Ain is a department named after the Ain River on the eastern edge of France. It bordered by the rivers Saône and Rhône. Ain is composed of four geographically different areas each of which contribute to the diversity and the dynamic economic development of the department. In the Bresse agriculture and agro-industry are dominated by the cultivation of cereals, cattle breeding and cheese production as well as poultry farming. In the Dombes, pisciculture assumes greater importance. Due to the alphabetical numbering of French departments, Ain is assigned the number "01" as its department number; the first inhabitants settled in the territory of today's Ain about 15000 BC. The Menhir of Pierrefiche in Simandre-sur-Suran dates from the mid-Neolithic era, in the fourth or third millennium BC; the late-second century BC Calendar of Coligny bears the longest surviving Gaulish inscription. In the year 58 BC Julius Caesar's military action against the Helvetians advancing through Gaul on the territory of today's Ain marked the beginning of the Gallic Wars.

Under the Merovingians, the four historic regions of the modern département belonged to the Kingdom of Burgundy. In the beginning of the 6th century AD the diocese of Belley was created, the first bishopric in the region. Abbeys of the order of Saint Benedict were established in the valleys. In 843 the Treaty of Verdun assigned the territories that comprise the Ain to the kingdom of Lothar I; the first big fiefdoms emerge between 895 and 900 in Bâgé-le-Châtel, which formed the nucleus of the pays of Bresse, in Coligny. Numerous castles were erected in a low rolling terrain, not otherwise defended. In the 12th century the Romanesque architecture prospered. In the 11th century the Counts of Savoy and Valromey settled in the region of Belley. In 1272, when Sibylle de Bâgé, sole heir, married Amadeus V, Count of Savoy, they added the Bresse to their domains, – by the Treaties of Paris in 1355 – the territories of Dauphiné and Gex on the right bank of the Rhône. In the beginning of the 15th century the whole region of Ain was united under the house of Savoy.

New monasteries were founded in the cities, churches were constructed or reshaped according to the Gothic style of architecture. At the beginning of the 16th century the Duchy of Savoy was at the peak of its power and Ain was inherited by Margaret of Habsburg, the widow of Philibert II, Duke of Savoy. In Brou she erected a monastery in late-Gothic style. Bourg-en-Bresse became. After Margaret's death Francis I of France, a nephew of the Dukes of Savoy, claimed the Duchy for himself and conquered it in 1536; the Treaty of Lyon of 17 January 1601 ended the conflict. Ain now belonged to Burgundy. In the 17th century sculpture and literature prospered. During the 18th century streets and small industries emerged. On 28 March 1762 the Count of Eu, son of the Duke of Maine, ceded the region of Dombes to Louis XV. In 1790, during the French Revolution, the departments of Ain and Léman were created. Ain was subdivided into 49 cantons and 501 communes; the Revolution did not claim many victims in the department, but it destroyed numerous valuable historical monuments.

During the first French Consulate the districts were abolished. The Congress of Vienna dissolved the department of Léman and assigns the arrondissement Gex to the department of Ain. During the French Revolution and the First Empire a large number of churches were destroyed, but in 1823 the diocese of Belley was refounded; the Curé of Ars became famous. During the Second French Empire numerous churches were rebuilt, agriculture changed profoundly, the railway expanded. Due to its distance from the frontline the department was spared the destruction of World War I. However, the majority of the vineyards can no longer be cultivated, disappeared. Industrialization of the department began in Bellegarde. Construction of the Barrage de Génissiat started in 1937. World War II vehemently struck the department of Ain and took its toll: 600 people were deported; the monument of the Maquis in Cerdon, the memorial of the children of Izieu and the museum of the resistance and deportation in Nantua commemorate this tragic era.

In the second half of the 20th century the industrialization of the department proceeded, favored by a narrow street and railway network. Ain is a department of geographic contrasts: In the north the plain of Bresse is bordered by the river Saône and rises towards the north-east. In the south-east the territory of the Dombes has more than a thousand lakes. In the east the mountain chain of the southern Jura overlooks the plain of Bresse; the busy transport axes to Italy and Switzerland crisscross the valleys. The Gex region is separated from the rest of the department by the last eastern mountain chain of the Jura where the highest elevation in the department, the Crêt de la Neige, can be found. Gex belongs geographically to the Lake Geneva basin; the river Saône represents the western border of the department. It is fed by three smaller rivers: the Veyle and the Chalaronne; the river Rhône represents the departments border in the south. Its main tributaries are the Suran (50 km

Dona Strauss

Dona Anschel Papert Strauss is a South African mathematician working in topology and functional analysis. Her doctoral thesis was one of the initial sources of pointless topology, she has been active in the political left, lost one of her faculty positions over her protests of the Vietnam War, became a founder of European Women in Mathematics. Mathematician Neil Hindman, with whom Strauss wrote a book on the Stone–Čech compactification of topological semigroups, has stated the following as advice for other mathematicians: "Find someone, smarter than you are and get them to put your name on their papers", writing that for him, that someone was Dona Strauss. Strauss is from South Africa, the descendant of Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe, her father was a physicist at the University of Cape Town. She grew up in the Eastern Cape, earned a master's degree in mathematics at the University of Cape Town, she completed her Ph. D. at the University of Cambridge in 1958. Her dissertation, Lattices of Functions and Open Sets, was supervised by Frank Smithies.

After completing her doctorate, she took a faculty position at the University of London. Following her husband's dream of living on a farm in Vermont, she moved to Dartmouth College in 1966. By 1972, she was working at the University of Hull and circa 2008 she became a professor at the University of Leeds. After retiring, she has been listed by Leeds as an honorary visiting fellow. In South Africa, Strauss developed a strong antipathy to racial discrimination from a combination of being a Jew at the time of the Holocaust and her own observations of South African society. At the University of Cape Town, she became a member of the Non-European Unity Movement. After completing her degree, she left the country in protest over apartheid. In the 1950s, she published editorial works in Socialist Review, in the 1960s she was active in Solidarity; as an assistant professor at Dartmouth College in 1969, Strauss took part in a student anti-war protest that occupied Parkhurst Hall, the building that housed the college administration.

In response, Dartmouth announced that Strauss and another faculty protester would not have their contracts renewed, that they would be suspended from the faculty and "denied all rights and privileges of membership on the Dartmouth faculty", the first time in the college's history that it had taken this step. In 1986, Strauss became one of the five founders of European Women in Mathematics, together with Bodil Branner, Caroline Series, Gudrun Kalmbach, Marie-Françoise Roy. Strauss is the co-author of: Algebra in the Stone-Čech compactification: Theory and applications Banach algebras on semigroups and on their compactifications Banach spaces of continuous functions as dual spaces In 2009 the University of Cambridge hosted a meeting, "Algebra and Analysis around the Stone-Cech Compactification", in honour of Strauss's 75th birthday. Strauss married Seymour Papert. Papert was South African, became a co-author and fellow student of Frank Smithies with Strauss at Cambridge, she met Edmond Strauss, at the University of London.

She is a strong amateur chess player, was director of the Brighton and Hove Progressive Synagogue for 2014–2015


Kutta is a small village near Gonikoppal in the Karnataka state of India. Kutta is located on the Madikeri - Mananthavady road close to the Kerala border. Kutta is the entrance point to Nagarhole National Park. Tholpetty wildlife sanctuary is nearby. Kutta has a post office; the pincode is 571250. Kutta doesn't have any tourist attraction of its own except the Kaveri river, but it is near to many popular tourist destinations of Kodagu district. Pakshi Pathalam is a hillock near Kutta which can be reached by trekking seven kilometers from Thirunelli temple. There is a cave on the hillock with many bird species. Kutta is known for its peaceful atmosphere and so a large number of homestays and resorts are located here. Iruppu Falls in the jungles is a short drive from Kutta; the road from Kutta winds its way to Kabini backwaters and HD Kote. Kutta bus station is a terminal for both Karnataka buses and Kerala buses. There is a jeep stand at the end of the street