Air force

An air force or air army, is in the broadest sense, the national military branch that conducts aerial warfare. More it is the branch of a nation's armed services, responsible for aerial warfare as distinct from an army or navy. Air forces are responsible for gaining control of the air, carrying out strategic and tactical bombing missions, providing support to land and naval forces in the form of aerial reconnaissance and close air support; the term "air force" may refer to a tactical air force or numbered air force, an operational formation either within a national air force or comprising several air components from allied nations. Air forces consist of a combination of fighters, helicopters, transport planes and other aircraft. Many air forces are responsible for operations of the military space, intercontinental ballistic missiles, communications equipment; some air forces may command and control other air defence assets such as anti-aircraft artillery, surface-to-air missiles, or anti-ballistic missile warning networks and defensive systems.

Some nations, principally Russia, the former Soviet Union and countries who modelled their militaries along Soviet lines, have or had an air defence force, organizationally separate from their air force. Peacetime/non-wartime activities of air forces may include air-sea rescue. Air forces are not just composed of pilots, but rely on a significant amount of support from other personnel to operate. Logistics, intelligence, special operations, cyber space support, weapons loaders, many other specialties are required by all air forces; the first aviation force in the world was the Aviation Militaire of the French Army formed in 1910, which became l'Armée de l'Air. In 1911, during the Italo-Turkish War, Italy employed aircraft for the first time in the world for reconnaissance and bombing missions against Turkish positions on Libyan Territory; the Italian–Turkish war of 1911–1912 was the first in history that featured air attacks by airplanes and dirigible airships. During World War I France, Italy, the British Empire and the Ottoman Empire all possessed significant forces of bombers and fighters.

World War I saw the appearance of senior commanders who directed aerial warfare and numerous flying aces. An independent air force is one, a separate branch of a nation's armed forces and is, at least nominally, treated as a military service on par with that of older services like navies or armies; the British Royal Air Force was the first independent air force in the world. The RAF was founded on 1 April 1918 by amalgamation the British Army's Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service. On establishment the RAF comprised over 20,000 aircraft, was commanded by a Chief of the Air Staff who held the rank of major-general and was governed by its own government ministry. Arguably, the Finnish Air Force was the first independent air force in the world, formed on 6 March 1918, when the Swedish count, Eric von Rosen gave Finland the second aircraft, a Thulin Typ D; some considered that the Finnish Air Force did not exist during the Finnish Civil War, the Red Guards had its own air force. Over the following decades most countries with any substantial military capability established their own independent air forces.

The South African Air Force was formed on 1 February 1920 and the Royal Australian Air Force was formed shortly afterwards on 31 March 1921, although it was not until 1922 that the head of the Service was titled as Chief of the Air Staff, placing him on a par with his Australian Army and Navy counterparts. The Canadian Air Force was formed at the end of World War I, was abolished and reorganized several times between 1918 and 1924, it became the permanent Royal Canadian Air Force when it received the "Royal" title by royal proclamation on 1 April 1924. It did not however become independent of the Canadian Army until 1938 when its head was designated as Chief of the Air Staff; the Royal New Zealand Air Force was established in 1923 as the New Zealand Permanent Air Force but did not become independent of the New Zealand Army until 1937. Other British-influenced countries established their own independent air forces. For example, the Royal Egyptian Air Force was created in 1937 when Egyptian military aviation was separated from Army command.

The Afghan Air Force was established on 22 August 1924, with support from the Soviet Union and Great Britain, but a civil war destroyed most of the planes and it wasn't reestablished until 1937, when King Mohammed Nadir Shah took power. Outside of the British Empire, the Italian Royal Air Force was founded in 1923, the Finnish Air Force was established as a separate service on 4 May 1928, the Brazilian Air Force was created in 1941. Both the United States Air Force and the Philippine Air Force were formed as a separate branches of their respective armed forces in 1947; the Israeli Air Force came into being with the State of Israel on 18 May 1948, but evolved from the pre-existing Sherut Avir of the Haganah paramilitary. The Japan Air Self-Defense Force was not established until 1954. Unlike all these countries, the Mexican Air Force remains an integral part of the Mexican Army. Germany was the first country to organize regular air attacks on enemy infrastructure with the Luftstreitkräfte. In World War I, it used its zeppelins to drop bombs on British cities.

At that time, Britain did have aircraft, though her airships were less advanced than the zeppelins and were rarely used for attacking.

Timeline of the Han dynasty

This is a timeline of the Han dynasty. Barrett, Timothy Hugh, The Woman Who Discovered Printing, Great Britain: Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-12728-7 Chang, Chun-shu, The Rise of the Chinese Empire 1, The University of Michigan Press Crespigny, Rafe, A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms, Brill Crespigny, Rafe de, Fire Over Luoyang: A History of the Later Han Dynasty, 23-220 AD, Brill Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. East Asia: A Cultural and Political History, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-618-13384-4 Knapp, Ronald G. China's Island Frontier: Studies in the Historical Geography of Taiwan, The University of Hawaii Shin, Michael D. Korean History in Maps, Cambridge University Press Twitchett, The Cambridge History of China 1, Cambridge University Press Xiong, Victor Cunrui, Historical Dictionary of Medieval China, United States of America: Scarecrow Press, Inc. ISBN 0810860538

Kosmos 259

Kosmos 259 known as DS-U2-I No.3, was a Soviet satellite, launched in 1968 as part of the Dnepropetrovsk Sputnik programme. It was a 325-kilogram spacecraft, built by the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau, was used to study the effects on radio waves of passing through the ionosphere. A Kosmos-2I 63SM carrier rocket was used to launch Kosmos 259 into low Earth orbit; the launch took place from Site 86/4 at Kapustin Yar. The launch occurred at 05:09:54 UTC on 14 December 1968, resulted in the successful insertion of the satellite into orbit. Upon reaching orbit, the satellite was assigned its Kosmos designation, received the International Designator 1968-113A; the North American Aerospace Defense Command assigned it the catalogue number 03612. Kosmos 259 was the final DS-U2-I satellite to be launched, it was operated in an orbit with a perigee of 212 kilometres, an apogee of 1,210 kilometres, 48.4 degrees of inclination, an orbital period of 99 minutes. On 5 May 1969, it reentered the atmosphere. 1968 in spaceflight