne University. Throughout his career, he published a number of monographs and articles on veterinary medicine, medical issues, theological issues. Woodruff delayed retirement until 1944 at the age of 57, but continued to be active in church activities, the peace movement, music. In 1946, he was elected chairman of the Zoological Board of Victoria. Woodruff married Margaret Ada, née Cooper, on 11 July 1908 in Finchley, England, she died in 1916. On 24 June 1919 Woodruff married Isabella Scott Scoular Glaister. After her death on 3 March 1954 Woodruff returned to Britain.

He died on 1 May 1966 at the age of 89 in Scotland. He was survived by his two sons from his first wife and Phillip. A Pure Milk Supply by H. A. Woodruff I. H. S. Jesus Saviour of Men by H. A. Woodruff Emmanuel - God With Us: A Study on the Incarnation by H. A. Woodruff If I Were a Jew by H. A. Woodruff / If I Were a Christian by H. M. Saenger and H. A. Woodruff This "Liquor Tyranny" by Professor H. A. Woodruff Education, What Part Shall the Church Play? by H. A. Woodruff Research and the Pastoral Industry by T. Brailsford Robertson and H. A. Woodruff The Causation and Prevention of Puerperal Infection by R. Marshall Allan and H. A. Woodruff World Order or Anarchy? by H. A. Woodruff TROV – The National Library of Australia Environment and Australian Biology 1890-1939 Historical Studies 21 11-28: Environment and Australian Biology 1890-1939 Schedvin, C. B. Woodruff, Harold Addison, Veterinary Pathologist and Bacteriologist Australian Dictionary of Biography John Ritchie 12 562-563: Woodruff, Harold Addison, Veterinary Pathologist and Bacteriologist Killip, Norah L.

Published: Melbourne University Press Arthur William Turner 1900-1989 Historical Records of Australian Science 9 1 49-63: Arthur William Turner 1900-1989 French, E. L. and Sutherland, A. K