Ai-Khanoum the historical Alexandria on the Oxus later named Eucratidia, Εὐκρατίδεια) was one of the primary cities of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom from circa 280 BCE, of the Indo-Greek kings when they ruled both in Bactria and northwestern India, from the time of Demetrius I to the time of Eucratides. Previous scholars have argued that Ai Khanoum was founded in the late 4th century BC, following the conquests of Alexander the Great. Recent analysis now suggests that the city was founded c. 280 BC by the Seleucid emperor, Antiochus I Soter. The city is located in Takhar Province, northern Afghanistan, at the confluence of the Panj River and the Kokcha River, both tributaries of the Amu Darya known as the Oxus, at the doorstep of the Indian subcontinent. Ai-Khanoum was one of the focal points of Hellenism in the East for nearly two centuries until its annihilation by nomadic invaders around 145 BCE about the time of the death of Eucratides I. On a hunting trip in the 1960s, the Afghan Khan Gholam Serwar Nasher discovered ancient artefacts of Ai Khanom and invited Princeton archaeologist Daniel Schlumberger with his team to examine Ai-Khanoum.

It was soon found to be the historical Alexandria on the Oxus possibly named اروکرتیه Arukratiya or Eucratidia), one of the primary cities of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom. Some of those artefects were displayed in Europe and USA museums in 2004; the site was subsequently excavated through archaeological work by a French Archaeological Delegation in Afghanistan mission under Paul Bernard between 1964 and 1978, as well as Soviet scientists. The work had to be abandoned with the onset of the Soviet–Afghan War, during which the site was looted and used as a battleground, leaving little of the original material. In 2013, the film-maker David Adams produced a six-part documentary mini-series about the ancient city entitled Alexander's Lost World; the choice of this site for the foundation of a city was guided by several factors. The region, irrigated by the Oxus, had a rich agricultural potential. Mineral resources were abundant in the back country towards the Hindu Kush the famous so-called "rubies" from Badakshan, gold.

Its location at the junction between Bactrian territory and nomad territories to the north allowed access to commerce with the Chinese empire. Lastly, Ai-Khanoum was located at the doorstep of Ancient India, allowing it to interact directly with the Indian subcontinent. Numerous artefacts and structures were found, pointing to a high Hellenistic culture, combined with Eastern influences. "It has all the hallmarks of a Hellenistic city, with a Greek theatre and some Greek houses with colonnaded courtyards". Overall, Aï-Khanoum was an important Greek city, characteristic of the Seleucid Empire and the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, it seems the city was destroyed, never to be rebuilt, about the time of the death of the Greco-Bactrian king Eucratides around 145 BC. Ai-Khanoum may have been the city in which Eucratides was besieged by Demetrius, before he managed to escape to conquer India; the mission unearthed various structures, some of them Hellenistic, some other integrating elements of Persian architecture: Two-miles long ramparts, circling the city A citadel with powerful towers and ramparts, established on top of the 60 meters-high hill in the middle of the city A Classical theater, 84 meters in diameter with 35 rows of seats, that could sit 4,000-6,000 people, equipped with three loges for the rulers of the city.

Its size was considerable by Classical standards, larger than the theater at Babylon, but smaller than the theater at Epidaurus. A huge palace in Greco-Bactrian architecture, somehow reminiscent of formal Persian palatial architecture A gymnasium, one of the largest of Antiquity. A dedication in Greek to Hermes and Herakles was found engraved on one of the pillars; the dedication was made by two men with Greek names. Various temples, in and outside the city; the largest temple in the city contained a monumental statue of a seated Zeus, but was built on the Zoroastrian model. A mosaic representing the Macedonian sun, acanthus leaves and various animals Numerous remains of Classical Corinthian columns Various sculptural fragments were found, in a rather conventional, classical style, rather impervious to the Hellenizing innovations occurring at the same time in the Mediterranean world. Of special notice, a huge foot fragment in excellent Hellenistic style was recovered, estimated to have belonged to a 5-6 meter tall statue.

Since the sandal of the foot fragment bears the symbolic depiction of Zeus' thunderbolt, the statue is thought to have been a smaller version of the Statue of Zeus at Olympia. Found among the sculptural remains were: A statue of a standing female in a rather archaic chiton The face of a man, sculpted in stucco An unfinished statue of a young naked man with wreath A gargoyle head representing the Greek cook-slave A frieze of a naked man the god Hermes, wearing a chlamys A hermaic sculpture of an old man thought to be a master of the gymnasium, where it was found, he used to hold a long stick in symbol of his function. Due to the lack of proper stones for sculptural work in the area of Ai-Khanoum, unbaked clay and stu

Archibald Watson

Archibald Watson FRCS was an Australian surgeon and professor of anatomy at the University of Adelaide. Watson was born at Tarcutta, New South Wales, the son of Sydney Grandison Watson, a retired naval officer who became a squatter on the upper Murray, he was educated at a national school in Sydney and Scotch College, Melbourne 1861–67, where he was a champion light-weight boxer. As an agent for his father, he arrived in Fiji on 10 March 1871 and was aboard the second voyage of the brig Carl in the Solomon Islands 1871–72, involved in blackbirding; the captain of the Carl, Joseph Armstrong, was sentenced to death for his involvement in the massacre of islanders during the earlier 1871 voyage of the Carl. Upon returning the Fiji Watson was charged with piracy in respect of the second voyage of the Carl, but was discharged from bail. Watson met Baron Ferdinand von Mueller and was advised to take up a scientific career, Watson went to Europe to study medicine, obtaining the degrees of M. D. University of Göttingen, M.

D. University of Paris, F. R. C. S. England. After doing post-graduate work at Paris he was for some time demonstrator of anatomy to Professor J. Cantlie at the Charing Cross Hospital medical school. In 1883 he went to Egypt as surgeon with Hicks Pasha's Sudan force, in 1885 became first Elder professor of anatomy at the newly founded medical school at Adelaide, he taught pathology, surgical anatomy, operative surgery. He held this position for 34 years. During this time, he was responsible for the collection of human remains of Indigenous Australians, some of which were shipped to overseas institutions. During the Boer war he was consulting-surgeon for the Natal field force; when World War I broke out in 1914, though 65 years of age, Watson left Australia with the first expeditionary force as a major in the Royal Australian Army Medical Corps and became consulting-surgeon and pathologist to No. 1 Australian Stationary Hospital at Heliopolis in Egypt. He returned to Australia in 1916. Watson visited China, South America, Japan and New Zealand, where he watched leading surgeons perform operations.

Watson resigned his university chair at the end of 1919 and spent many years travelling, visiting places as far apart as Iceland and the Falkland Islands. He journeyed round Australia gathering fishing. The'Archibald Watson Prize' at the University of Adelaide was founded by public subscription in 1935. For the last two years of his life, he lived on Thursday Island where died on 30 July 1940, three days after turning 91, he was unmarried. He is commemorated by a memorial lecture at the invitation of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, his portrait hangs in the Adelaide University's anatomy department. Additional sources listed by the Australian Dictionary of Biography: Royal Society of South Australia, Transactions, 16, pt 2, 1893. Jennifer M. T. Carter, Painting the Islands Vermillion: Archibald Watson and the Brig "Carl", Melbourne University Press, 1999.

Fred R. Ming

Frederick R. Ming was a Republican politician from Michigan who served in both houses of the Michigan Legislature, including as Speaker of the House during the 55th and 56th Legislatures. Ming was a candidate in the primary for Lieutenant Governor of Michigan in 1934, losing to Thomas Read, elected with Governor Frank Fitzgerald. Ming's parents and Mary, were born in Germany and came to the United States in 1859, settling in Oswego, New York. Ming became an orphan at the age of 13, after his father's death in 1877, worked as a farm hand an in a cheese factory in New York, he moved to Cheboygan in July 1880 where he worked in a sawmill and became a teacher. Ming attended the Ontario Veterinary College and followed his late father into that profession