Apple Inc. has developed a range of "System on Chip" as well as "System in Package" processors for powering their mobile consumer devices and other tasks. To meet the stringent power and space constraints common to mobile devices, these chips combine a central processing unit with other components into a single compact physical package. Johny Srouji is the executive in charge of Apple's silicon design. Prior to the introduction of the Apple "A" series of SoCs, Apple used several SoCs in early revisions of the iPhone and iPod touch, they were manufactured by Samsung. They integrate a single ARM-based processing core, a graphics processing unit, other electronics necessary to provide mobile computing functions within a single physical package; the APL0098 is a package on package system on a chip, introduced on June 29, 2007 at the launch of the original iPhone. It includes a 412 MHz single-core ARM11 CPU and a PowerVR MBX Lite GPU, it was manufactured by Samsung on a 90 nm process. The first generation iPod touch used it.
The APL0278 is a package on package system on a chip, introduced on September 9, 2008 at the launch of the second generation iPod touch. It includes a 533 MHz single-core ARM11 CPU and a PowerVR MBX Lite GPU, it was manufactured by Samsung on a 65 nm process. The APL0298 is a package on package system on a chip, introduced on June 8, 2009 at the launch of the iPhone 3GS, it includes a 600 MHz single-core Cortex-A8 CPU and a PowerVR SGX535 GPU. It was manufactured by Samsung on a 65 nm process; the APL2298 is a 45 nm die shrunk version of the iPhone 3GS SoC and was introduced on September 9, 2009 at the launch of the third generation iPod touch. The Apple "A" series is a family of "Systems on Chip" used in multiple devices, including some of Apple's portable devices such as certain models of the iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, the Apple TV digital media player, they integrate one or more ARM-based processing cores, a graphics processing unit, cache memory and other electronics necessary to provide mobile computing functions within a single physical package.
They are designed by Apple, manufactured by Samsung and TSMC. The Apple A4 is a package on package system on a chip designed by Apple Inc. and manufactured by Samsung. It combines an ARM Cortex-A8 CPU with a PowerVR GPU, emphasizes power efficiency; the chip commercially debuted with the release of Apple's iPad tablet. It was superseded in the iPad 2, released the following year, by the Apple A5 processor. Apple A4 is based on the ARM processor architecture; the first version released ran at 1 GHz for the iPad and contains an ARM Cortex-A8 CPU core paired with a PowerVR SGX 535 graphics processor built on Samsung's 45-nanometer silicon chip fabrication process. The clock speed for the units used in the iPhone 4 and the iPod touch is 800 MHz; the clock speed for the unit used in the Apple TV has not been revealed. The Cortex-A8 core used in the A4 is thought to use performance enhancements developed by chip designer Intrinsity, subsequently acquired by Apple, in collaboration with Samsung; the resulting core, dubbed "Hummingbird", is able to run at far higher clock rates than other implementations while remaining compatible with the Cortex-A8 design provided by ARM.
Other performance improvements include additional L2 cache. The same Cortex-A8 CPU core used in the A4 is used in Samsung's S5PC110A01 SoC; the SGX535 in the A4 could theoretically push 35 million polygons per second and 500 million pixels per second, although real world performance may be less. The A4 processor package supports PoP installation. Hence, there is a package with two low-power 128 MB DDR SDRAM chips mounted on top of the A4 used in the first-generation iPad, the fourth-generation iPod touch, the second-generation Apple TV; the iPhone 4 has two 256 MB packages for a total of 512 MB. The RAM is connected to the processor using ARM's 64-bit-wide AMBA 3 AXI bus. To support the iPad's demand for high graphics bandwidth, the width of the RAM data bus is double that used in previous ARM11 and ARM9 based Apple devices; the Apple A5 is a system on a chip designed by Apple Inc. and manufactured by Samsung that replaced the A4. The chip commercially debuted with the release of Apple's iPad 2 tablet in March 2011, followed by its release in the iPhone 4S smartphone that year.
Apple claims that compared with its predecessor, the A4, the A5 CPU "can do twice the work" and the GPU has "up to nine times the graphics performance". The A5 contains a dual-core ARM Cortex-A9 CPU with ARM's advanced SIMD extension, marketed as NEON, a dual core PowerVR SGX543MP2 GPU; this GPU can push between 70 and 80 million polygons/second and has a pixel fill rate of 2 billion pixels/second. Apple lists the A5 to be clocked at 1 GHz on the iPad 2's technical specifications page, though it can dynamically adjust its frequency to save battery life; the clock speed of the unit used in the iPhone 4S is 800 MHz. Like the A4, the A5 process size is 45 nm. An updated 32 nm version of the A5 processor was used in the third generation Apple TV, the iPod touch, the iPad Mini, the new version of iPad 2; the chip in the Apple TV has one core locked. The markings of the square package indicates that it is named APL2498, in software, the chip is called S5L8942; the 32 nm variant of the A5 provides around 15% better battery life during web browsing, 30% better when playing 3D games and 20%
System on a chip
A system on a chip or system on chip is an integrated circuit that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic system. These components include a central processing unit, input/output ports and secondary storage – all on a single substrate or microchip, the size of a coin, it may contain digital, mixed-signal, radio frequency signal processing functions, depending on the application. As they are integrated on a single substrate, SoCs consume much less power and take up much less area than multi-chip designs with equivalent functionality; because of this, SoCs are common in the mobile computing and edge computing markets. Systems on chip are used in embedded systems and the Internet of Things. Systems on Chip are in contrast to the common traditional motherboard-based PC architecture, which separates components based on function and connects them through a central interfacing circuit board. Whereas a motherboard houses and connects detachable or replaceable components, SoCs integrate all of these components into a single integrated circuit, as if all these functions were built into the motherboard.
An SoC will integrate a CPU, graphics and memory interfaces, hard-disk and USB connectivity, random-access and read-only memories and secondary storage on a single circuit die, whereas a motherboard would connect these modules as discrete components or expansion cards. More integrated computer system designs improve performance and reduce power consumption as well as semiconductor die area needed for an equivalent design composed of discrete modules, at the cost of reduced replaceability of components. By definition, SoC designs are or nearly integrated across different component modules. For these reasons, there has been a general trend towards tighter integration of components in the computer hardware industry, in part due to the influence of SoCs and lessons learned from the mobile and embedded computing markets. Systems-on-Chip can be viewed as part of a larger trend towards embedded computing and hardware acceleration. An SoC integrates a microcontroller or microprocessor with advanced peripherals like graphics processing unit, Wi-Fi module, or one or more coprocessors.
Similar to how a microcontroller integrates a microprocessor with peripheral circuits and memory, an SoC can be seen as integrating a microcontroller with more advanced peripherals. For an overview of integrating system components, see system integration. In general, there are four distinguishable types of SoCs: SoCs built around a microcontroller, SoCs built around a microprocessor found in mobile phones. Systems-on-chip can be applied to any computing task. However, they are used in mobile computing such as tablets, smartphones and netbooks as well as embedded systems and in applications where microcontrollers would be used. Where only microcontrollers could be used, SoCs are rising to prominence in the embedded systems market. Tighter system integration offers better reliability and mean time between failure, SoCs offer more advanced functionality and computing power than microcontrollers. Applications include AI acceleration, embedded machine vision, data collection, vector processing and ambient intelligence.
Embedded systems-on-chip target the internet of things, industrial internet of things and edge computing markets. Mobile computing based SoCs bundle processors, memories, on-chip caches, wireless networking capabilities and digital camera hardware and firmware. With increasing memory sizes, high end SoCs will have no memory and flash storage and instead, the memory and flash memory will be placed right next to, or above, the SoC; some examples of mobile computing SoCs include: Apple: Apple-designed processors A12 Bionic and other A series, used in iPhones and iPads S series and W series, in Apple Watches. Apple T series, used in the 2016 and 2017 MacBook Pro touch bars and fingerprint scanners. Samsung Electronics: list based on ARM7 and ARM9 Exynos, used by Samsung's Galaxy series of smartphones Qualcomm: Snapdragon, used in many LG, Google Pixel, HTC and Samsung Galaxy smartphones. In 2018, Snapdragon SoCs are being used as the backbone of laptop computers running Windows 10, marketed as "Always Connected PCs".
As long ago as 1992, Acorn Computers produced the A3010, A3020 and A4000 range of personal computers with the ARM250 system-on-chip. It combined the original Acorn ARM2 processor with a memory controller, video controller, I/O controller. In previous Acorn ARM-powered computers, these were four discreet chips; the ARM7500 chip was their second-generation system-on-chip, based on the ARM700, VIDC20 and IOMD controllers, was licensed in embedded devices such as set-top-boxes, as well as Acorn personal computers. Systems-on-chip are being applied to mainstream personal computers as of 2018, they are applied to laptops and tablet PCs. Tablet and laptop manufacturers have learned lessons from embedded systems and smartphone markets about reduced power consumption, better performance and reliability from tighter integration of hardware and firmware modules, LTE and other wireless network communications integrated on chip. ARM based: Qualcomm S
IPad Mini 2
The iPad Mini 2 is the second generation iPad Mini tablet computer produced and marketed by Apple Inc. It has a design identical to that of the first generation iPad Mini but features internal revisions such as the addition of the A7 system-on-a-chip and 2,048 × 1,536 resolution Retina Display; the iPad Mini 2 has nearly the same hardware as the iPad Air. Apple released the iPad Mini 2 in Space Gray and Silver colors on November 12, 2013, its successor, the iPad Mini 3, was unveiled on October 16, 2014, featuring the same internals but adding Touch ID, differing storage sizes, an additional gold color. The iPad Mini 2 was discontinued on March 21, 2017, following the press announcement of a new, lower cost iPad, which replaces the iPad Air 2; the iPad Mini 2 is the first iPad Mini to support six major versions of iOS, from iOS 7 through iOS 12. The iPad Mini 2 was announced during a keynote at the Yerba Buena Center for the Arts on October 22, 2013; the theme of the keynote was named'We still have a lot to cover.'
At the time of its release, the iPad Mini 2 was marketed as the "iPad Mini with Retina Display". However, when the iPad Mini 3 was announced on October 16, 2014, Apple started marketing the second generation iPad Mini as iPad Mini 2; the iPad Mini 2 comes with the iOS 7 operating system, released on September 18, 2013. Jony Ive, the designer of iOS 7's new elements, described the update as "bringing order to complexity", highlighting features such as refined typography, new icons, layering and gyroscope-driven parallaxing as some of the major changes to the design; the design of both iOS 7 and OS X Mavericks noticeably depart from skeuomorphic elements such as green felt in Game Center, wood in Newsstand, leather in Calendar, in favor of a flat, colourful design. It can act as a hotspot with some carriers, sharing its Internet connection over Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, or USB, access the Apple App Store, a digital application distribution platform for iOS; the service allows users to browse and download applications from the iTunes Store that were developed with Xcode and the iOS SDK and were published through Apple.
From the App Store, GarageBand, iMovie, iPhoto, the iWork apps are available. The iPad mini 2 has a bluetooth function that attaches headset; this allows the user to access a wireless keyboard that can be used in Apple Pages or any writing program that needs editing. The iPad Mini 2 comes with several pre-installed applications, including Siri, Mail, Video, Music, iTunes, App Store, Notes, Game Center, Photo Booth, Contacts. Like all iOS devices, the iPad can sync content and other data with a Mac or PC using iTunes, although iOS 5 and can be managed and backed up without a computer. Although the tablet is not designed to make phone calls over a cellular network, users can use a headset or the built-in speaker and microphone to place phone calls over Wi-Fi or cellular using a VoIP application, such as Skype; the device has a dictation application, using the same voice recognition technology as the iPhone 4S. This enables users to speak and the iPad types what they say on the screen, though the iPad must have an internet connection available due to the feature's reliance on Apple servers to translate the speech.
The iPad Mini 2 has an iBooks application, which displays books and other ePub-format content downloaded from the iBooks Store. Several major book publishers including Penguin Books, HarperCollins, Simon & Schuster and Macmillan have committed to publishing books for the device. Despite being a direct competitor to both the Amazon Kindle and Barnes & Noble Nook, both Amazon.com and Barnes & Noble offer e-reader apps for the iPad. Siri, an intelligent personal assistant and knowledge navigator, is included; the application uses a natural language user interface to answer questions, make recommendations, perform actions by delegating requests to a set of Web services. Apple claims that the software adapts to the user's individual preferences over time and personalizes results. IOS 7 adds new male and female voices, new system setting functionalities, a redesign to match the rest of the operating system, integration with Twitter, Wikipedia and Photos. Facebook comes integrated through Apple's native apps.
Facebook features can be directly accessed from within native apps such as Calendar which can sync Facebook events, or use Facebook's like button from within the Apple App Store. On June 2, 2014, it was announced. On June 13, 2016, it was announced that the iPad Mini 2 will support the iOS 10 update. On June 5, 2017, it was announced that the iPad Mini 2 will support the iOS 11 update. Apple announced that the iPad Mini 2 will support the iOS 12 update together with its other Apple A7 cousins, this will make the first iPad mini to support six major versions of iOS and will be the longest supported iPad Mini; the iPad Mini 2 has the same sized 7.9-inch screen, the same design as, the first generation iPad Mini. One notable change is the inclusion of a Retina Display, matching the screen resolution of the full-sized Retina iPad models; as the Mini 2 features the same resolution as the iPad Air, this makes the Mini 2's screen more pixel dense compared to its larger sibling. The slate-colored back panel of the first-generation iPad Mini was discontinued in favor of "Space Gray", whilst the Silver color o
Air Bud is a 1997 American-Canadian comedy film that sparked the franchise centered on the real-life dog Air Buddy, a cross-bred Golden Retriever, who shoots basketball hoops and appears as Buddy. The film was financially successful, grossing $4 million in its opening weekend and totaling $27.8 million in its run against an estimated $3 million budget. Norm Snively, an alcoholic and bumbling clown, his Golden Retriever are doing a show at a child's birthday party. After the dog causes havoc at the party, Snively angrily takes him to a dog pound, until the kennel falls out of his truck, rendering the Golden Retriever homeless. Meanwhile, 12-year-old Josh Framm has relocated with his mother Jackie and two-year-old sister Andrea from Virginia to Fernfield, Washington. Due to heartbreak over the death of his father, a pilot who died in a plane crash during a test flight due to fuel shortage, he is too shy to try out for his middle school's basketball team or to make any friends, he instead becomes the basketball team's manager, an awkward offer by Coach Joe Barker which he accepts.
He practices basketball by himself in a makeshift court that he sets up in an abandoned allotment, where he meets the dog and names him Buddy. Josh soon discovers that Buddy has the uncanny ability to play basketball, decides to let Buddy come home with him. Jackie agrees to let him keep Buddy until Christmas and she plans to send him to the pound if his rightful owner is not located. On Christmas, Jackie lets Josh keep Buddy as a present. Following Christmas, Josh finds a tryout invitation in his locker and further realizes Buddy's talent when he discovers that he can shoot a hoop; these facts together prompt Josh to try out, he gets a place on the team. At his first game, he befriends teammate Tom Stewart, but earns the disdain of star player Larry Willingham. Meanwhile, Buddy goes to the school and shows up while the game is underway, he runs into the court, disrupts the game, causes mayhem, but the audience loves him after he scores a basket. Buddy is caught by Josh after the game. Soon after, the dog witnesses Coach Barker abusing Tom by violently pelting him with basketballs in an attempt to make him catch better.
He leads Josh and the school principal Ms. Pepper to the scene; as a result, Barker is fired and replaced by the school's kind-hearted engineer, former NBA player Arthur Chaney, at Josh's suggestion. As the new basketball coach, Chaney starts implementing changes in the team, including benching Larry during a game for constant ball-hogging. Angry by Chaney's decision, Buck Willingham, Larry's overbearing father, forces Larry to leave the team. Buddy becomes the mascot of the school's basketball team and begins appearing in their halftime shows. After the Timberwolves lose one game, the team has subsequent success and qualifies for the State Final. Just before the championship game, Snively appears after seeing Buddy on television. Hoping to profit out of Buddy's newfound fame, he forces Jackie to hand over Buddy, using papers proving that he is Buddy's legal owner. Knowing they do not have a choice, Jackie forces Josh to give Buddy back to Snively. After noticing that he is feeling withdrawn and depressed, Jackie regrets making Josh give up Buddy.
Josh decides suspecting he is being abused by Snively. He finds Buddy chained up and abused again. Snively catches Josh escaping with Buddy, pursues them in his dilapidated clown truck before crashing into a lake, which he survives promising that he will reclaim Buddy. Josh decides to set Buddy free in the forest to find a new home, his team is losing at the next championship to the opposing team, which Larry turns out to have joined. Buddy returns for a joyful reunion for Josh and the team; when it is discovered that there is no rule that a dog cannot play basketball, Buddy joins the roster and leads the team to a come from behind championship victory, with Josh scoring the game-winning buzzer beater. Snively arrives and attempts to sue the Framm family for custody of Buddy, despite that his ownership papers were ruined when he crashed into the lake. Upon seeing Buddy, Judge Cranfield is disgusted and reluctant to judge a case over a dog, but agrees only under a strict condition that the case be executed seriously.
During the trial, Josh protests against letting Snively have Buddy, mentioning the abuse that Buddy has suffered under him, including chaining Buddy to his fence. Jackie protests, mentioning that Buddy was much happier with their family, that she too has seen how abusive Snively is. After hearing a number of people protest against Snively, Cranfield does not believe that either one has any real evidence in claiming ownership to Buddy. Soon, Chaney suggests that Buddy chooses his owner; as a fan of Chaney, Cranfield accepts his proposal and moves the court outside to the front lawn for Buddy to choose. After Buddy rips up the rolled-up newspaper that Snively had always abused him with and chooses Josh; when Snively angrily attempts to get Buddy back by force, police officers take him away and arrest him, while Josh and the rest of the citizens rejoice and gather around Buddy to welcome him to his new home. Air Bud was released to VHS on December 23, 1997, to DVD on February 3, 1998, it was released again on March 3, 2009, in a special edition DVD set that presents the film in its original theatrical aspect ratio.
The special edition DVD includes commentary from Buddy and his puppies, as the series had introduced speaking animals by that time. It was released direct-to-video in October 1999 in the UK by Warner Home Video under the Warner Bros. Family Entertain
The AIRPod is a compressed-air vehicle in development by Motor Development International. The AIRPod is planned to be produced in three different configurations that will vary the number of seats and amount of cargo storage while keeping the same basic chassis, it is designed as an zero-emission urban vehicle. Prototypes have been tested by KLM/AirFrance for use as emission-free vehicles in airports. MDI has been promising production of the AirPod each year since 2000; as of October 2018 not a single production car has been created. Zero Pollution Motors is now promising production by mid 2019. In September 2013 it was claimed that the vehicle would be on sale from summer 2014 with a base model with 100 km range starting at 7000 Euros, one with an improved engine, that uses some fuel in addition to the compressed air, giving 250 km range for 8000 Euros; the vehicles will be manufactured in Bolotana, Italy. In August 2014 MDI posted photos of a completed demonstration assembly line in their Carros R&D facility, illustrations and descriptions of the proposed finished assembly line.
In March 2016 they posted images showing construction of the forthcoming factory in Sardinia as "underway". The vehicles were promoted on the US reality television show Shark Tank in May 2015 by Zero Pollution Motors, where Robert Herjavec offered $5 million for a 50% share in the business which proposed to sell the AirPod for $10,000. Zero Pollution Motors owns the right to build a production plant and has proposed setting up a plant in Hawaii; the investment deal fell through. The companies' website says production in Europe is scheduled for the first quarter of 2018 and it is accepting order reservations. Compressed air car AIRPod 2.0 Web Page Motor Development International Website Zero Pollution Motors
Apple TV is a digital media player and microconsole developed and sold by Apple Inc. It is a small network appliance and entertainment device that can receive digital data such as music or video from specific sources and stream it to a television or other video display. Apple TV is an HDMI-compliant source device. To use it for viewing, it has to be connected to an enhanced-definition or high-definition widescreen television via an HDMI cable; the device has no integrated controls and can only be controlled externally, either by an Apple Remote or Siri Remote control device using its infrared/Bluetooth capability, by the Apple TV Remote app on iOS devices, such as the iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad, Apple Watch, using its Wi-Fi capability, or by some third-party infrared remotes. Its Wi-Fi capability is used to receive digital content from various iOS apps using AirPlay or directly from the iTunes Store, streamed to the TV, it plays digital content from the iTunes Store, Stan, Foxtel Now, Now TV, SlingTV, PlayStation Vue, Amazon Prime Video, DirecTV, YouTube, Red Bull TV, Vevo along with HBO Now, Showtime Anytime and the TV Everywhere portals of several cable and broadcast networks, the video subscription portals of all of the four major North American sports leagues: NFL TV app, MLB.tv, NBA League Pass, NHL.tv.
It plays content from any macOS or Windows computer running iTunes. Apple began to promote the Live Tune-In feature that allows the viewer to ask Siri to tune to live streams of CBS, ESPN, Disney XD among many others that support Live Tune-In. According to observers, Apple's March 2019 special event highlighted the company's reorientation of its focus away from the Apple TV hardware, which has lagged competitors with only 13% of U. S. connected TV market share, apps on the set-top box, instead turn toward higher revenue Apple-distributed video streaming that will be available through competitors' devices, via the company's upcoming Apple TV+ original content service and Apple TV Channels a la carte premium video on demand subscription aggregating service. In an early attempt to enter the home entertainment industry, Apple released the Macintosh TV in 1993. Macintosh TV had a 14-inch CRT screen along with a TV tuner card; this did not prove to be a success, as only 10,000 units of Macintosh TV were sold up to its discontinuation in 1994.
Apple's next foray into the television industry came with the Apple Interactive Television Box in 1994. Apple Interactive Television Box was a collaboration venture between Apple, BT, Belgacom but it never went on sale to the public. Apple's last major attempt to enter the home entertainment market before Apple TV occurred with their launch of Apple Bandai Pippin based on the Apple Pippin platform in the late 1990s. Apple Bandai Pippin combines a home game console with a networked computer. Starting as early as 2011, Gene Munster, longtime investment banking analyst at Piper Jaffray covering Apple and persisted rumors that Apple would announce HDTV television set hardware to directly compete with Sony, LG, other TV makers, but Apple has never released any such product and Munster relented and recanted in 2015; this was despite the set being mentioned as a possibility for a future breakthrough product in Steve Jobs' biography Steve Jobs. Apple TV was unveiled as a work in progress called "iTV" on September 12, 2006 using a modified Front Row interface using the Apple Remote.
Apple started taking pre-orders for Apple TV on January 9, 2007. The name "iTV" was going to be used to keep the product in line with the rest of their "i"-based products, but was not used because the British terrestrial broadcast network ITV holds the rights to the name in the UK and threatened to take legal action against Apple. Apple TV first shipped on March 2007 with a 40 GB hard disk. A updated model with a 160 GB HDD was released on May 31, 2007. On January 15, 2008, a software upgrade was announced; the update allowed the iTunes Store content to be directly rented and purchased, as well as photo streaming and podcast downloads from MobileMe and Flickr. Front Row became deprecated, a new interface was introduced for the original Apple TV in which content was organized into six categories, all of which appeared in a large square box on the screen upon startup and presented in the initial menu, along with a "Settings" option for configuration, including software updates. On July 10, 2008, Apple released the iTunes Remote app on the App Store, the Apple TV 2.1 software update that added recognition for the iPhone and iPod Touch as remote control devices intended as a software alternative to the Apple Remote.
Updates to the Apple TV, iTunes, Remote software added support for the iPad, introduced support for new features as they were added to iTunes. In July 2011, Apple discontinued the Front Row interface for Mac users. On September 9, 2015, Apple discontinued service and support for the first generation Apple TV. Beginning May 25, 2018, iTunes Store is no longer accessible from the device, due to its obsolete security standards; the 2nd generation Apple TV was announced on September 1, 2010, was the first to run on a variant of iOS. The device is housed in one-quarter the size of the original; this model replaced the internal hard drive wi
Wired UK is a bimonthly magazine that reports on the effects of science and technology. It covers a broad range of topics including design, culture, the economy and philosophy. Owned by Condé Nast Publications, it is published in London and is an offshoot of the original American Wired; the current version of the magazine was launched in April 2009, was the second international version of Wired, after the launch of Wired Italia in March 2009. In November 2009, the British Society of Magazine Editors awarded Launch of the Year to former Wired editor David Rowan. Wired's former deputy editor, Greg Williams took over from Rowan as editor in January 2017. Michael Rundle took over from Nate Lanxon as editor for WIRED.co.uk in March 2015. The current website editor is James Temperton. Both in 2011 and in 2014, Wired UK was named as the magazine of the year by the Digital Magazine Awards; the magazine's current incarnation follows an earlier attempt at a British edition of Wired which ran from April 1995 until March 1997.
It was created as a joint venture with the Guardian Media Group and Wired US's owners, Wired Ventures, but that incarnation lasted only three or four issues, due to a culture clash between the two parties and low sales figures of 25,000 per month. Wired Ventures ran the UK edition alone, with an entirely new staff, until the magazine was closed with the March 1997 issue, when sales were at 40,000 magazines per month. Wired UK, together with Telefonica, held a two-day event on 25–26 October 2012 at The Brewery in London; the conference was designed to "explore the ideas and people that are reshaping our world". Among its speakers were David Karp, founder of microblogging platform Tumblr, Mona Eltahawy, an Egyptian-American freelance journalist and commentator. Wired 2011, hosted between 13–14 October at the St. Pancras Renaissance London Hotel, included guest speakers Joanna Shields, Managing Director and Vice President of Facebook EMEA, Gil Hirsch, founder of Face.com. Wired 2015, hosted at Tobacco Dock between 15–16 October, includes MIT Media Lab's Alex Pentland, chef of Noma René Redzepi, data-visualisation historian Max Roser, journalist Gillian Tett, North Korean defector Hyeonseo Lee.