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Agrigento

Agrigento is a city on the southern coast of Sicily and capital of the province of Agrigento. It was one of the leading cities of Magna Graecia during the golden age of Ancient Greece with population estimates in the range of 200,000 to 800,000 before 406 BC. Agrigento was founded on a plateau overlooking the sea, with two nearby rivers, the Hypsas and the Akragas, a ridge to the north offering a degree of natural fortification, its establishment took place around 582–580 BC and is attributed to Greek colonists from Gela, who named it "Akragas". Akragas grew becoming one of the richest and most famous of the Greek colonies of Magna Graecia, it came to prominence under the 6th-century tyrants Phalaris and Theron, became a democracy after the overthrow of Theron's son Thrasydaeus. At this point the city could have been as large as 100,000 to 200,000 people. Although the city remained neutral in the conflict between Athens and Syracuse, its democracy was overthrown when the city was sacked by the Carthaginians in 406 BC.

Akragas never recovered its former status, though it revived to some extent under Timoleon in the latter part of the 4th century. The city was disputed between the Carthaginians during the First Punic War; the Romans laid siege to the city in 262 BC and captured it after defeating a Carthaginian relief force in 261 BC and sold the population into slavery. Although the Carthaginians recaptured the city in 255 BC the final peace settlement gave Punic Sicily and with it Akragas to Rome, it suffered badly during the Second Punic War when both Carthage fought to control it. The Romans captured Akragas in 210 BC and renamed it Agrigentum, although it remained a Greek-speaking community for centuries thereafter, it became prosperous again under Roman rule and its inhabitants received full Roman citizenship following the death of Julius Caesar in 44 BC. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the city successively passed into the hands of the Vandalic Kingdom, the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy and the Byzantine Empire.

During this period the inhabitants of Agrigentum abandoned the lower parts of the city and moved to the former acropolis, at the top of the hill. The reasons for this move are unclear but were related to the destructive coastal raids of the Saracens and other peoples around this time. In 828 AD the Saracens captured the diminished remnant of the city. Following the Norman conquest of Sicily, the city changed its name to the Norman version Girgenti. In 1087, Norman Count Roger I established a Latin bishopric in the city. Normans built the Castello di Agrigento to control the area; the population declined during much of the medieval period but revived somewhat after the 18th century. In 1860, as in the rest of Sicily, the inhabitants supported the arrival of Giuseppe Garibaldi during the Expedition of the Thousand which marked the end of Bourbon rule. In 1927, Benito Mussolini through the "Decree Law n. 159, July 12, 1927" introduced the current Italianized version of the Latin name. The decision remains controversial as the eradication of local history.

Following the suggestion of Andrea Camilleri, a Sicilian writer of Agrigentine origin, the historic city centre was renamed to the Sicilian name "Girgenti" in 2016. The city suffered a number of destructive bombing raids during World War II. Agrigento is a major tourist centre due to its extraordinarily rich archaeological legacy, it serves as an agricultural centre for the surrounding region. Sulphur and potash were mined locally from Minoan times until the 1970s, were exported worldwide from the nearby harbour of Porto Empedocle. In 2010, the unemployment rate in Agrigento was 19.2% twice the national average. Ancient Akragas covers a huge area—much of, still unexcavated today—but is exemplified by the famous Valle dei Templi; this comprises a large sacred area on the south side of the ancient city where seven monumental Greek temples in the Doric style were constructed during the 6th and 5th centuries BC. Now excavated and restored, they constitute some of the largest and best-preserved ancient Greek buildings outside of Greece itself.

They are listed as a World Heritage Site. The best-preserved of the temples are two similar buildings traditionally attributed to the goddesses Hera Lacinia and Concordia; the latter temple is remarkably intact, due to its having been converted into a Christian church in 597 AD. Both were constructed to a peripteral hexastyle design; the area around the Temple of Concordia was re-used by early Christians as a catacomb, with tombs hewn out of the rocky cliffs and outcrops. The other temples are much more fragmentary, having been toppled by earthquakes long ago and quarried for their stones; the largest by far is the Temple of Olympian Zeus, built to commemorate the Battle of Himera in 480 BC: it is believed to have been the largest Doric temple built. Although it was used, it appears never to have been completed; the remains of the temple were extensively quarried in the 18th century to build the jetties of Porto Empedocle. Temples dedicated to Hephaestus and Asclepius wer

Jai Malhar

Jai Malhar is Marathi mythological TV series being aired on Indian TV channel Zee Marathi. It is based on the legend of an avatar of Lord Shiva, it airs in dubbed language of Tamizh on Zee Tamizh. This series is based on a reincarnation of Lord Shiva; the show is about Khandoba's courage and prowess. He is fondly known as Malhar and worshiped across Maharashtra & beyond as the family deity of many, his devotees express their devotion by chanting aloud "Yelkot Yelkot Jai Malhar". The foremost centre of Khandoba worship is Jejuri in Maharashtra & is thronged by lakhs every year who visit to worship the Lord. Khandoba has been portrayed as a God of a Superpower and the symbol of excellence, he is portrayed as a super hero for the young generation. Devdatta Nage as Lord Shiva, Lord Khandoba and Khandu Gavda. Khandoba is an incarnation of Lord Shiva, he is the slayer of demons Malla. He protects his devotees from any obstacles, he predominantly resides in Jejuri. Besides, many other shrines are dedicated to him.

Gauri Sukhtankar as Goddess Parvati Devi Goddess Parvati is the consort of Lord Shiva and daughter of King Himavan. She is, she is only Mhalsa as Lord Shiva said that due to her decision regarding Jayadri, as Mhalsa she will forget Jayadri. She comes forth before Mhalsa and convinces Mhalsa about doing many things. Bageshree Nimbalkar as Goddess Ganga Devi Ganga Devi is personification of river Ganga, she is sister of elder to her. She loves Lord Shiva. Parvati Devi doesn't like this, she is related to Goddess Banai. Surabhi Hande as Goddess Mhalsa Devi Goddess Mhalasa is from Nevasa. Daughter of Timmasheth Vani and Mayananda, she came to Jejuri. She is wife of Lord Khandoba, a loving housewife who takes ferocious form to slay demons and is the queen of Jejuri, she is the incarnation of Goddess Parvati whose appearance is of Goddess Mohini, a form of Lord Vishnu. Isha Keskar as Goddess Banai Devi and Jayadri. Goddess Banai known as Banubai, is from Dhangarpada of Chandanpuri, her biological parents are God Indra and Goddess Shachi, but she was raised by Ajamel, a Dhangar man.

She is his wife. Jayadri is the daughter of Lord Indra and Goddess Shachi, who reborn as Banai due to curse put upon her by Lord Indra. Master Shanay Bhise as Lord Ganesha. Lord Ganesh is the son of Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati, he in Kailas was the witness of the promise given by Devi Parvati to Jayadri. He comes to Jejuri and convinces Mhalsa Devi and Banai about many things and clears their various doubts about their original forms, he removes obstacles of path of many people. Mhalsa Devi, in this incarnation tooshares a loving motherly relationship with him, he makes Mhalsa Devi forget her anger by amusing her. Mhalsa Devi Quickly becomes cheerful in his presence, he is cheerful, sometimes naughty but caring and loving towards his devotees. Nakul Ghanekar as Hegadi Pradhan and Lord Vishnu. Lord Vishnu served as Prime Minister in the form of Hegadi Pradhan for Lord Khandoba in the battle against the demons Mani and Malla, he is aware of etiquette. He helps Lord Khandoba in figuring them out. Purva Neelima Subhash as Goddess LakshmiGoddess Lakshmi is the wife of Lord Vishnu who supports Lord Khandoba and Lord Vishnu in their tasks.

She is the daughter of the sea God. She is a loving and caring woman and loves her husband, Lord Vishnu much, she convinces and advises Mhalsa Devi about many things. Anirudhha Vinayak Joshi as Sage Narada. Narada is a Vedic sage, the messenger of Gods and deities, he helps Lord Khandoba and Lord Vishnu in their tasks. He trains Banai to get wedded to Lord Khandoba, he sometimes unknowingly creates conflicts and spices up some news. Swapnil Rajshekhar as Indra Dev. Indra dev is the king of gods and father of Banai, he only cursed jayadri and send her to Chandanpuri as a baby, where She was grown up as a Dhangar and named as Banai, he tried to stop marriage of Lord Khandoba and Banai, but he supports Banai as she is his daughter. He had opened the secret to Banai that Hegadi Pradhan and Lakshmi Devi were Lord Vishnu and Goddess Lakshmi Devi. Prashant Choudappa as Choudappa. Akshay Milind Dandekar as NandiNandi is known as Vahana of Lord Shiva. Since Khandoba is a reincarnation on Lord Shiva Nandi is seen prominently in the story of Jai Malhar as Nandi,Nandeshrav and Nandeshwar.

He is a link between Khandoba and Mhalasa and Banu. He is the eyewitness of every activity of Paravati in Kailasa, he knows about the past life of Mhalasadevi and Banai but he is not supposed to open up about it. Siddhesh Prabhakar as Lord Surya. Lord Surya is the solar deity. Mhalsa Devi worships him and everyday offers him an Arghya and asks him many questions. Lord Khandoba's name is Martanda Bhairava. So Mhalsa Devi's Sun god worship can be traced here. Arti More as Latika. Latika helps Goddess Mhalsa in her tasks, she hears confidential conversations and conveys it to Mhalsa Devi which creates conflicts. Priyanka Waman as Manji. Manji is a close childhood friend of Goddess Banai. Goddess Banai shares her every problems with Manji. Mahesh Phalke as Ranga. Ranga is a friend of Goddess Banai. Anjali Valsangkar as Shevanti. Shevanti is the mother of Ranga. Sonam Mhasvekar as GangiGangi is the wife of

Monsanto Canada Inc v Schmeiser

Monsanto Canada Inc v Schmeiser 1 S. C. R. 902, 2004 SCC 34 is a leading Supreme Court of Canada case on patent rights for biotechnology, between a Canadian canola farmer, Percy Schmeiser, the agricultural biotechnology company Monsanto. The court heard the question of whether Schmeiser's intentionally growing genetically modified plants constituted "use" of Monsanto's patented genetically modified plant cells. By a 5-4 majority, the court ruled; the Supreme Court ruled 9-0 that Schmeiser did not have to pay Monsanto their technology use fee, damages or costs, as Schmeiser did not receive any benefit from the technology. The case drew worldwide attention and is misunderstood to concern what happens when farmers' fields are accidentally contaminated with patented seed. However, by the time the case went to trial, all claims of accidental contamination had been dropped. Schmeiser did not put forward any defence of accidental contamination; the biotechnology company Monsanto developed and patented a glyphosate-resistant gene for the canola plant which has the effect of producing canola, resistant to glyphosate.

Monsanto marketed the seed as Roundup Ready Canola. Farmers using the system are able to control weed competition using Roundup, while avoiding damage to the Roundup-resistant crops. Users are required to enter into a formal agreement with Monsanto, which specifies that new seed must be purchased every year, the purchase price of which includes a licensing fee to use the patent rights. Roundup Ready Canola was introduced in Canada in 1996, by 1998, it accounted for 25% of the country's canola area; as established in the original Federal Court trial decision, Percy Schmeiser, a canola breeder and grower in Bruno, first discovered Roundup-resistant canola in his crops in 1997. He had used Roundup herbicide to clear weeds around power poles and in ditches adjacent to a public road running beside one of his fields, noticed that some of the canola, sprayed had survived. Schmeiser performed a test by applying Roundup to an additional 3 acres to 4 acres of the same field, he found. At harvest time, Schmeiser instructed a farmhand to harvest the test field.

That seed was stored separately from the rest of the harvest, used the next year to seed 1,000 acres of canola. At the time, Roundup Ready canola was in use by several farmers in the area. Schmeiser claimed that he did not plant the initial Roundup Ready canola in 1997, that his field of custom-bred canola had been accidentally contaminated. While the origin of the plants on Schmeiser's farm in 1997 remains unclear, the trial judge found that with respect to the 1998 crop, "none of the suggested sources could reasonably explain the concentration or extent of Roundup Ready canola of a commercial quality" present in Schmeiser's 1998 crop. In 1998, Monsanto learned that Schmeiser was growing a Roundup-resistant crop and approached him to sign a license agreement to their patents and to pay a license fee. Schmeiser refused, maintaining that the 1997 contamination was accidental and that he owned the seed he harvested, he could use the harvested seed as he wished because it was his physical property.

Monsanto sued Schmeiser for patent infringement, filing its case in Canadian federal court on August 6, 1998. Negotiations to settle the matter collapsed on August 10, 1999, leading Schmeiser to file a countersuit against Monsanto for $10 million for libel and contaminating his fields. Regarding the question of patent rights and the farmer's right to use seed taken from his fields, Monsanto said that because they hold a patent on the gene, on canola cells containing the gene, they have a legal right to control its use, including the intentional replanting of seed collected from plants with the gene which grew accidentally. Schmeiser insisted on his "farmer's rights" to do anything he wished with seeds harvested from any plants grown on his field - including plants from seeds that were accidentally sown - and that this tangible property right overrides Monsanto's patent rights. Canadian law does not mention any such "farmer's rights"; the court wrote: "Thus a farmer whose field contains seed or plants originating from seed spilled into them, or blown as seed, in swaths from a neighbour's land or growing from germination by pollen carried into his field from elsewhere by insects, birds, or by the wind, may own the seed or plants on his land if he did not set about to plant them.

He does not, own the right to the use of the patented gene, or of the seed or plant containing the patented gene or cell." Beginning with the lead-up to the initial Federal Court trial, the case drew widespread public attention and media coverage. The contest was portrayed by some as a classic David-and-Goliath confrontation between small farmer and Monsanto, while others portrayed it as theft of the results of years of research and development. Environmental groups and anti-genetic engineering activists championed Schmeiser's cause and he spoke on the case around the world. Others depicted the case as a contest between a large biotechnology company and an large and well funded anti-biotechnology industry and raised concerns that the facts and c