The Ainu or the Aynu known as the Ezo in the historical Japanese texts, are an indigenous people of Japan and Russia. Official estimates place the total Ainu population of Japan at 25,000. Unofficial estimates place the total population at 200,000 or higher, as the near-total assimilation of the Ainu into Japanese society has resulted in many individuals with Ainu heritage having no knowledge of their ancestry. Recent research suggests that Ainu culture originated from a merger of the Jōmon and Satsumon cultures; these early inhabitants did not speak the Japanese language and were conquered by the Japanese early in the 9th century. In 1264, the Ainu invaded the land of the Nivkh people; the Ainu started an expedition into the Amur region, controlled by the Yuan Dynasty, resulting in reprisals by the Mongols who invaded Sakhalin. Active contact between the Wa-jin and the Ainu of Ezogashima began in the 13th century; the Ainu formed a society of hunter-gatherers, surviving by hunting and fishing.
They followed a religion, based on natural phenomena. During the Muromachi period, disputes between the Japanese and Ainu developed into a war. Takeda Nobuhiro killed Koshamain. Many Ainu were subject to Japanese rule, which led to violent Ainu revolt such as Koshamain's Revolt in 1456. During the Edo period the Ainu, who controlled the northern island, now named Hokkaidō, became involved in trade with the Japanese who controlled the southern portion of the island; the Tokugawa bakufu granted the Matsumae clan exclusive rights to trade with the Ainu in the northern part of the island. The Matsumae began to lease out trading rights to Japanese merchants, contact between Japanese and Ainu became more extensive. Throughout this period Ainu were forced to import goods from the Japanese, epidemic diseases such as smallpox reduced the population. Although the increased contact created by the trade between the Japanese and the Ainu contributed to increased mutual understanding, it led to conflict which intensified into violent Ainu revolts.
The most important was an Ainu rebellion against Japanese authority. Another large-scale revolt by Ainu against Japanese rule was the Menashi-Kunashir Battle in 1789. From 1799 to 1806, the shogunate took direct control of southern Hokkaidō. Ainu men were deported to merchant subcontractors for five and ten year terms of service, were enticed with rewards of food and clothing if they agreed to drop their native language and culture and become Japanese. Ainu women were separated from their husbands and forcibly married to Japanese merchants and fishermen, who were told that a taboo forbade them from bringing their wives to Hokkaidō. Women were tortured if they resisted rape by their new Japanese husbands, ran away into the mountains; these policies of family separation and forcible assimilation, combined with the impact of smallpox, caused the Ainu population to drop in the early 19th century. In the 18th century, there were 80,000 Ainu. In 1868, there were about 15,000 Ainu in Hokkaidō, 2000 in Sakhalin and around 100 in the Kuril islands.
The beginning of the Meiji Restoration in 1868 proved a turning point for Ainu culture. The Japanese government introduced a variety of social and economic reforms in hope of modernizing the country in the Western style. One innovation involved the annexation of Hokkaidō. Sjöberg quotes Baba's account of the Japanese government's reasoning: … The development of Japan's large northern island had several objectives: First, it was seen as a means to defend Japan from a developing and expansionist Russia. Second … it offered a solution to the unemployment for the former samurai class … Finally, development promised to yield the needed natural resources for a growing capitalist economy. In 1899, the Japanese government passed an act labelling the Ainu as "former aborigines", with the idea they would assimilate—this resulted in the Japanese government taking the land where the Ainu people lived and placing it from on under Japanese control. At this time, the Ainu were granted automatic Japanese citizenship denying them the status of an indigenous group.
The Ainu were becoming marginalized on their own land—over a period of only 36 years, the Ainu went from being a isolated group of people to having their land, language and customs assimilated into those of the Japanese. In addition to this, the land the Ainu lived on was distributed to the Wa-Jin who had decided to move to Hokkaidō, encouraged by the Japanese government of the Meiji era to take advantage of the island's abundant natural resources, to create and maintain farms in the model of Western industrial agriculture. While at the time, the process was referred to as colonization, the notion was reframed by Japanese elites to the common usage kaitaku, which instead conveys a sense of opening up or reclamation of the Ainu lands; as well as this, factories such as flour mills, beer breweries and mining practices resulted in the creation of infrastructure such as roads and railway lines, during a development period that lasted until 1904. During this time, the Ainu were forced to learn Japanese, required to adopt Japanese names, ordered to cease religious practices such as animal sacrifice and the custom of tattooing.
The 1899 act was replaced in 1997—until then
Mamga Bay is a bay in the Tuguro-Chumikansky District of Khabarovsk Krai, Russian Federation. Beluga whales are seen in the bay. Mamga Bay is a small bay located on the northwestern side of Tugur Bay, it lies in the northwestern Sea of Okhotsk. The bay is open to the south and a small river, the Mamga, flows into it from the west. New London and Hawaiian whaling schooners wintered in Mamga Bay from 1856 to 1862, they called it Caroline Harbor, after the schooner Caroline, the first to winter there in 1856-1857. The four crew left; these schooners acted as tenders to barques, which sent boat crews ahead in the early summer with provisions to cruise for bowhead whales with the schooners before the ships were able to work their way through the ice to Tugur Bay. In the summer of 1862 the Russian-American Company established a whaling station on the tip of the peninsula that forms the eastern side of the bay. Under the command of a Captain Elfsberg of the Imperial Navy, two schooners obtained 2,700 bbls of whale oil and 31,000 lbs of whalebone between 1863 and 1865.
In 1865 the station and one of the schooners, the Caroline, were sold to Otto Wilhelm Lindholm, who operated another station at the head of Tugur Bay. With the Caroline and another schooner, the Hannah Rice, purchased the following year, Lindholm cruised for bowhead whales in Tugur Bay and in adjacent bays and gulfs. Whales were towed to the station, where they were flensed on the beach and their blubber rendered into oil at a tryworks on the point. A chartered vessel from Nikolayevsk took aboard the oil and bone at the end of the season to either Honolulu or San Francisco. Lindholm and his men wintered in the houses abandoned by the RAC, while the schooners were hauled up onto the riverbank at the mouth of the Mamga River to protect them from being damaged by the ice. In 1870 and 1871 he took down two of the houses on the point and loaded them onto one of his schooners and sailed to Nakhodka for the winter, leaving subordinates in command of the station. Lindholm used the station as a base for whaling as late as 1876, when he sent his steam-brig Sibir to pick up the catch there.
American whaleships visited Mamga to sell goods and receive repairs from ice damage
Golden Corral is an American restaurant chain serving breakfast and dinner, featuring a large all-you-can-eat buffet and grill offering numerous hot and cold dishes, a carving station, their Brass Bell Bakery. It is a held company headquartered in Raleigh, North Carolina, United States, with locations in 42 states throughout the United States. In 1971, James Maynard and William F. Carl conceived the idea that became Golden Corral after several unsuccessful attempts to acquire a franchise with other companies. Golden Corral was incorporated in 1972 and the first Golden Corral Family Steak House opened on January 3, 1973, in Fayetteville, North Carolina; the company has since expanded to nearly 500 locations across the United States. The others are franchised stores. Gross sales are over $1.53 billion. The company had more than 500 restaurants by 1987; that year, they decided to begin franchising by licensing 55 distressed restaurants to their most successful general managers. Because of poor training, nationwide concerns about the consumption of red meat and a shift in market shares to upscale restaurants, sales were falling.
The company added salad bars to all of its locations, sacrificed seating in most and in others sacrificed part of the parking lot to make additions to the buildings. In 1991, the first seven "Metro Market" concept restaurants opened, they were 10,000 square feet and seated between 450 customers. These new Golden Corral restaurants more than doubled the size of the old, which were 5,000 square feet with a capacity of 175 people. There was the addition of the Brass Bell Bakery, named for the brass bell which rang every fifteen minutes to signal that fresh bread and pastries were coming out of the oven. An expanded buffet, dubbed the Golden Choice Buffet, was added, which had a new layout to showcase its items; the location of these new restaurants, the majority of which were in Texas, New Mexico and North Carolina, was a change for the company, moving away from small towns and into metropolitan areas. In 2001, system-wide annual sales exceeded $1 billion for the first time; as of 2019, there were 498 restaurants in 42 states covering most regions of the country aside from: Oregon, New England, the New York City Metropolitan Areas and the low population states of Nebraska and Wyoming.
In some other larger metropolitan areas, such as the San Francisco Bay Area, Philadelphia and New Orleans, there are only locations in the far-flung suburbs. The first Puerto Rico location is set to open in Canovanas in mid - February 2020. In late 1993, VICORP acquired the right to a small Florida chain called Angel's Diner, they acquired this from Eric A. Holm, he had sold the rights to Golden Corral and VICORP was forced to pay Golden Corral $1M to secure the exclusive rights. The intent was to convert underperforming Village Bakers Square units to this new concept. After building seven units, VICORP realized that the concept was not economically viable and wrote off $11M on the venture. During this time frame, Eric A. Holm filed for personal bankruptcy; the company updated their restaurants to a concept, called "Strata", during the mid-2000s in an effort to bring more of the food preparation into view of the guests. In all locations, guests serve themselves, including requesting made-to-order items such as Belgian waffles and char-broiled steaks.
The most recent designed restaurants are known as the "Gateway" style rolled out late 2018. These locations were created in the hopes of offering a more contemporary appearance for the interior and exterior of the building, with different layouts for the dining room, adding new food service bars and kitchen areas. Many locations offer "GC on the go" services, as well as delivery partnerships with companies like Grubhub, Uber Eats and DoorDash. GC on the go allows customers to pack anything they want into a takeout container and pay for it by the pound. Many restaurants offer reserved parking. In 2003, an outbreak of salmonella was linked to a Golden Corral restaurant in Kennesaw, Georgia and a total of 23 people were affected by the outbreak; the salmonella bacteria was found in a floor drain, leading health inspectors to believe that it had been washed from equipment earlier. No original source was found. Similar outbreaks occurred in Wyoming and Orlando, Florida, in late 2012. In 2012, an outbreak of norovirus was linked to a now closed Golden Corral restaurant in Casper, Wyoming.
Over 344 illnesses, with 282 primary cases, were reported by the Wyoming state epidemiologist. The virus got a push from 31 sickened food handlers at the restaurant who kept working their normal shifts. On July 1, 2013, a YouTube video was uploaded alleging that during a health inspection, the Port Orange, Golden Corral location, owned by Eric A. Holm, was improperly storing prepared and raw food next to their dumpster. Employee Brandon Huber was given a six-month paid leave after filming and uploading the video to YouTube. Items included, among other things: pot roast, hamburger patties and raw baby back ribs; these items were still on their prep bins, as well as on a speed rack. The employee in the video alleges that this is a common practice for the restaurant and insinuated that the food was to be served that day. On July 8, 2013, Golden Corral posted a response on YouTube, saying that the food was never served to the customers, the employee in the video was trying to make mone