2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
USS Dobbin (AD-3)
USS Dobbin is the name of a United States Navy destroyer tender of World War II, named after James Cochrane Dobbin, the Secretary of the Navy from 1853 to 1857. Dobbin was launched on 5 May 1921 by the Philadelphia Navy Yard, she was commissioned on 23 July 1924, served for 22 years before being decommissioned on 27 September 1946, transferred to the United States Maritime Commission for disposal. Dobbin was launched on 5 May 1921 at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, sponsored by Mrs. H. H. James, granddaughter of Secretary Dobbin, she was commissioned on 23 July 1924 with Commander D. C. Bingham in command. On 3 January 1925 Dobbin sailed for Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, by way of Newport, Rhode Island, Hampton Roads, where she loaded equipment and supplies for her mission as tender to Destroyer Squadron 14 of the Scouting Fleet, she joined that squadron at Guantanamo Bay, took part in gunnery practice with the destroyers. From this base, on 13 February 1925, Dobbin steamed to the Panama Canal and crossed to the Pacific Ocean.
After maneuvers at sea with the Scouting Fleet she arrived at San Diego on 9 March 1925 for 4 months of tender service along the west coast and at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Dobbin returned to the east coast in July 1925 and operated in the Atlantic Ocean for the next 7 years. During this time she participated in radio experiments and continued her services to the destroyers of the Scouting Fleet. In 1932, Dobbin returned to San Diego, arriving 1 September, operated out of that port until 5 October 1939. At that time she was based on Pearl Harbor. In July 1941 Commander Thomas C. Latimore, Dobbin's captain, disappeared, his body was never found and was the subject of much local news coverage and rumor before being overshadowed by the Pearl Harbor attack. Commander Latimore was declared dead in July 1942. Dobbin was present during the attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. At the time of the attack she was moored northeast of Ford Island with five destroyers, USS Phelps, USS Macdonough, USS Worden, USS Dewey and USS Hull.
Dobbin's crew watched as Japanese planes targeted Battleship Row, but as the battleships each took heavy damage the Japanese pilots looked for other targets. Seeing that the ship had admiral flags, the aircraft tried to bomb Dobbin, but the ship only took shrapnel damage. Dobbin's small craft spent the morning taking the wounded to shore; the ship picked up hundreds of sailors from other ships, when she left the harbor in search of the Japanese fleet, 200 men from USS Raleigh alone were aboard. After the attack, Dobbin served in the Hawaiian area until May 1942 and she was sent to Sydney, Australia. Dobbin was one of several Allied vessels located in Sydney Harbor during the Japanese midget submarine attack of 31 May 1942. On 25 June 1943 she was sent to Brisbane, Mackay and Cleveland Bay, before arriving at Milne Bay, New Guinea, 30 September 1943, she stayed near New Guinea until 14 February 1945, at which point she moved to Subic Bay in the Philippines. She served a Subic Bay from 24 February to 3 November 1945.
Dobbin returned to San Diego on 7 December 1945 and was decommissioned on 27 September 1946. She was transferred to the Maritime Commission for disposal on 24 December 1946. American Defense Service Medal with "FLEET" clasp Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with one battle star World War II Victory Medal This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here
The Solanaceae, or nightshades, are an economically important family of flowering plants. The family ranges from annual and perennial herbs to vines, epiphytes and trees, includes a number of important agricultural crops, medicinal plants, spices and ornamentals. Many members of the family contain potent alkaloids, some are toxic, but many—including tomatoes, eggplant and chili peppers, tobacco—are used; the family belongs in the asterid group and class Magnoliopsida. The Solanaceae consists of about 98 genera and some 2,700 species, with a great diversity of habitats and ecology; the name Solanaceae derives from the genus Solanum, "the nightshade plant". The etymology of the Latin word is unclear; the name may come from a perceived resemblance of certain solanaceous flowers to the sun and its rays. At least one species of Solanum is known as the "sunberry". Alternatively, the name could originate from the Latin verb solare, meaning "to soothe" referring to the soothing pharmacological properties of some of the psychoactive species of the family.
The family has a worldwide distribution. The greatest diversity in species is found in Central America. In 2017, scientists reported on their discovery and analysis of a fossil tomatillo found in the Patagonian region of Argentina, dated to 52 million years B. P; the finding has pushed back the earliest appearance of the plant family Solanaceae. As tomatillos developed than other nightshades, this may mean that the Solanaceae may have first developed during the Mesozoic Era; the Solanaceae include a number of collected or cultivated species. The most economically important genus of the family is Solanum, which contains the potato, the tomato, the eggplant or aubergine. Another important genus, produces both chili peppers and bell peppers; the genus Physalis produces the so-called groundcherries, as well as the tomatillo, the Cape gooseberry and the Chinese lantern. The genus Lycium contains the wolfberry Lycium barbarum. Nicotiana contains, among other species, tobacco; some other important members of Solanaceae include a number of ornamental plants such as Petunia and Lycianthes, sources of psychoactive alkaloids, Datura and Atropa belladonna.
Certain species are known for their medicinal uses, their psychotropic effects, or for being poisonous. Most of the economically important genera are contained in the subfamily Solanoideae, with the exceptions of tobacco and petunia. Many of the Solanaceae, such as tobacco and petunia, are used as model organisms in the investigation of fundamental biological questions at the cellular and genetic levels; the name "Solanaceae" comes to international scientific vocabulary from New Latin, from Solanum, the type genus, + -aceae, a standardized suffix for plant family names in modern taxonomy. The genus name comes from the Classical Latin word solanum, referring to nightshades, "probably from sol,'sun', + -anum, neuter of -anus." Plants in the Solanaceae can take the form of herbs, trees and lianas, sometimes epiphytes. They can be biennials, or perennials, upright or decumbent; some have subterranean tubers. They do not have coloured saps, they can have neither of these types. The leaves are alternate or alternate to opposed.
The leaves transformed into spines. The leaves are petiolate or subsessile sessile, they are inodorous, but on occasions, they are aromatic or fetid. The foliar lamina can be either simple or compound, the latter can be either pinnatifid or ternate; the leaves lack a basal meristem. The laminae are dorsiventral and lack secretory cavities; the stomata are confined to one of a leaf's two sides. The flowers are hermaphrodites, although some are monoecious, andromonoecious, or dioecious species. Pollination is entomophilous; the flowers can be grouped into terminal, cymose, or axillary inflorescences. The flowers are medium-sized, fetid, or inodorous; the flowers are actinomorphic zygomorphic, or markedly zygomorphic. The irregularities in symmetry can be due to the androecium, to the perianth, or both at the same time. In the great majority of species, the flowers have a differentiated perianth with a calyx and corolla an androecium with five stamens and two carpels forming a gynoecium with a superior ovary.
The stamens are epipetalous and are present in multiples of four or five, most four or eight. They have a hypogynous disk; the calyx is gamosepalous, with the 5 segments equal, it has five lobes, with the lobes shorter than the tube, it is persistent and accrescent. The corolla has five petals that are joined together forming a tube. Flower shapes are rotate (wheel-shap
Sugar plantations in Hawaii
Sugarcane was introduced to Hawaii by its first inhabitants and was observed by Captain Hegwood upon arrival in the islands in 1841 Sugar turned into a big business and generated rapid population growth in the islands with 337,000 people immigrating over the span of a century. The sugar grown and processed in Hawaii was shipped to the United States and, in smaller quantities, globally. Sugar Cane and Pineapple plantations were the largest employers in Hawaii. Today both are gone. Industrial sugar production started in Hawaii; the first sugar mill was created on the island of Lanaʻi in 1802 by an unidentified Chinese man who returned to China in 1803. The Old Sugar Mill, established in 1835 by Ladd & Co. is the site of the first sugar plantation. In 1836 the first 8,000 pounds of sugar and molasses was shipped to the United States; the plantation town of Koloa, was established adjacent to the mill. By the 1840s, sugarcane plantations gained a foothold in Hawaiian agriculture. Steamships provided rapid and reliable transportation to the islands, demand increased during the California Gold Rush.
The land division law of 1848 displaced Hawaiian people from their land, forming the basis for the sugarcane plantation economy. In 1850, the law was amended to allow foreign residents to lease land. In 1850, when California attained statehood, profits declined and the number of plantations decreased to five due to the import tariff, instituted. Market demand increased further during the onset of the American Civil War which prevented Southern sugar from being shipped northward; the price of sugar rose 525% from 4 cents per pound in 1861 to 25 cents in 1864. The Reciprocity Treaty of 1875 allowed Hawaii to sell sugar to the United States without paying duties or taxes increasing plantation profits; this treaty guaranteed that all of the resources including land, human labor power and technology would be thrown behind sugarcane cultivation. The 1890 McKinley Tariff Act, an effort by the United States government to decrease the competitive pricing of Hawaiian sugar, paid 2 cents per pound to mainland producers.
After significant lobbying efforts, this act was repealed in 1894. By 1890, 75% of all held land was owned by foreign businessmen; the plantation owners wanted the United States to annex Hawaii so that Hawaiian sugar would never again be subject to tariffs. They wanted the United States to annex Hawaii so there could be a US military base on the island; the industry was controlled by descendants of missionary families and other Caucasian businessmen, concentrated in corporations known in Hawaii as "The Big Five". These included Castle & Cooke, Alexander & Baldwin, C. Brewer & Co. H. Hackfeld & Co. (later named American Factors and Theo H. Davies & Co. which together gained control over other aspects of the Hawaiian economy including banking, warehousing and importing. This control of commodity distribution kept Hawaiians burdened under high prices and toiling under a diminished quality of life; these businessmen had perfected the double-edged sword of a wage-earning labor force dependent upon plantation goods and services.
Close ties as missionaries to the Hawaiian monarchy along with capital investments, cheap land, cheap labor, increased global trade, allowed them to prosper. Alexander & Baldwin acquired additional sugar lands and operated a sailing fleet between Hawai`i and the mainland; that shipping concern became American-Hawaiian Line, Matson. The sons and grandsons of the early missionaries played central roles in the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1893, creating a short-lived republic. In 1898, the Republic of Hawaii was annexed by the United States and became the Territory of Hawaii, aided by the lobbying of the sugar interests; when Hawaiian plantations began to produce on a large scale, it became obvious that a labor force needed to be imported. The Hawaiian population was 1/6 its pre-1778 size due to ravaging disease brought by foreigners. Additionally, Hawaiian people saw little use for working on the plantations when they could subsist by farming and fishing. Plantation owners began importing workers which changed Hawaii’s demographics and is an extreme example of globalization.
In 1850, the first imported worker arrived from China. Between 1852–1887 50,000 Chinese arrived to work in Hawaii, while 38% of them returned to China. Although help was needed to work the fields, new problems, like feeding and caring for new employees, were created for many of the planters since the Chinese immigrants did not live off the land like Native Hawaiians, who required little support. To maintain a workforce unable to organize against them, plantation managers diversified the ethnicities of their workforce, in 1878 the first Japanese arrived to work on the plantations. Between 1885–1924, 200,000 Japanese people arrived with 55% returning to Japan. Between 1903 -- 1910, 7,300 Koreans only 16 % returned to Korea. In 1906 Filipino people first arrived. Between 1909 and 1930, 112,800 Filipinos came to Hawaii with 36% returning to the Philippines. Plantation owners worked hard to maintain a hierarchical caste system that prevented worker organization, divided the camps based on ethnic identity.
An interesting outcome of this multi-cultural workforce and globalization of plantation workers was the emergence of a common language. Known as Hawaiian Pidgin, this hybrid of Hawaiian, Japanese and Portuguese allowed plantation workers to communicate with one another and promoted a transfer of kn
Aloha Stadium is a stadium located in Halawa, Hawaii, a western suburb of Honolulu. It is the largest stadium in the state of Hawaii. Aloha Stadium is home to the University of Hawaiʻi Rainbow Warriors football team, it hosts the NCAA's Hawai'i Bowl, was home to the National Football League's Pro Bowl from 1980 through 2016 and to the NCAA's Hula Bowl from 1975 to 1997 and again from 2006 to 2008. It hosts numerous high school football games during the season, serves as a venue for large concerts and events. A swap meet in the stadium's parking lot every Wednesday and Sunday draws large crowds. Aloha Stadium was home field for the AAA Hawaii Islanders of the Pacific Coast League from 1975 to 1987, before the team moved to Colorado Springs. Before 1975, Honolulu's main outdoor stadium had been Honolulu Stadium, a wooden stadium on King Street. However, it had reached the end of its useful life by the 1960s, was well below the standards for Triple-A baseball; the need for a new stadium was hastened by the Rainbows' move to NCAA Division I.
Located west of downtown Honolulu and two miles north of Honolulu International Airport, Aloha Stadium was constructed in 1975 at a cost of $37 million. The baseball field is aligned north-northwest; the first sporting event at Aloha Stadium was a college football game between Hawaii and Texas A&I on September 13, 1975. Played on Saturday night, the crowd was 32,247, the visitors prevailed, 43–9; the stadium was somewhat problematic for the baseball Islanders. Located in west-central Oahu, it was far from the team's fan base, many were unwilling to make the drive. Additionally, while TheBus stopped at the main gate of Honolulu Stadium, the stop for Aloha Stadium was located some distance from the gate; as a result, attendance plummeted and never recovered—a major factor in the franchise's ultimate move to the mainland. Additionally, stadium management refused to allow the use of metal spikes on the AstroTurf in May 1976; when the Tacoma Twins complied with a parent-club directive to wear the spikes, stadium management turned off the center field lights.
After 35 minutes, the umpires forfeited the game to the Twins. The Islanders protested. However, the PCL sided with the Twins, citing a league rule that the home team is responsible for providing acceptable playing facilities; the teams ended the season in a tie for first in the Western Division and Hawaii won the one-game playoff in Tacoma. As built, Aloha Stadium had various configurations for different sport venues and other purposes. Four movable 7,000-seat sections, each 3.5 million pounds could move using air casters into a diamond configuration for baseball, an oval for football, or a triangle for concerts. In January 2007, the stadium was permanently locked into its football configuration due to cost and maintenance issues. An engineer from Rolair Systems, the NASA spin-off company that engineered the system, claims that the problem was caused by a concrete contractor that ignored specifications for the concrete pads under the stadium. There have been numerous discussions with Hawaii lawmakers who are concerned with the physical condition of the stadium.
There are several issues regarding rusting of the facility, several hundred seats that need to be replaced, restroom facilities that need to be expanded to accommodate more patrons. Much of the rust is due to a design mistake in the choice of weathering steel to build the stadium, it was intended to create a protective patina that would eliminate the need for painting, but in the ocean salt-laden air of Honolulu, it has never stopped rusting. A 2005 study by Honolulu engineering firm Wiss, Elstner Associates, Inc. determined that the stadium required $99 million to be restored and an additional $115 million for ongoing maintenance and refurbishment over the next 20 years to extend its useful life. In early 2007, the state legislature proposed to spend $300 million to build a new facility as opposed to spending $216 million to extend the life of Aloha Stadium for another 20–30 years; the new stadium may be used to attempt to lure a Super Bowl to Hawaii in the future. One council member has said that if immediate repairs are not made within the next seven years the stadium will have to be demolished due to safety concerns.
In May 2007, the state allotted $12.4 million to be used towards removing corrosion and rust from the structure. In 2003, the stadium surface was changed from AstroTurf to FieldTurf. In July 2011 the field was replaced with an Act Global UBU Sports Speed S5-M synthetic turf system. In 2008, the state of Hawaii approved the bill of $185 million to refurbish the aging Aloha Stadium. In 2010, Aloha Stadium retrofitted its scoreboard and video screen to be more up to date with its high definition capability; the Aloha Stadium Authority plans to add more luxury suites, replacing all seats, rusting treatments, parking lots, more restrooms, pedestrian bridge supports, enclosed lounge, more. There is a proposal that would close the 4 openings in the corners of the stadium to add more seats. In 2011, the playing field was refurbished in part due to a naming rights sponsorship from Hawaiian Airlines; as a result of the sponsorship deal, the field was referred to as Hawaiian Airlines Field at Aloha Stadium.
The airline did not renew sponsorship after the deal expired in 2016. As a result, the field went unnamed until late August, when Hawaiian Tel Fed
Watercress or yellowcress is an aquatic plant species with the botanical name Nasturtium officinale. This should not be confused with the profoundly different and unrelated group of plants with the common name of nasturtium, within the genus Tropaeolum. Watercress is a growing, aquatic or semi-aquatic, perennial plant native to Europe and Asia, one of the oldest known leaf vegetables consumed by humans, it is a member of the family Brassicaceae, botanically related to garden cress, mustard and wasabi—all noteworthy for their piquant flavor. The hollow stems of watercress will float. Small and green flowers are produced in clusters and are visited by insects hoverflies such as Eristalis flies. Watercress is listed in some sources as belonging to the genus Rorippa, although molecular evidence shows the aquatic species with hollow stems are more related to Cardamine than Rorippa. Despite the Latin name, watercress is not closely related to the flowers popularly known as nasturtiums. Cultivation of watercress is practical on both a garden-scale.
Being semi-aquatic, watercress is well-suited to hydroponic cultivation, thriving best in water, alkaline. It is produced around the headwaters of chalk streams. In many local markets, the demand for hydroponically grown watercress exceeds supply because cress leaves are unsuitable for distribution in dried form, can only be stored fresh for a short period. Watercress can be sold in supermarkets in sealed plastic bags, containing a little moisture and pressurised to prevent crushing of contents; this has allowed national availability with a once-purchased storage life of one to two days in chilled or refrigerated storage. Sold as sprouts, the edible shoots are harvested days after germination. If unharvested, watercress can grow to a height of 50 to 120 centimetres. Like many plants in this family, the foliage of watercress becomes bitter when the plants begin producing flowers. Watercress crops grown in the presence of manure can be an environment for parasites such as the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica.
By inhibiting cytochrome P450, compounds in watercress may alter drug metabolism in individuals on certain medications such as chlorzoxazone. In some regions, watercress is regarded in other regions as an aquatic vegetable or herb. Watercress has been grown in many locations around the world. In the United Kingdom, watercress was first commercially cultivated in 1808 by the horticulturist William Bradbery, along the River Ebbsfleet in Kent. Watercress is now grown in a number of counties of the United Kingdom, most notably Hertfordshire, Hampshire and Dorset; the town of Alresford, near Winchester, holds a Watercress Festival that brings in more than 15,000 visitors every year, a preserved steam railway line has been named after the local crop. In recent years, watercress has become more available in the UK, at least in the southeast. Alresford in the U. K. is considered to be that nation's watercress capital. In the United States in the 1940s, Alabama, was locally known as the "watercress capital of the world".
Watercress is 95% water and has low contents of carbohydrates, protein and dietary fiber. A 100-gram serving of watercress provides 11 calories, is rich in vitamin K, contains significant amounts of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B6, manganese. Fool's watercress — Apium nodiflorum Garden cress List of vegetables Watercress soup Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum GLANSIS Species Fact Sheet