The Royal Australian Air Force, formed in March 1921, is the aerial warfare branch of the Australian Defence Force. It operates the majority of the ADF's fixed wing aircraft, although both the Australian Army and Royal Australian Navy operate aircraft in various roles, it directly continues the traditions of the Australian Flying Corps, formed on 22 October 1912. The RAAF provides support across a spectrum of operations such as air superiority, precision strikes, intelligence and reconnaissance, air mobility, space surveillance, humanitarian support; the RAAF took part in many of the 20th century's major conflicts. During the early years of the Second World War a number of RAAF bomber, fighter and other squadrons served in Britain, with the Desert Air Force located in North Africa and the Mediterranean. From 1942, many RAAF units were formed in Australia, fought in South West Pacific Area. Thousands of Australians served with other Commonwealth air forces in Europe, including during the bomber offensive against Germany.
By the time the war ended, a total of 216,900 men and women served in the RAAF, of whom 10,562 were killed in action. The RAAF served in the Berlin Airlift, Korean War, Malayan Emergency, Indonesia–Malaysia Confrontation and Vietnam War. More the RAAF has participated in operations in East Timor, the Iraq War, the War in Afghanistan, the military intervention against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant; the RAAF has 259 aircraft. The RAAF traces its history back to the Imperial Conference held in London in 1911, where it was decided aviation should be developed within the armed forces of the British Empire. Australia implemented this decision, the first dominion to do so, by approving the establishment of the "Australian Aviation Corps"; this consisted of the Central Flying School at Point Cook, opening on 22 October 1912. By 1914 the corps was known as the "Australian Flying Corps". Soon after the outbreak of war in 1914, the Australian Flying Corps sent aircraft to assist in capturing German colonies in what is now north-east New Guinea.
However, these colonies surrendered before the planes were unpacked. The first operational flights did not occur until 27 May 1915, when the Mesopotamian Half Flight was called upon to assist the Indian Army in protecting British oil interests in what is now Iraq; the corps saw action in Egypt, Palestine and on the Western Front throughout the remainder of the First World War. By the end of the war, four squadrons—Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4 -- had seen operational service. 5, 6, 7 and 8—had been established. A total of 460 officers and 2,234 other ranks served in the AFC, whilst another 200 men served as aircrew in the British flying services. Casualties included 111 wounded, 6 gassed and 40 captured; the Australian Flying Corps remained part of the Australian Army until 1919, when it was disbanded along with the First Australian Imperial Force. Although the Central Flying School continued to operate at Point Cook, military flying ceased until 1920, when the Australian Air Corps was formed; the Australian Air Force was formed on 31 March 1921.
King George V approved the prefix "Royal" in June 1921 and became effective on 31 August 1921. The RAAF became the second Royal air arm to be formed in the British Commonwealth, following the British Royal Air Force; when formed the RAAF had more aircraft than personnel, with 21 officers and 128 other ranks and 153 aircraft. In September 1939, the Australian Air Board directly controlled the Air Force via RAAF Station Laverton, RAAF Station Richmond, RAAF Station Pearce, No. 1 Flying Training School RAAF at Point Cook, RAAF Station Rathmines and five smaller units. In 1939, just after the outbreak of the Second World War, Australia joined the Empire Air Training Scheme, under which flight crews received basic training in Australia before travelling to Canada for advanced training. A total of 17 RAAF bomber, fighter and other squadrons served in Britain and with the Desert Air Force located in North Africa and the Mediterranean. Thousands of Australians served with other Commonwealth air forces in Europe during the Second World War.
About nine percent of the personnel who served under British RAF commands in Europe and the Mediterranean were RAAF personnel. With British manufacturing targeted by the German Luftwaffe, in 1941 the Australian government created the Department of Aircraft Production to supply Commonwealth air forces, the RAAF was provided with large numbers of locally built versions of British designs such as the DAP Beaufort torpedo bomber and Mosquitos, as well as other types such as Wirraways and Mustangs. In the European theatre of the war, RAAF personnel were notable in RAF Bomber Command: although they represented just two percent of all Australian enlistments during the war, they accounted for twenty percent of those killed in action; this statistic is further illustrated by the fact that No. 460 Squadron RAAF flying Avro Lancasters, had an official establishment of about 200 aircrew and yet had 1,018 combat deaths. The squadron was therefore wiped out five times over. Total RAAF casualties in Europe were 5,488 killed or missing.
The beginning of the Pacific War—and the rapid advance of Japanese forces—threatened the Australian mainland for the first time in its history. The RAAF was quite unprepared for the emergency, had negligible forces available for service in the Pacific. In 1941 and early 1942, many RAAF airmen, including Nos. 1, 8, 21 and 453 Squadrons
The 92 Club is a society, in order to be a member of which a person must attend an association football game at the stadium of every current Premier League and English Football League club in England and Wales. The'club' takes its name from the fact that there are 92 teams in the English professional league tier; the list of stadiums changes each year, as clubs are promoted and relegated in and out of the EFL, other clubs move to new stadiums. The 92 Club was founded by Bristol Rovers F. C. supporter Gordon Pearce. Association football culture List of English football stadiums by capacity The 92 Club http://www.the92.net - unaffiliated website fans can track and find other people who are on the way, or are part of the 92. Http://www.doingthe92.com - unaffiliated website fans can use to track the grounds they've visited http://www.footballfans.eu/ Great website for tracking fixtures attended that automatically calculates what grounds you have been to
Fernando Nadra was an Argentine lawyer and public speaker. He was one of the most important leaders of the Partido Comunista Argentino and, from his marxist ideological perspective, took part in most of the important political debates of his time, he stood out from other left-wing leaders of his time for his abilities as an organizer and collective activist, his numerous attempts to promote agreement among different political sectors through pluralistic dialogue. As many of his contemporaries, he experienced persecutions and censure. Nadra was born to Syrian immigrants, who arrived in San Miguel de Tucumán at the beginning of the 20th century, his mother, Nabiha Louis, was a teacher in Damascus. His father, Nallib Nadra, a native of Homs, amassed an importanat fortune in Argentina. Though he started out as a modest trader, he went on to become the first agent of FIAT in the northwest and he devoted himself to the sugar industry. From his adolescence Fernando Nadra stood out in the cultural life of his province.
In 1938, at the age of 22, he published his first book of poems “Visión de Cumbre”. One of those poems was analyzed in the Argentine volume of a British 19-volume book about the impact of the Spanish Civil War on intellectuals from Hispanic–American countries. In 1943, Nadra was one of the founders of the poetic and cultural Movement of the Argentine Northwest, with headquarters in Tucumán's La Carpa; this movement included personalities like Raúl Galán, Manuel J. Castilla, Raúl Aráoz Anzoátegui, María Adela Agudo, Nicandro Pereyra, Julio Ardiles Gray o José Fernández Molina). Nadra first became involved in politics at the age of 14, as the leader of a take-over at Colegio Nacional Mitre in the city of Tucumán, after which he was violently arrested by the local police. Soon after, he was appointed president of Federación de Estudiantes Secundarios de Tucumán, he studied Law at Universidad Nacional de Córdoba where he was chosen Secretary of the Students' Centre and President of the Federación Universitaria de Córdoba.
In June 1942, in this role, he delivered a eulogy for his advisor and friend Deodoro Roca, the most important figure of the Reforma Universitaria de 1918. Between 1937 and 1939, he was President of the Federación Universitaria Argentina and had a crucial role as speaker for the antifascist positions in the III National Congress of Students called by FUA Córdoba in October, 1942. In 1941, Nazi Germany demanded Ramón S. Castillo's federal intervention of Córdoba and Nadra's detention because –while leading the massive protest on Argentina's Flag Day– Nadra had demanded that the Nazi flag should be replaced by the Argentine flag; the demand was rejected by the police force at the place. The local newspaper "Córdoba" depicted Nadra's reaction as follows; the weight of his body broke the flagpole of the flag and everything dropped to the ground, where the protesters picked it up and destroyed it... " Fernando Nadra joined the PC in 1939. Though this decision was questioned by his family, Nadra's commitment did not waver and led him to donate his personal fortune to the PC.
His assets came to be handled by what was known as Board of Directors, a secret group within the PC which managed a complex network of companies including laboratories and the Coca-Cola Bottling Factory in Argentina. In 1945, after being imprisoned several times and suspended for two years at the National University of Córdoba, Nadra studied on his own and took the required exams to graduate from Law School. For the next six years, he worked as a lawyer and he joined the Tucumán Province PC, where he worked as Secretary of Education and Propaganda. In the elections of February 1946, he was nominated as candidate to National Representative Parliament by Democratic Union, a position he lost by a hundred votes. After the triumph of Peronism, when PC called its XI Congress in Buenos Aires, Nadra attended as a delegate. In 1946 he married Zulma Beltramone, from Cordoba Province and began living in Buenos Aires, where he worked as a member of the Capital Federal's PC. In April 1960, 13 months after the Cuban Revolution and a year before Fidel Castro proclaimed himself as a socialist, Nadra led the Argentine Delegation of “The First Latin America Meeting of Solidarity with Cuba” in La Habana.
John W. Cooke, Abel Alexis Lattendorf and Lisandro Viale were part of this delegation. Together with Salvador Allende and David Alfaro Siqueiros, Nadra wrote the meeting's record, he met two times with Ernesto "Che" Guevara; when he came back to Argentina, Nadra published a leaflet "Cuba, fragua revolucionaria". His defense of Cuba's process was met by resistance on part of the Argentine PC, which opposed the continental strategy of Cuba. On July 20, 1960, Nadra took part in a roundtable about the Cuban Revolution, at University of Buenos Aires' School of Law, together with Silvio Frondizi, Miguel Ángel Asturias, Alexis Lattendorf and Lisandro Viale. At the end of that meeting, he was imprisoned at Las Heras Prison. Nadra was transferred to Caseros Prison, where he shared a cell and built up a friendship with Peronist union leaders Sebastián Borro and Andrés