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Aiken County, South Carolina

Aiken County is a county in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, its population was 160,099, its county seat and largest city is Aiken. Aiken County is a part of the Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is in the Sandhills region, with the northern parts reaching in the Piedmont and southern parts reaching into the Coastal Plain. In the colonial era the area, now Aiken County was part of the Orangeburgh District; the majority of the population were immigrant farmers. Most of whom were from the rural parts of England. All of the farmers from Lincolnshire came to the colony as indentured servants in the 1730s and 1740s. However, by the 1750s all of the Lincolnshire settlers in what is now Aiken County were living on their own private land exclusively engaging in subsistence agriculture on smallholding farms. Many immigrants came from the rural eastern half of the English county of Nottinghamshire. Many indentured servants came from the towns of Newark-on-Trent, Coddington, Balderton and Farndon.

A third group of English farmers settled in the colony arriving not as individual indentured servants but as entire family units, coming from the Derbyshire Dales region of the English county of Derbyshire. A numerically smaller but influential migration came in the form of Presbyterian immigrants of Scottish ancestry who came from County Antrim and the northern portion of County Down in Ireland, as well as small numbers from the town of Kesh in County Fermanagh, Ireland; this population referred to themselves as "Ulstermen" and "Irish Presbyterians" but were known in the colonies as "Scots-Irish" settlers, though this was not a term they self-applied. The area that has since become Aiken County had a high number of first generation British immigrants who fought for the Patriot cause in the revolutionary war. Both Aiken County and its county seat of Aiken are named after William Aiken, the first president of the South Carolina Railroad Company. Aiken County was organized during the Reconstruction era in 1871 from portions of Barnwell, Edgefield and Orangeburg counties.

Prince Rivers, a freedman and state legislator from Edgefield County, had been a leader in the United States Colored Troops. He was named to head the commission, he was dubbed "The Black Prince" by local newspapers, including the Edgefield Advertiser. He led the commission that selected the site of Aiken County's present-day courthouse. Other freedmen who were part of the founding of the county were Samuel J. Lee, speaker of the state House and the first black man admitted to the South Carolina Bar. Political tensions kept rising in South Carolina during the 1870s around elections. In the months prior to the 1876 elections, Aiken County was one of the areas to suffer white paramilitary Red Shirts attacks and violence directed against black Republicans to suppress the black vote. Between the Hamburg Massacre in July and several days of rioting in September in Ellenton, more than 100 black men were killed by white paramilitary groups in this county. Two white men died in the violence. In the late 19th century, the county became a popular winter refuge for affluent Northerners, who built luxury housing.

The county remains popular with horse trainers and professional riders because mild winters allow lengthy training seasons. In the 1950s, Aiken County was chosen as the location for storage and production of nuclear materials and various fissile materials, now known as the Savannah River Site. Ellenton, South Carolina was acquired and its buildings demolished for its development of this plant, its residents and businesses were all moved north about eight miles to New Ellenton. Developed during Cold War tensions, the facility is now scheduled for decommissioning of various parts of the site. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,081 square miles, of which 1,071 square miles is land and 9.6 square miles is water. It is the fourth-largest county in South Carolina by land area. Saluda County - north Lexington County - northeast Orangeburg County - east Barnwell County - south Burke County, Georgia - southwest Edgefield County - west Richmond County, Georgia - west I-20 I-520 U.

S. 1 US 25 US 78 US 278 As of the census of 2000, there were 142,552 people, 55,587 households, 39,411 families living in the county. The population density was 133 inhabitants per square mile. There were 61,987 housing units at an average density of 58 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 71.37% White, 25.56% Black or African American, 0.40% Native American, 0.63% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.18% from two or more races. 2.12 % of the population were Latino of any race. 22.0% were of American, 9.7% English, 8.4% German and 7.9% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 55,587 households out of which 33.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.30% were married couples living together, 13.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.10% were non-families. 25.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.03.

In the county, the population was spread out with 26.20% under th

Urban planning education

Urban planning education is a practice of teaching and learning urban theory and professional practices. The interaction between public officials, professional planners and the public involves a continuous education on planning process. Community members serve on a city planning commission, council or board; as a result, education outreach is an ongoing cycle. Formal education is offered as an academic degree in urban, city or regional planning, awarded as a bachelor's degree, master's degree, or doctorate. Since planning programs are small, they tend not to be housed in distinct "planning schools" but rather, as part of an architecture school, a design school, a geography department, or a public policy school, since these are cognate fields. Speaking, planning programs in architecture schools focus on physical planning and design, while those in policy schools tend to focus on policy and administration; as urban planning is such a broad and interdisciplinary field, a typical planning degree program emphasizes breadth over depth, with core coursework that provides background for all areas of planning.

Core courses include coursework in history/theory of urban planning, urban design, land use/planning law, urban economics, planning practice. Many planning degree programs allow a student to "concentrate" in a specific area of interest within planning, such as land use, environmental planning, community development, economic development, historic preservation, international development, urban design, transportation planning, or geographic information systems; some programs permit a student to concentrate in real estate, graduate real estate education has changed giving rise to specialized real estate programs. Bachelor of Planning is an undergraduate academic degree designed to train applicants in various aspects of designing, engineering and resolving challenges related to urban human settlements, it is awarded for a course of study that lasts up to four years and contextual to modern challenges of urbanisation. It goes into the techniques and theories related to settlement design starting at the site planning level of a neighbourhood and moving up to the regional city planning context.

Understanding relations between built forms and the citizens in cities and rural areas, their implications on local environment, supporting utilities, transport networks, physical infrastructure forms the core of the planning course. With an engineering orientation, the graduates emerging as urban planners are equipped with not only tools for rational comprehensive planning but participatory and social development; the degree may be awarded as a Bachelor of Arts in Geography with an emphasis in urban planning, Bachelor of Arts in Urban Planning, or Bachelor of Science in Urban and Regional Planning. The distinction reflects university policies, or some universities may have greater course offerings in urban planning, sociology, or a related degree; the Master of Urban Planning is a two-year academic/professional master's degree that qualifies graduates to work as urban planners. Some schools offer the degree as a Master of City Planning, Master of Community Planning, Master of Regional Planning, Master of Town Planning, Master of Planning, Master of Environmental Planning or in some combination of the aforementioned, depending on the program's specific focus.

Some schools offer a Master of Master of Science in Planning. Regardless of the name, the degree remains the same. A thesis, final project or capstone project is required to graduate. Additionally, an internship component is always mandatory due to the high value placed on work experience by prospective employers in the field. Like most professional master's degree programs, the MUP is a terminal degree. However, some graduates choose to continue on to doctoral studies in urban planning or cognate fields; the Ph. D. is a research degree, as opposed to the professional MUP, thus focuses on training planners to engage in scholarly activity directed towards providing greater insight into the discipline and underlying issues related to urban development. Accreditation is a system for recognizing educational institutions and professional programs affiliated with those institutions for a level of performance and quality; the Planning Accreditation Board is the sole accreditor of planning programs in the United States.

The Planning Accreditation Board accredits graduate and undergraduate planning programs in the United States and Canada. As of January 1, 2016, PAB accredits 15 undergraduate programs and 71 graduate programs in 75 North America Universities; the Planning Accreditation Board accredits university programs in North America leading to bachelors and masters degrees in planning. The accreditation process is based on standards approved by the PAB and its sponsoring organizations: the American Planning Association. Graduation from a PAB accredited program allows a graduate to sit for the American Institute of Certified Planners Certification Exam earlier in their career than a student with a degree from a non-accredited program or school. Programs that desire accreditation through the PAB must apply for candidacy status; the program seeking candidacy must demonstrate that they meet the five preconditions to accreditation. The five preconditions are: Program graduation of at least 25 students in the degree.

Program's parent institution must be accr

Kohistan District, Kapisa

Kohistan transliterated Kuhistan, Kuhiston, is the northern district of Kapisa province, Afghanistan. In productive agricultural seasons the area has an abundance of sweet mulberries, grapes and pomegranates. Yearly thousands of visitors spend their weekends in its picnic place of Sayaad along the Panjshir river that flows into Sourubi lake; the population was 100,200 Persian-speaking Tājik people. The district is on the border of Panjshir provinces; the Kohistani Tajiks proved to be the most powerful and best organized groups that fought against the British occupation of Kabul in 1879 to 1880 in the Second Anglo-Afghan War. During the war against USSR, Kohistan was one of the strongholds and headquarters for the Mujaheddin and on it was one of the last remaining areas, not in control of the Taliban; the district was the front line against the Taliban, the people in district fought hard and bravely to counter the attacks of the Taliban many times. In 2005 the district was dissolved and was split into two new districts: Hesa Awal Kohistan District Hesa Duwum Kohistan District District map of the former Kohestan District now split into Hesa Awal Kohistan District and Hesa Duwum Kohistan District District Profile Kohistani.

Com - District Photo Gallery Kohistan Discussion Forum Kohistan Chat Room Kohistan Web Site

Cheyenne (supercomputer)

The Cheyenne supercomputer at the NCAR-Wyoming Supercomputing Center in Cheyenne, Wyoming began operation as one of the world’s most powerful and energy-efficient computers. Ranked in November 2016 as the 20th most powerful computer in the world by Top500, the 5.34-petaflops system is capable of more than triple the amount of scientific computing performed by NCAR’s previous supercomputer, Yellowstone. It is three times more energy efficient than Yellowstone, with a peak computation rate of more than 3 billion calculations per second for every watt of energy consumed; the National Science Foundation and the State of Wyoming through an appropriation to the University of Wyoming funded Cheyenne to provide the United States with a major new tool to advance understanding of the atmospheric and related Earth system sciences. High-performance computers such as Cheyenne allow researchers to run detailed models that simulate complex processes to estimate how they might unfold in the future; these predictions give resource managers and policy experts valuable information for planning ahead and mitigating risk.

Cheyenne’s users advance the knowledge needed for saving lives, protecting property, enabling U. S. businesses to better compete in the global marketplace. Scientists across the country will use Cheyenne to study phenomena ranging from weather and climate to wildfires, seismic activity, airflows that generate power at wind farms, their findings lay the groundwork for better protecting society from natural disasters, lead to more detailed projections of seasonal and longer-term weather and climate variability and change, improve weather and water forecasts that are needed by economic sectors from agriculture and energy to transportation and tourism. The supercomputer’s name was chosen to honor the people of Cheyenne, who supported the installation of the NWSC and its computers there; the name commemorates the 150th anniversary of the city, founded in 1867 and named for the Native American Cheyenne Nation. The Cheyenne supercomputer was built by Silicon Graphics International Corporation in coordination with centralized file system and data storage components provided by DataDirect Networks.

The SGI high-performance computer is a 5.34-petaflops system, meaning it can carry out 5.34 quadrillion calculations per second. The new data storage system for Cheyenne is integrated with NCAR’s existing GLADE file system; the DDN storage provides an initial capacity of 20 petabytes, expandable to 40 petabytes with the addition of extra drives. This, combined with the current 16 petabytes of GLADE, totals 36 petabytes of high-speed storage as of February 2017. Cheyenne is an SGI ICE XA system with 4,032 dual-socket scientific computation nodes running 18-core 2.3-GHz Intel Xeon E5-2697v4 processors with 203 terabytes of memory. Interconnecting these nodes is a Mellanox EDR InfiniBand network with 9-D enhanced hypercube topology that performs with a latency of only 0.5 microsecond. Cheyenne runs the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP1 operating system. Cheyenne is integrated with many other high-performance computing resources in the NWSC; the central feature of this supercomputing architecture is its shared file system that streamlines science workflows by providing computation and visualization work spaces common to all resources.

This common data storage pool, called the GLobally Accessible Data Environment, provides 36.4 petabytes of online disk capacity shared by the supercomputers, two data analysis and visualization cluster computers, data servers for both local and remote users, a data archive with the capacity to store 320 petabytes of research data. High-speed networks connect this Cheyenne environment to science gateways, data transfer services, remote visualization resources, Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment sites, partner sites around the world; this integration of computing resources, file systems, data storage, broadband networks allows scientists to simulate future geophysical scenarios at high resolution analyze and visualize them on one computing complex. This improves scientific productivity by avoiding the delays associated with moving large quantities of data between separate systems. Further, this reduces the volume of data that needs to be transferred to researchers at their home institutions.

Cheyenne makes more than 1.2 billion core-hours available each year to researchers in the Earth system sciences

Great Gatsby curve

The Great Gatsby curve is a chart plotting the relationship between inequality and intergenerational social immobility in several countries around the world. The curve was introduced in a 2012 speech by chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers Alan Krueger, the President's Economic Report to Congress, using data from labor economist Miles Corak; the name was coined by former Council of Economic Advisers staff economist Judd Cramer, for which he was given a bottle of wine as a reward. The curve relates intergenerational income elasticity—a measure of the persistence of incomes between parents and their children—and inequality in the United States and twelve other developed countries, though some versions of the curve include developing countries. Countries with low levels of inequality such as Denmark and Finland have some of the greatest mobility, while the two countries with the highest level of inequality—Chile and Brazil—have some of the lowest mobility; the name of the curve refers to Jay Gatsby, the main character in F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel The Great Gatsby.

Gatsby embodies the concept of mobility, rising from being a bootlegger to leading the Long Island north shore social set. Journalist Robert Lenzner and lawyer Nripendra Chakravarthy call it "a frightening curve that requires policy attention." Krueger predicted that "the persistence in the advantages and disadvantages of income passed from parents to the children" will "rise by about a quarter for the next generation as a result of the rise in inequality that the U. S. has seen in the last 25 years."Journalist Timothy Noah argued the effect results from growing inequality: "you can't experience ever-growing income inequality without experiencing a decline in Horatio Alger-style upward mobility because it's harder to climb a ladder when the rungs are farther apart." Another journalist argued that a connection between income inequality and low mobility could be explained by the lack of access for un-affluent children to better schools and if this enabled access to high-paying jobs. However, some argue that the apparent connection may arise as an artifact of heterogeneous variance in ability across nations, questioning the need for intervention.

It was shown that the manner in which the intergenerational income elasticity is defined, is by design associated with inequality. Harvard economist Greg Mankiw noted that "this correlation is not surprising", showing that comparisons of more diverse groups with less diverse groups will automatically exhibit this phenomenon when there are in fact no differences in the processes of mobility between these groups, i.e. the curve is an artifact of diversity. His quote: Germans are richer on average than Greeks, that difference in income tends to persist from generation to generation; when people look at the Great Gatsby curve, they omit this fact, because the nation is the unit of analysis. But it is not obvious that the political divisions that divide people are the right ones for economic analysis. We combine the persistently rich Connecticut with the persistently poor Mississippi, so why not combine Germany with Greece? A blog by M. S. at The Economist replied to Mankiw's counter-argument as follows: The argument over the Great Gatsby curve is an argument about whether America's economy is fair.

With his Germany/Greece and Mississippi/Connecticut analogy, Mr Mankiw has stumbled on a convincing point: whether you are rich or poor in Europe or America depends to a great extent not on your own qualities or efforts, but on where you happen to be born. America is not a meritocracy, Mr Mankiw is saying. Amazingly, he seems unaware that this is the case he's just made. Economist Paul Krugman has countered Mankiw's arguments in his column. Carter Price of the WCEG suggests "the line to serfdom" as an alternative name on the grounds that it may better convey the meaning of the correlation. Economy of the United States Income inequality in the United States Socioeconomic mobility in the United States Great Divergence List of countries by income equality Global Social Mobility Index Gini coefficient Stewart, Matthew. "The 9.9 Percent Is the New American Aristocracy". The Atlantic

Caroline Millar

Caroline Millar is an Australian diplomat and public servant, the Deputy Secretary for National Security of the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. She has served as Deputy Head of Mission of the Australian Embassy in Washington, D. C. the Permanent Representative to the United Nations in Geneva, was the acting-Head of Mission of the Australian Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York. Born in Melbourne, Victoria in 1958, Millar received her tertiary education at the University of Cambridge, from which she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts and a Master of Arts in History. Millar's first posting after joining the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade was as Second Secretary to the embassy in Hanoi, Vietnam. In 1989 Millar became First Secretary to the Australian embassy in Washington and in 1991 was seconded to the Australian Office of National Assessments as a Senior Americas Analyst. In 1995, Millar was sent to New York to be a Counsellor in the Permanent Mission to the United Nations, serving until 1998.

After holding various administrative positions in Canberra, Millar was appointed the Ambassador for People Smuggling Issues in 2003. Serving until 2005, between February and April 2006 Millar acted as Head of Mission to the Permanent Mission to the UN in New York and was thereafter appointed to succeed Michael Smith as Permanent Representative of Australia to the United Nations Office in Geneva. In 2006, Millar was elected as President of the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention's Seventh Meeting of the States Parties, or Ottawa Treaty. Ambassador Millar was only the second woman to lead the treaty. In 2008 Millar represented Australia during the Oslo Process that resulted in the 2008 adoption of the Convention on Cluster Munitions. While in Geneva Millar served as President of the Conference on Disarmament, but found the deadlock over the disarmament issue frustrating: "To those unfamiliar with the arcane workings of this chamber, this is neither understandable nor acceptable. To those within it, it is all too familiar and dispiriting."Returning to Australia from Geneva in 2010, Millar was appointed Head of the United Nations Security Council Taskforce dealing with Australia's bid for a non-permanent seat on the council and was made First Assistant Secretary of the International Security Division.

In January 2014 Millar was appointed Deputy Head of Mission to Ambassador Kim Beazley in Washington