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Air Board (Australia)

The Air Board known as the Administrative Air Board, or the Air Board of Administration, was the controlling body of the Royal Australian Air Force from 1921 to 1976. It was composed of senior RAAF officers as well as some civilian members, chaired by the Chief of the Air Staff; the CAS was the operational head of the Air Force, the other board members were responsible for specific areas of the service such as personnel, supply and finance. Based in Melbourne, the board relocated to Canberra in 1961. Formed in 1920, the Air Board's first task was to establish the air force; the board came under the control of another body, the Air Council, that included the chiefs of the Army and Navy. According to Air Force Regulations, the Air Board was collectively responsible for administering the RAAF, not the CAS alone. In 1976 the Air Board was dissolved and the CAS was invested with the individual responsibility for commanding the RAAF; the Air Board comprised the Director of Intelligence and Organisation, Director of Personnel and Training, Director of Equipment, Finance Member.

The agency's purview included the RAAF's organisation and dispersal, allocation of aircraft to meet Army and Navy requirements, selection of air bases and buildings, development of training programs and schools, recruitment. Its composition evolved until, in 1954, it included the Chief of the Air Staff, Air Member for Personnel, Air Member for Technical Services, Air Member for Supply and Equipment, Secretary; the board retained this form until its dissolution in 1976. The CAS was responsible for the operational side of the RAAF, from policy and plans to overall combat command; as chairman of the Air Board, he controlled the agency's meetings and minutes. According to Air Force Regulations, the Air Board as a body was responsible for running the RAAF. In practice, the CAS's operational and administrative responsibilities did allow him to exert a significant influence. Though, decisions were arrived at through collective discussion and consensus. Despite the efforts of some government ministers and at least one CAS, Air Marshal John McCauley, to prevent members serving more than three to five years consecutively on the board, no arbitrary term limits were enforced.

Ellis Wackett, the RAAF's senior engineering officer from 1942, maintained his place on the board for seventeen years, the longest tenure of any member. As well as being members of the board, AMP, AMTS and AMSE were the heads of their respective branches within the Air Force. Other officers such as the Deputy Chief of the Air Staff might attend meetings, but were not members of the board; the Secretary was a senior public servant, the permanent head of the Department of Air from 1939 to 1973 and afterwards a deputy to the permanent head of the Department of Defence, responsible to the board for finance and direction of civilian support staff. The minister of the department could choose to chair meetings, was expected to approve all decisions made by the board; this sometimes involved the minister in mundane matters, such as the acquisition of furniture and foodstuffs. Alan Stephens observed that the board itself, despite consisting of an air marshal, three air vice-marshals, a high-level government official, could devote "an inordinate amount of meeting time" to administrative minutiae, rather than concentrating on higher policy, major acquisitions, or operations.

Stephens contrasted this situation with the board's achievements in more substantial matters, such as the "educational revolution" it oversaw between 1945 and 1953, when programs such as RAAF College, RAAF Staff College, the RAAF apprentice scheme were introduced. In December 1919, the remnants of the wartime Australian Flying Corps were disbanded, replaced in January 1920 by the Australian Air Corps, which was, like the AFC, part of the Australian Army; the AAC was an interim organisation intended to remain in place until the establishment of a permanent Australian air service. The Chief of the Naval Staff, Rear Admiral Sir Percy Grant, objected to the AAC being under Army control, argued that an air board should be formed to oversee the AAC and any permanent Australian air force. A temporary air board first met on 29 January 1920, the Army being represented by Brigadier General Thomas Blamey and Lieutenant Colonel Richard Williams, the Royal Australian Navy by Captain Wilfred Nunn and Lieutenant Colonel Stanley Goble, a former member of Britain's Royal Naval Air Service seconded to the Navy Office.

Williams was given responsibility for administering the AAC on behalf of the board. The permanent Air Board was instituted on 9 November 1920 to oversee the day-to-day running of the proposed Australian Air Force that would succeed the extant AAC; the board's members consisted of Williams as Director of Intelligence and Organisation, Goble as Director of Personnel and Training, Captain Percy McBain as Director of Equipment, Mr A. C. Joyce as Finance Member. A superior policy-making body, the Air Council, was formed the same day and consisted of the Minister for Defence, the Chief of the General Staff, the Chief of the Naval Staff, th

Union Depot (Grinnell, Iowa)

Union Depot known as the Grinnell Union Depot, is an historic building located in Grinnell, United States. The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad built the first tracks through the area in 1863, they built a simple frame depot the same year; the Central Railroad of Iowa extended its north-south line to Grinnell nine years and their tracks crossed the Rock Island tracks at this location. The Minneapolis and St. Louis Railway acquired the Central Railroad; the old depot became too small and this one replaced it in 1893. It was built by a local contractor; the one-story, brick structure follows a square plan with a round corner tower at the junction of the two tracks. The tower provided the station agent with a clear view in all directions; the building now houses a restaurant. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976

Lake Gregory (Nuwara Eliya)

Lake Gregory, sometimes called Gregory Lake or Gregory Reservoir, is a reservoir in heart of the tea country hill city, Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka. Lake Gregory was constructed during the period of British Governor Sir William Gregory in 1873; the lake and the surrounding area make up the Gregory Lake Area. The area was a swampy bog at the foot of the small hills that border the town. In 1873 Sir William Gregory authorised the damming of the Thalagala stream, which originates from Mount Pidurutalagala, in order to make more land available for the expansion of the town. In 1881 the lake was stocked with trout by Mr C. J. R. Le Mesurier. In 1913 the waters of the lake were directed into a tunnel which flows to a hydro power station at'Blackpool' between the town and Nanu Oya; the power station continues to supply electricity to the town to this day. In British times Lake Gregory was used for recreational activities. List of dams and reservoirs in Sri Lanka

Jorge Rivera López

Jorge Rivera López is an Argentine actor of television and film. During the 1980s military dictatorship, López, along with Luis Brandoni, Roberto Cossa, Osvaldo Dragún and Pepe Soriano, accompanied by Nobel Peace Prize winner Adolfo Esquivel and writer Ernesto Sábato formed a group called Teatro Abierto in an attempt to reinvent independent theater separated from government propaganda and approval. Despite threats, they opened with the declaration that they were against dictatorship and government intervention in the arts. On the opening night, Rivera López read the “Declaration of the Principles” claiming for all the participants their right to freedom of opinion and expression. Three works per day were presented for a full week in the Tabaris Theatre, to an estimated audience of 25,000; the movement continued to perform, despite government disapproval, until the return to democracy, for several years afterwards presented works critical of the abuses of the dictatorship. ¡Ay, Carmela! Pobres habrá siempre...

Eduardo Sandoval Tres veces Ana Los jóvenes viejos Los inconstantes Pajarito Gómez -una vida feliz- Gente conmigo Extraña invasión ¡Ufa con el sexo! Turismo de carretera La fiaca Kuma Ching... Sansón Todos los pecados del mundo La malavida... Simón Linsky La Patagonia rebelde... Edward Mathews La Mary... Ariel Triángulo de cuatro Más allá del sol La Hora de María y el pájaro de oro Difunta Correa Proceso a la infamia... Senador Santana Visión de un asesino Made in Argentina Negra medianoche, inédita, De amor y de sombra, Veredicto final, Momentos robados, Cómplices, Claim, El borde del tiempo, Historia de jóvenes, 1959 El ABC del amor... Ricardo Esta noche... miedo, 1970 La única noche, 1985 La elegida, 1992 Micaela, 1992 Chiquititas, 1995 La mujer del presidente, 1999 Don Juan y Su Bella Dama, 2008 El elegido, 2011 Jorge Rivera López on IMDb Cine Nacional

Distant Colours

"Distant Colours" is the second single taken from the Manic Street Preachers' thirteenth album Resistance Is Futile. It was released on 16 February 2018; the lyrics were written by vocalist James Dean Bradfield, rather than Nicky Wire, inspired by disenchantment and Nye Bevan's old Labour. James said that "Musically, the verse is downcast and melancholic and the chorus is an explosion of disillusionment and tears." The video itself was by their long-standing visual collaborator Kieran Evans and stars actor Sarah Sayuri. About the political aspect of the song Wire added that "I can't direct my anger at a single thing, politics is so overlapping and everything is so complicated that I think it's trite to direct it at specific targets" "That's the malaise we find ourselves in. It's the classic case of Tony Benn being the ultimate icon of socialism, he never wanted to be in the European Union! Everyone keeps using him as a totem on the left, but are desperate to stay in the EU. People don't know their history, they toss things out there."Talking further about the song Bradfield said that "It was just a song that came together in an amalgam of confusion and dejection at the general election and the American Presidential election," he tells Clash.

"I was just trying to kind of trying to figure out how you could define yourself by knowing what your enemy was like you did when you were 16 years old. Which, for me, was 1986,'85,'84. All those years, and I just decided that you couldn't any more because the left has fractured, the centre left has fractured, the centre ground was unoccupied..." Manic Street Preachers James Dean Bradfield – lead vocals, guitar Nicky Wire – vocals, bass guitar Sean Mooredrums

Robotron Z1013

The MRB Z1013 was an East German Single-board computer produced by VEB Robotron Riesa, intended for private use and educational institutions. It was sold together with a membrane keyboard; the kit was equipped with 16-KByte DRAM, replaced by a 64-KByte version. The kits first were distributed in a unique way at the time. To purchase, buyers had to send a postcard to the Robotron shop in Erfurt and wait six to 12 months to pick the kits up personally; the package contained the assembled and tested motherboard, a membrane keyboard, various small parts and detailed technical documentation. This basic kit was shipped without a power supply or casing for the PCB. Most users tended to program the kit using the BASIC interpreter, loadable from a compact cassette or by using a ROM cartridge; the BASIC interpreter contained a common core binary, identical across home computer models. So the programs were compatible among different models of GDR-manufactured computers despite differences in capabilities.

Robotron was the manufacturer of another line of computers, the Z9001, KC85/1 and KC87, which shared some of the same expansion modules – offering more options for Z1013. The system bus connector was based on the K1520 standard for 8-bit computers in the GDR; this conformity to one standard across computers, ranging from tank-sized mini computers to small home computers, allowed the reuse of hardware from minicomputers with the same bus interface. This meant that most of the hardware and binary code from one platform could be used across different platforms and allowed the sharing of resources; this groundbreaking standardization was due to the need for common standards and compatibility between computer users in the Eastern Bloc. Opinion is divided over the widespread use and popularity of the MRB Z1013 in the GDR. With a total of 25,000 kits sold over its lifetime, it fared well in comparison to other models. However, some analysts put this success down to the relative ease of access to the kits compared to other computer offerings.

After all, the key point for the success was the simplistic makeup down to a bare minimum. It is still debatable if it repelled potential users or lead to a higher productions volume. Either which way and production kept a kind of balance. To this extent, it was the only computer available for private purchase. Despite the Cold War and the associated high-technology embargo CoCom the government pushed for an ambitious program to keep up with international development of engineering and microelectronics; that generated a huge interest among individuals who tried to develop electronics at work or at home aside from the government's economic programs. In 1984 the first two lines of home computers the Z9001 and HC900 were presented to the public. Due to small scale of production those devices were difficult to obtain, they were expensive, but still could not satisfy the demand. With a production yield of a few percent, a significant amount of circuits failed to pass the acceptance criteria; the components were called "Anfalltyp" or "rejects".

Most of them exceed allowed tolerances. Within limits, e.g. speed or access time, they may work fine. Therefore, the manufacturing companies pushed for a development of simple fault-tolerant learning or hobby computers which can make use of the rejects; the use of waste production could lower the reported reject rates and close gap in demand for home computers. Following the same concept to sell rejects as a fraction of the original price, the computer design should only consist of the cheapest and easiest available circuits; as a result, three single board computers were brought to industrial production: the LC 80 with calculator display and keyboard, the Polycomputer 880 with 8-digit seven-segment display and the more comfortable Z1013 with TV output. The initiators of the Z1013 concept favored a caseless single-board computer with membrane keyboard. Through simple appearance and design the price had been kept under 1000 M for the targeted group of electronics amateurs; the development and production transferred to the well-established industry PCB manufacturer VEB Robotron Riesa in early 1984.

The state planning targets for the young engineers and employees of the corresponding group of developers of the VEB Robotron Riesa foresaw an expandable single board computer with a minimum of material and manufacturing costs. To reduce production costs, the device was designed as a kit without a housing whose prefabricated assemblies were end-mounted by the user; the computer had to use home electronics such as televisions and tape recorders present in East-German households. The narrow specifications with respect to the low production costs while using inferior electronics components and the demand for compatible interfaces and software of the Robotron small computer Z 9001 and KC 85/1 was only limited by a system architecture realized that at the most affordable and field-proven 8-bit microprocessor U880 together with standardized electronic wiring blocks at reduced system clock. Full-fledged graphics and interfaces for specific peripherals fell victim to cost pressure. However, the conception of the computer as a modular system saw the possibility of connecting additional peripherals, such as the expansion of memory by being developed expansion modules before.

Development work began in mid-1985. The first prototype with a memory of 16 kilobytes and membrane keyboard was presented to the responsible authorities in the fall of 1985 and started after its acceptance with