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Ainu language

The Ainu language is a language isolate or language family spoken by the Ainu people of Northern Japan. The varieties of Ainu are alternately considered a group of related languages or divergent dialects of a single language isolate; the only surviving variety is the Hokkaido Ainu. Varieties from Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands are now extinct. Placename evidence suggests Ainu was spoken in Northern Honshu in the past. No genealogical relationship between Ainu and any other language family has been demonstrated, despite numerous attempts; because of the history of colonization policy employed by the modern Japanese government in the Hokkaido area, the number of Ainu language speakers has decreased and few people can speak the language fluently in daily life. Shibatani and Piłsudski speak of "Ainu languages" when comparing the varieties of Hokkaidō and Sakhalin. However, Vovin speaks only of "dialects". Refsing says Sakhalin Ainu were not mutually intelligible. Hattori considered Ainu data from 19 regions of Hokkaido and Sakhalin and found the primary division to lie between the two islands.

Data on Kuril Ainu is scarce, but it is thought to have been as divergent as Sakhalin and Hokkaidō. In Sakhalin Ainu, an eastern coastal dialect of Taraika was quite divergent from the other localities; the Raychishka dialect, on the western coast near modern Uglegorsk, is the best documented and has a dedicated grammatical description. Take Asai, the last speaker of Sakhalin Ainu, died in 1994; the Sakhalin Ainu dialects had long vowels and a final -h phoneme, which they pronounced as /x/. Hokkaidō Ainu clustered into several dialects with substantial differences between them: the'neck' of the island. Most texts and grammatical descriptions we have of Ainu cover the Central Hokkaidō dialect. Scanty data from Western voyages at the turn of the 19th–20th century suggest there was great diversity in northern Sakhalin, not sampled by Hattori. Vovin splits Ainu "dialects" as follows: Proto-Ainu Proto-Hokkaido–Kuril Hokkaido dialects Kuril dialects Proto-Sakhalin Sakhalin dialects Ainu syllables are CV, that is, they have an obligatory syllable onset and an optional syllable coda.

There are few consonant clusters. There are five vowels in Ainu: There were long vowels in Sakhalin Ainu. Plosives / p t ts k / may be voiced after nasals. Both /ti/ and /tsi/ are realized as, /s/ becomes before /i/ and at the end of syllables. There is some variation among dialects. After an /i/, this /x/ is pronounced. A glottal stop is inserted at the beginning of words, before an accented vowel, but is non-phonemic. There is a pitch accent system; the accentuation of specific words varies somewhat from dialect to dialect. Words including affixes have a high pitch on the stem, or on the first syllable if it is closed or has a diphthong, while other words have the high pitch on the second syllable, although there are exceptions to this generalization. Typologically, Ainu is similar in word order to Japanese. Ainu has a canonical word order of SOV, it uses postpositions rather than prepositions. Nouns can cluster to modify one another. Verbs, which are inherently either transitive or intransitive, accept various derivational affixes.

Ainu does not have grammatical gender. Plurals are indicated by a suffix. Classical Ainu, the language of the yukar, is polysynthetic, with incorporation of nouns and adverbs. Applicatives may be used in Ainu to place nouns in the dative, comitative, allative, or ablative roles. Besides freestanding nouns, these roles may be assigned to incorporated nouns, such use of applicatives is in fact mandatory for incorporating oblique nouns. Like incorporation, applicatives have grown less common in the modern language. Ainu has a closed class of plural verbs, some of these are suppletive; the Ainu language is written in a modified version of the Japanese katakana syllabary. There is a Latin-based alphabet in use; the Ainu Times publishes in both. In the Latin orthography, /ts/ is spelled c and /j/ is spelled y. Other phonemes use the same character as the IPA transcription given above. An equals sign is used to mark morpheme boundaries, such as after a prefix, its pitch accent is denoted by acute accent in Latin script.

This is not denoted in katakana. Rev. John Batchelor was an English missionary who lived among the Ainu, studied them and published many works on the Ainu language. Batchelor wrote works in Ainu itself, he was the first to use a writing system for it. Batchelor's translations of various books of the Bible were p


The family Oplophoridae is a taxon of pelagic shrimp and the only subtaxon of the superfamily Oplophoroidea. It contains the following genera: Acanthephyra A. Milne-Edwards, 1881 Ephyrina Smith, 1885 Heterogenys Chace, 1986 Hymenodora Sars, 1877 Janicella Chace, 1986 Kemphyra Chace, 1986 Meningodora Smith, 1882 Notostomus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881 † Odontochelion Garassino, 1994 Oplophorus H. Milne-Edwards, 1837 Systellaspis Bate, 1888 † Tonellocaris Garassino, 1998Molecular phylogenetics suggests that the family as circumscribed is polyphyletic, may lead to the resurrection of a family Acanthephyridae for all genera except Oplophorus and Janicella. Data related to Oplophoridae at Wikispecies

Night Market Life

Night Market Life is a Taiwanese Hokkien television drama that began airing on Formosa Television in Taiwan on 22 December 2009. This is known as the first HD drama broadcast on Formosa Television, it stars Chen Meifeng, Morning Chang, Peng Chia-chia, Jimmy Ni, Wang Shih-hsien, Fon Cin, Mike Lee and Chiang Tsu-ping among others. Little of the show is set in a night market. Rather, the show is centered on several vendors at a night market whose children befriend each other and go their separate paths upon reaching adulthood; as the series' popularity grew, the story was expanded to span two generations of characters. As of June 2011, the show airs in Taiwan every weeknight at prime time with episodes which have ranged in length from 135 to 150 minutes including commercial advertisements; the producers received funding from the Government Information Office to produce the series in high definition. With admiration and some criticism, the show concluded on 19 July 2011, when the brand-new television drama of Formosa Television and Son, was released.

The Vietnamese dub "Doi Song Cho Dem" was broadcast on Vinh Long Television Station Channel and is streamable on YouTube. The story takes place between 1998 and 2018 where children grow up from childhood in a Night Market to adulthood in the outside world. Cai Yue Xia Chen Meifeng) works as a Chinese Herb Soup hawker in her store at the Jin Hua Night Market, she has a husband, Li Qing Xiang, a businessman. Together, they have a son, Li You a daughter, Li You Hui, they are once happy family until Qing Xiang betrayed his wife and married He Nana and were blessed with a daughter named Li Xiao Xuan. He Nana was not pleased that Qing Xiang did not give her a right status, so she challenges Yue Xia and despises her two children. Qing Xiang is not willing to help Yue Xia. Yue Xia divorces with Qing Xiang and married Jiang Yi Guan, the ex-husband of Fang Qia Qia, mother of Jin Da Feng, a parliamentarian in 1999 and wife of Jin Ju Fu. Yi Guan is a gang leader and he is assisted by Hei Ren and Bai Mu, but has a soft-heart when come to problems of Yue Xia's family and You Zhi and his classmates.

Yue Xia's life gets worse because of such fact makes Qia Qia seek her as her enemy. Meanwhile, Qing Xiang has a business partner, Ye Han Liang, a fashion clothes seller, the father of Ye Ru Yi. Qing Xiang and Han Liang have always against each other since their negotiation for co-business have failed. Xu Lai Fa have to sell chewing gum to make ends meet, he has a mother, Huang Mian Xiu who work so hard to earn income for the family and a father, Xu Bing Ding, a drunkard once a gambler. You Zhi, You Hui, Da Feng, Xiao Xuan, Ru Yi and Lai Fa are classmates when they are young and care for each other at all times as they grew up, they are known as the "golden six" because they are the most notable school choir club member; the School Choir Club was led by Jiang Yi Fan, sister of Jiang Yi Guan until she dies when she give birth to Fan Jia Xin. One day, Yi Guan was sentenced to prison for 20 years after found guilty of killed Tie Zhi. 20 years all the six schoolmates lead their different paths of life.

Li You Zhi is just a common construction labour and got into fight with gangsters whenever they approach him and marries Fan Ke Xin. Li You Hui and Li Xiao Xuan hold high positions at Yilida Bicycle Company, they got into conflict wherever they are but Xiao Xuan was supported at the back by Fang Qia Qia. Jin Da Feng opens his own company and becomes its CEO. Xu Lai Fa becomes a doctor and marries Ye Ru Yi, a makeup receptionist but he is ambitious until he left Ru Yi and marries Chen Chun Chun. Both You Hui and Xiao Xuan declared their love to Jin Da Feng, caused Da Feng to be pushed into a love triangle affairs. Wu Yin Min and Fang Qia Qia cooperate together as gangster leaders and try to break down Li You Zhi and his friend's life. Xu Lai Fa loses his friends, his wife his money because of his greed and was disposed by many. So he uses Zhou Xiu Xiu to seduce Chen He Qian. Ru Yi managed to take care of her for the rest of her life. You Hui becomes vengeful and stops anything or anyone that gets into her path, this is after she divorces with Da Feng because he was in romance with Xiao Xuan.

You Hui snatched husband Yang Hao Tian after that, in love with Chun Zhen. Yang Hao Tian is heir to Yilida but due to him being seduced by You Hui, he left the bicycle company and established a new one called Shuda; this strained his relationship with his family. One day, Jin Da Feng started to become cruel heart and killed Fan Ke Xin one day in the latter's wedding with You Zhi, he is wanted by the police and is on the run. Meanwhile, both Lai Fa and Ru Yi found themselves both have Leukaemia and Cervix Cancer respectively. Lai Fa have regret in the process; as the series goes by, Li You Zhi saw Xu Lai Fa and Jin Da Feng's regret and desire to redeem their mistakes. Li You Zhi work with his friends together to overpower Ying Ming and Qia Qia and send them to justice. After Ying Ming and Qia Qia apprehended, Da Feng

To Holmgard and Beyond

"To Holmgard and Beyond" is the first single of the Finnish Viking metal band Turisas. It was released on May 2007 by Century Media in Finland exclusively. "To Holmgard and Beyond" "A Portage to the Unknown" "Rex Regi Rebellis" "Battle Metal" Live at Party San'06 Mathias Nygård – vocals, orchestral programming and keyboards Jussi Wickström – guitar Tude Lehtonen – drums and percussion Olli Vänskä – violin Hannes Horma – bass Lisko – accordion

Devon Labour Briefing

Devon Labour Briefing was a magazine established in Exeter, England, in 1984 by left-wing Labour Party members modelled on London Labour Briefing. Exeter Labour Briefing, the forerunner of Devon Labour Briefing, was founded in the autumn of 1983. One source of support was the left-wing of the Exeter Pennsylvania/St. Davids branch of the Exeter Labour Party. Following the banning of articles critical of the Party in the branch newsletter, left-wingers decided to set up a publication independent of the Party. A key source of support was Exeter University Labour Club, several of whose members became active participants. Briefing supporters were in a majority in the Exeter Labour Party Young Socialists, A handful of supporters developed in other Exeter Labour Party branches Rougemont/St. Leonards branch and Polsloe/Stoke Hill. Though Devon Labour Briefing was associated with a London-based national organisation, the focus of its politics was much the Exeter Labour Party. Briefing accused the city party of being authoritarian, non-socialist and sexist.

The local Labour leadership and councillors were deemed'municipal careerists' who sought status and respectability rather than advancing socialist causes. These intra-Labour Party themes featured prominently in the magazine. In 1984, Labour won control of Exeter City Council in coalition with the Liberal/SDP Alliance and the Liberal Democrats. Devon Labour Briefing was critical of this coalition; when the Labour candidate in the St. Leonards by-election stood down in favour of the Liberal Democrats, Devon Labour Briefing campaigned for the Green Party. In the UK miners' strike, Devon Labour Briefing twinned itself with the Maerdy Colliery in South Wales, collected money and food. Supporters of Devon Labour Briefing were elected to leading positions in the Exeter Anti-Apartheid Movement after bitter disputes with some Labour Party and Communist Party members. Devon Labour Briefing supporters participated in the Exeter Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, which peaked at over 1000 members in the 1980s Briefing had little influence but aligned its votes with those of members of the Green Party In 1987, Devon Labour Briefing joined with the leadership of the East Devon Labour Party to set up the East Devon Socialist Campaign Group.

The main focus of the group was to back the 1988 national leadership bid of Tony Benn MP and Eric Heffer MP. Though the group made limited headway across the region, the exclusive Labour Party orientation of East Devon Labour Party members was at odds with the more radical approach of Devon Labour Briefing. Devon Labour Briefing supporters were in involved in the Exeter Marxist Reading Group, run by the Workers Revolutionary Party; the group sought to relate the texts of classical Marxism to contemporary politics. In the autumn, Devon Labour Briefing organised a socialist Day School in Exeter. Speakers and workshop moderators were invited from elsewhere. Exeter Labour Briefing, the forerunner of Devon Labour Briefing, began publication in the autumn of 1983; the leadership of Exeter Labour Party immediately took disciplinary against the publication on the grounds that the magazine might be confused with an Exeter Labour Party publication. The dispute was temporarily resolved with the magazine being renamed Devon Labour Briefing, following the intervention of Tony Benn MP, a member of the National Executive Committee.

In 1985, the leadership resumed disciplinary action against the editors of the magazine on the grounds that the magazine was'prejudicial to interests of the Party.' The leadership interrogated five writers and three were recommended for expulsion from the Labour Party. Before the Management Committee of Exeter Labour Party could decide the issue, the three obtained a High Court injunction stopping the expulsion process as the whole expulsion process breached the rules of natural justice. After stating that they would contest the action, the Labour Party withdrew from the case making them liable for court costs. In 1987, Exeter Labour Party again began disciplinary action against one person involved with the magazine through the newly formed Labour Party National Constitutional Committee. After a day-long hearing in Exeter the contributor concerned received a formal warning but was not expelled. In 1988, the Labour-controlled Exeter City Council in collaboration with the William and Mary Tercentenary Trust planned to celebrate the so-called Glorious Revolution of 1688 on the grounds that Exeter was the first English city in which William III of England set foot.

The National Front, the Orange Order and other right wing groups announced that they too would participate in the celebrations. Devon Labour Briefing opposed the celebrations inside the Labour Party on the grounds that William of Orange was a symbol of Protestant supremacy in Northern Ireland, that the Glorious Revolution did not involve working people and that the celebrations were acting as a magnet for the extreme right. Although Devon Labour Briefing and other left-wingers won the vote in Exeter Labour Party, the City Council persisted. Key invited figures such as the historian Christopher Hill, backed out of the celebrations; the events of 1988 saw the launching of Exeter Anti-Fascist Action, affiliated to Anti-Fascist Action nationally and included supporters of Devon Labour Briefing and the Workers Revolutionary Party, as well as other independent socialists and anarchists. After Labour's defeat in the 1987 general election, Neil Kinnock, leader of the Labour Party, began a policy review, which sought to change Labour Party policies.

Labour B

Meyer Kupferman

Meyer Kupferman was an American composer and clarinetist. Meyer Kupferman was born in New York City to Jewish parents. A self-taught composer, Kupferman first gained attention in the late 1940s when his early opera "In A Garden" was premiered at the Tanglewood and Edinburgh Festivals. From 1951 to 1993 he was on the faculty of Sarah Lawrence College, he served as Chairman of the Music Department for five terms. Kupferman began music at the age of five on violin; as an adult he claimed little memory of his violin instruction, but at age 10 he began to play the clarinet. He taught himself piano and studied music theory at The High School of Music & Art in New York City, subsequently attending Queens College in New York; as a young man Kupferman played jazz in bars and clubs on Coney Island, arranged for big bands. In 1951 he was hired as Professor of Composition and Chamber Music at Sarah Lawrence College, a position he held until 1994. In the 1950s he began to experiment with twelve-tone row techniques, in 1961 devised his "Infinities Row," consisting of the group of notes of G–F–A♭–B–B♭–D–F♯–E–C–E♭–A–C♯, which would become the only tone row he used subsequently in his major works.

In 1990 he published Atonal Jazz. Much of Kupferman's music contains large gestures and short dramatic hooks which are a critical to his compositional technique, his works are eclectic syntheses of disparate elements. Their extremes of contrast, outrageousness were reflections of his personal life. Kupferman resided in Rhinebeck, New York, where he and his wife Pei-Fen welcomed members of the community. On the day before Thanksgiving, November 26, 2003, he died of heart failure. Esko, Gary, A Talk with Meyer Kupferman, Kraft, Leo, on New Music Connoisseur, Phillips, Robert, “Meyer Kupferman’s Compositions with Classical GuitarSoundboard vol. xxvii, nos. 3&4, Winter/Spring 2001, 7-14. Sadie, S; the New Grove Dictionary of Music & Musicians. Meyer Kupferman on IMDb Meyer Kupferman Web Site Soundspells Web Site A Talk with Meyer Kupferman Meyer Kupferman on "New music Connoisseur Interview with Meyer Kupferman, December 9, 1991